Latin/grammar

Advertisement


Question
Dear Maria,
Could you please help me with the following (all from De Ira III):

1. alios pudor coepto deiecit (De Ira, 3.1.2)
I have difficulty with “coepto”.

2. impotentes sui cupidosque vel communis mali exagitat (De Ira, 3.1.3)
Could you give a literal translation?

3. in iram deiectus animorum est. Nulla itaque res urget magis attonita (De Ira, 3.1.5)
Why gen. “animorum”? Is “attonita” used here as a noun?

4. quibus incultus mos agrestisque vita est, circumscriptio ignota est (De Ira, 3.2.1)
Could you give a literal translation?

Thank you.
Robert

Answer
Dear Robert,

1.In “….alios pudor coepto deiecit…” (Seneca, De Ira, 3.1.2) the ablative singular “coepto” (from the neuter  noun “coeptum”, 2nd declension) depends on “deiecit” (perfect tense of “deicio” ) and means “from the undertaking/the work begun” in the sense that “…shame (pudor) diverted (deiecit) others (alios) from [their] purpose/undertaking  (coepto, in Abl. without a preposition which is implied in the verb "de-icio") [of removing anger] “.
Seneca is in fact talking about how to banish anger from the mind since each man's character has to determine his plan of action so that some are turned from their purpose of removing anger just by the shame that they have.

2. Here’s the literal translation of “… nec aliorum more vitiorum sollicitat animos, sed abducit et impotentes sui cupidosque vel communis mali exagitat…” (De Ira, 3.1.3):”…[anger] does not stimulate (nec…sollicitat) the minds(animos), according to custom (more) of  the other vices (aliorum vitiorum), but abducts (sed abducit) [them] and makes (exagitat) [them] not master (impotentes) of themselves (sui) and longing for (cupidosque) even (vel) all evil (communis mali, gen.depending on "cupidos")…” in the sense that anger, unlike the other vices /passions, does not incite the mind,but abducts it and makes it unable to control itself as well as longing for evil, even at the risk of being involved.
In short, while the other vices incite the mind, anger overthrows it.


3.In  “… in iram deiectus animorum est. Nulla itaque res urget magis attonita…” (De Ira, 3.1.5) the  genitive “animorum” depends on the noun “deiectus” (4th declension) so that “…in iram deiectus animorum est” literally means:”…there is (est) a headlong fall (deiectus, subject of the verb “est”) of the minds (animorum)  into the anger(in iram)”, i.e. “the mind plunges headlong into anger”.
As for  “attonita”, it is  used here as an adjective as it is the  past participle feminine of the verb “attŏno”in the  nominative case, as it agrees with “res”, so that ”.. Nulla itaque res urget magis attonita…” literally means:” Therefore (itaque) no (nulla) more (magis) senseless /astonish (attonita)  thing (res) urges [the mind than anger]…”.


4. Here’s the literal translation of “…quibus incultus mos agrestisque vita est, circumscriptio ignota est…” (De Ira, 3.2.1):”…to those to whom (quibus, dative of possession depending on “est”) an uncivilized /rude (incultus) custom/habit  (mos) and rustic life  (agrestisque vita ) belong (est, agreeing with only one of the subjects “mos” and “vita”), deception/fraud (circumscription) is (est) unknown (ignota)…”, i.e. “…those who are uncivilized and live a simple rural life do not know deception…”.

Best regards,

Maria

Latin

All Answers


Answers by Expert:


Ask Experts

Volunteer


Maria

Expertise

I am an expert in Latin Language and Literature and I'll be glad to answer any questions concerning this matter.

Experience

Over 25 years teaching experience.

Education/Credentials
I received my Ph.D. in Classics (summa cum laude) from Genova University (Italy).

This expert accepts donations:

©2016 About.com. All rights reserved.