Latin/grammar

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Question
Dear Maria,
Could you please help me with the following (all from De Ira):

1. et ubicumque alieni animi ad nostrum arbitrium agendi sunt, … ut aliis incutiamus, ipsi simulabimus (De Ira, 2.17.1)
Could you give a literal translation of this sentence?

2. et proinde aliquo magis incumbunt ingenia, prout alicuius elementi maior vis abundauit. (De Ira, 2.19.1)
Could you explain this sentence, especially the two words “aliquo” and “alicuius”?

3. cuius in illo elementi portio praevalebit, inde mores erunt. (De Ira, 2.19.2)
Could you give a literal translation of this sentence?

4. et quibus exsangue corpus est maligneque alitur et deficit. (De Ira, 2.19.5)
Could you give a literal translation of this sentence? Cannot even find the word "exsangue" in the dictionary.

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.Here’s the literal translation of “….et ubicumque alieni animi ad nostrum arbitrium agendi sunt, modo iram, modo metum, modo misericordiam,  ut aliis incutiamus, ipsi simulabimus…” (Seneca, De Ira, Book 2. Chapter 17. Section 1):
”…and wherever (et ubicumque) other people’s (alieni, adjective in the nominative masculine plural agreeing with “animi”) minds (animi, subject of the passive periphrastic) are (sunt) to be excited/guided (agendi, passive periphrastic) at our  pleasure (ad nostrum arbitrium) ,we ourselves (ipsi) will simulate (simulabimus) now (modo) anger (iram), now (modo) fear (metum), now (now) pity (misericordiam) , in order that (ut)  we may inspire (incutiamus) others  (aliis, dative depending on “incutiamus)  [anger, fear, pity, implied direct objects ]…”.


2. “Et locorum itaque et animalium et corporum et morum varietates mixtura elementorum facit, et proinde aliquo magis incumbunt ingenia, prout alicuius elementi maior vis abundavit" [(De Ira, 2.19.1) literally means:
”So (itaque) the mingling (mixtura, subject) of the elements (elementorum) causes /produces (facit) the differences (varietates) of regions (locorum), of animals (et animalium) , of bodies (et corporum) and of behaviours (et morum), and then (et proinde) the temperaments/ characters (ingenia) incline (incumbent) more (magis) towards/to some place (aliquo, adverb), just as/according as (prout, adverb) a larger (maior) force (vis)  of some (alicuius)  element (elementi) abounded (abundavit)”.

As you can see, the  word “aliquo”  is an adverb literally meaning “to some place ” and then "to some element/direction" in this context,  while the genitive adjective “alicuius” (from “aliqui”) agrees with the genitive “elementi”, so that “alicuius elementi”- depending on “vis”- means “ of some element”.
Note that the adverb "aliquo" derives from "aliquoi", old dat. denoting direction.

In short, Seneca says that  the differences of regions, of animals, of substances, and of characters are caused by the mingling of the elements; and then the characters incline more towards the direction which is determined by the preponderance  of an element among fire, water, air, and earth, and their  corresponding properties, i.e. the hot, the cold, the dry, and the moist.



3. Here’s the literal translation of “…refert quantum quisque umidi in se calidique contineat ; cuius in illo elementi portio praevalebit, inde mores erunt” (De Ira, 2.19.2):
”…it is of importance (refert, impersonal construction of “refero”) how much (quantum) of the moist (umidi, genitive depending on “quantum”) and the hot ( calidique) everybody (quisque, subject)  has (contineat)  in him (in se); the portion (portio) of which (cuius, relative used to connect two clauses, and agreeing with "elementi") element (elementi,genitive singular, i.e. the moist or the hot) [that] will be stronger (praevalebit)  in him (in illo) , hence (inde) the behaviours (mores) will derive (erunt)”, i.e.: “..it is of importance how much of the moist and the hot everybody  has in him; his character in fact will be determined by that element in him of which he will have a dominant part”.



4. Here’s the literal translation of “….in eadem causa sunt siti fameque tabidi et quibus exsangue corpus est maligneque alitur et deficit” (De Ira, 2.19.5):
”…in the same condition (in eadem causa)  are (sunt) those who are gaunt (tabidi, nominative masculine plural of the adjective “tabidus”) from thirst (siti, from  “sitis”; ablative of  cause) and hunger ( fameque, abl of cause) and  [those ] for whose ( quibus, dative of possession of the relative pronoun which implies the demonstrative) the body (corpus) is anaemic / bloodless (exsangue, nominative neuter of the adjective “exsanguis” agreeing with “corpus”) and is scantily nourished (maligneque, adverb; alitur, from “alo”) and weaks (deficit)”, i.e.: “…the same is the condition of those who are gaunt from thirst and hunger and of those whose bodies are anaemic and ill-nourished and weak”.


As you can see, the word "exsangue" is the neuter of the adjective “exsanguis”.

Best regards,

Maria

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