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Latin/Two sentence translation

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Question
Dear Maria,

I hope you can help me with the (grammatical) correct translation for:

I live for those whom I love.
Or
For those whom I love,  I live.

What is the best translation and grammatical correct sentence?

Vivo pro eis quos amo
(Pro) eis quos amo vivo

I found the below translations online,  but don't know if they are correct or in what sequence they should go to be grammatical correct:

Pro - for
Eis - those
Quos - whom
Amo - I love
Vivo - (I?) live




And is

Numquam cede

A correct translation of "never give in /up",  if not,  what does it literally mean?

Thank you very much for your time

Best regards,
Wouter

Answer
Hello,

Both “I live for those whom I love” and “For those whom I love, I live” translate correctly as follows:

-“Iis quos amo vivo” or “Eis quos amo vivo” where  the plural pronoun “Eis” is the alternate form for “Iis”, both meaning “for those”, as you can read below in my grammatical analysis.

As for “Vivo pro eis quos amo” and “(Pro) eis quos amo vivo”, they both contain a mistake, i.e. “pro eis”, simply because the verb “vivere”, whose present indicative, 1st person singular, is just “vivo”, does not take the preposition “pro” before “eis”, but only the dative “eis/iis”, as we read in Cicero's oration "For Marcellus", 8, 25 where Cicero uses the dative singular "tibi soli" in the sentence  "si tibi soli viveres” meaning "if you lived for yourself alone".

Lastly, with regard to the sequence  in “Iis quos amo vivo” or “Eis quos amo vivo”, it is correct, since Latin word order can be different from English simply because Latin is an inflected language where grammatical relationships are indicated by the ending of the words, not by their order, so that for example, while in English you must say “I live for those whom I love” or "For those whom I love,I live", in Latin the sequence can be different because it is the ending of a word that denotes its role in a context and then the dative case “Iis”/”Eis” means necessarily  “for those”; “quos” means necessarily “whom”; “amo”(1st person singular, present indicative)  means necessarily “I love” and “vivo” (1st person singular, present indicative ) means necessarily “I live”, no matter where they are placed in the sentence, so that I could say  "Iis quos amo vivo" which is the better form,but also "Vivo iis quos amo" which however does not sound so good in classical Latin.

Also note that “vivo” and “amo”, both in the present indicative, 1st person singular, do not need the translation of the personal pronoun “I”  as it is implied in the ending of the verb, so that for example “vivis” means “you live”; “vivit” means “he/she/it lives”; "vivimus" means "we live",  etc.

Please note that I’ve answered the same question on 7/19/2007, as you can see at http://en.allexperts.com/q/Latin-2145/Latin-translation-20.htm



As for “Numquam cede” meaning “Never give in/up”, as a command/prohibition addressed to only one person (2nd person singular), it is correct as it is a poetic form derived from the adaptation of a Virgil’s line which reads: ”Tu ne cede  malis“ meaning “Do not give in to evil” [See Aeneid, book VI, line 95], as I wrote in my answer on 7/20/2006 at  http://en.allexperts.com/q/Ancient-Languages-2210/latin-translation-17.htm  where I have written the other ways of translating the negative imperative in Latin.


Hope this is clear enough. Feel free however to ask me again.

Best regards,
Maria
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Note that:

-I live = VIVO (1st person singular, present indicative. Latin does not need the translation of the personal pronoun “I”  as it is implied in the ending of the verb)

-for those = EIS/ IIS (dative of advantage, plural of the pronoun “is”)

-whom = QUOS (direct object depending on AMO, accusative masculine plural of the relative pronoun QUI related to “EIS/IIS)

-I love =AMO (1st person singular, present indicative. Latin does not need the personal pronoun “I”  as it is implied in the ending of the verb)
__________________________________________________________________________________________

-Never = NUMQUAM (negative adverb)

-give in/up = CEDE (2nd person singular, imperative present of the verb CEDERE.Poetic form derived from the adaptation of a Virgil’s line which reads: ”Tu ne cede  malis“ meaning “Do not give in to evil” [See Aeneid, book VI, line 95]).

To conclude, I have to point out that many persons have copied and pasted into the web my translations for both "I live for those whom I love" and "Never give in/up",  without mentioning the source, i.e. my answer on AllExperts, and unfortunately have used them for  tattoos, though in my instructions to the questioner I've written "NO TATTOOS QUESTIONS PLEASE.I do know that you can cheat me by  asking me a phrase, without telling me it is  for a tattoo, but I choose to  trust your HONESTY!".

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Maria

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Over 25 years teaching experience.

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I received my Ph.D. in Classics (summa cum laude) from Genova University (Italy).

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