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Latin/John Drummond


Sir John Drummond
Sir John Drummond  
Friends in USA and myself are trying to determine the origins of Drummond - spelling on tombstone cover believed to be 1301 "Drumon".  Discover a reference in Latin in a book entry for  the  =====The chapter is headed ====" CXXX. / Ballivor. AD EXTRA / M.CCCC.XLI. " within this chapter section there seems to be a chapter headed "CXXXl / Balliv. AD EXTRA. "the heading on the page 412===== " 412 BALLIV. AD EXTRA. C. CXXXI. " This is where we find a reference to Johi De drumond Malcomi=============
thus " x ti Et p solucônë factâ Johi de
drûmond Malcolmi p feodo suo de duol3 rìmis hui?
côpoti • vj • ti • xiij • s iiij d "
It is our hope that you might assist with an interpretation.  I will also attach a FLAT HEADSTONE of JOHHANES DRUMON - any help with this translation/interprtation would be well received.  Many Thanks


though the reference to Johi De Drumond Malcomi in the mentioned "Regum Scotorum Rotuli Scaccarii, Compota Ballivorum ad Extra Cowal, Strathern,.../C. CXXXI, page 412"(meaning:"The Scottish kings exchequer's rolls,Accounts of the bailiffs/sheriffs regarding the areas of Cowal, Strathern....." ) is not so clear because of many abbreviations which are used in medieval Latin documents, I think that "Et p solucônë factâ Johi de drûmond Malcolmi p feodo suo de duol3 rìmis hui côpoti • vj • ti • xiij • s iiij", corresponding to "Et postea  solutione facta Johi de Drummond Malcolmi pro feodo suo de duobus terminis huius compoti..", literally means:"And then,as agreed, John Drumond, son of Malcom, [had] for his fiefdom, according to the two set time limits of this calculation, the amount of ...",just to indicate the unearned income of this fiefdom.
Please note that the medieval Latin is different from classical Latin as it is often corrupt and modified, apart from the several abbreviations which do not improve the understanding of
the text.

In short, according to the accounts of the bailiffs of that part of Scottish Kingdom, we know  that  John Drumond, son of Malcom,had a fiefdom in the area of Panmure,Cowal and Strathearn in Scotland.

Although I cannot say anything more about this medieval Latin text, I hope that this can be helpful to you.

As for  what we read in the medieval Latin inscription that appears on three sides of the tombstone cover in the choir of Inchmahome Priory which was established around 1238 by a small community of Augustinian canons on the largest of three islands in the Lake of Menteith(Scotland), here's the original text:

IOHANNES DE DRVMOD FILIVS MOLQALMI DE (starting from the top of the right side)
DRVMOD. VID[UA] (starting from the right of the short side)
SOLVAT ANIMAS EORVM A PENA ET AQU[LEO](starting from below of the left side)

This inscription is much wasted by its great age and then has some incomplete words such as VID[UA]  and AQU[LEO] where the Latin words "vidua" and "aculeo" lack the letters "-ua" and  "-leo"  respectively.

Moreover I have to point out that:

1.Latin words, written in capital letters, are sometimes separated by three marks, while FILIVS has a kind of double love knot between FI and LIVS.

2.some Latin words such as PENA and AQULEO are the medieval form for classical Latin terms POENA and ACULEO.

3.the inscription written in small letters would be as follows:
"Iohannes de Drumod filius Molcalmi de Drumod. Vidua solvat animas eorum a poena et aculeo"

4.Here's the meaning of this epitaph written on ​the ​gravestone:
“John of Drummond, son of Malcolm of Drummond. May the widow loose their souls from punishment and harsh treatment” (Read more below).

To sum up,IOHANNES DE DRVMOD FILIVS MOLQALMI DE DRVMOD. VID[UA] SOLVAT ANIMAS EORVM A PENA ET AQU[LEO], meaning “John of Drummond, son of Malcolm of Drummond. May the widow loose their souls from punishment and harsh treatment”, is the epitaph of Sir John Drummond,7th Seneschal, 8th Thane of Lennox, Died 1301 in Dryman, Stirlingshire, Scotland, aged 36.

This is what I can tell you starting from Latin inscription.

As for Sir John Drummond,7th Seneschal, 8th Thane of Lennox, Died 1301, I cannot tell you more from the historical point of view, for I'm not an expert in British medieval history.

Hope this can be helpful to you.

Best regards,

Note that:

-DE = of
-DRVMOD =Drummond
-FILIVS = son
-MOLQALMI  (genitive case)= of Malcolm
-DE = of
-DRVMOD =Drummond
-VIDUA (nominative)=the widow
-SOLVAT(hortatory subjunctive of the verb SOLVO) =may...loose
-ANIMAS (direct object, accusative plural of ANIMA)= the souls
-EORVM (genitive masculine plural of the pronoun IS)=of those, i.e. their
-A (preposition which takes the ablative) = from
-POENA (ablative. 1st declension)= punishment
-ET = and
-ACULEO (ablative, 2nd declension) =literally, "sting", i.e. ,"harsh treatment".  


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