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Latin/Latin Moods

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Question
what are the passive indicative,and active indicative meanings?  I am particularly struggling with the verb: perturbo

Answer
The Latin indicative mood, as in English, denotes a statement of actual fact.  The active voice, as in English, represents the subject as acting on someone or something (I am disturbing him).  The passive voice represents the subject as being acted upon by someone or something (I am being disturbed by him).  Thus:

PRESENT ACTIVE VOICE OF THE INDICATIVE
perturbo - I disturb OR am disturbing.

PRESENT PASSIVE VOICE OF THE INDICATIVE
perburbor - I am disturbed OR am being disturbed.

Other tenses work similarly, e.g.:

IMPERFECT TENSE OF THE INDICATIVE
perturbabam - I was disturbing
perturbabar - I was being disturbed

FUTURE TENSE OF THE INDICATIVE
perturbabo - I shall disturb
perturbabor - I shall be disturbed

A complete table of all the forms and possible English versions is given in Allen & Greenough's New Latin Grammar (www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0001%3Asmythp%3D184) at Section 184.

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Martin

Expertise

Classical Languages (Greek, Latin). Conversant with Classical Greek and all forms of the Latin language: classical, mediaeval, and modern.

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I have 50 years of teaching at all levels of Latin from high school through university postgraduate. I read, write, and speak Latin daily.

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American Classical League.

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A.B., M.A., D.Phil. (h.c.) in Classical Languages (Greek, Latin).

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