Management Consulting/Need your help

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Question
Sir,
These are not my homework questions, these are some of the questions belongs to my MBA practise test series and I am stuck up with these questions. Could you please help me out with these questions?

1) How do you explain the congruency between individual goals and organizational objectives?
2) What is ethics? What is the relationship between values and ethics?
3) What is McClleland theory of motivation? Discuss its merits and limitations
4) Define authority. Draw the distinctions between authority , power and influence
5) What do you mean by leadership? How is it different from managership?
6) What do you mean by team building? What can be done to improve team processes?
7) "Resistance to change is an irrational response". Do you agree or disagree? explain
8) Describe Managerial grid
9) What is he origin of organizational culture? Why do different organizations have different culture?
10) Explain the concept of learning , supported by examples."

Answer


HERE  IS  SOME  SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.
SOME  ANSWERS  HELD  BACK  DUE TO  SPACE CONSTRAINT.
PLEASE  FORWARD  THESE  BALANCE  QUESTIONS  TO  MY  EMAIL  ID   
leolingham2000@gmail.com.
I  will send  the balance  asap.
Regards
LEO  LINGHAM
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8) Describe Managerial grid
Managerial grid model
The Managerial Grid Model  is a behavioral leadership model developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. This model identifies five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production. The optimal leadership style in this model is based on Theory Y.


A graphical representation of the Managrial Grid
As shown in the figure, the model is represented as a grid with concern for production as the X-axis and concern for people as the Y-axis; each axis ranges from 1 (Low) to 9 (High). The five resulting leadership styles are as follows:
The impoverished style (1,1)
In this style, managers have low concern for both people and production. Managers use this style to avoid getting into trouble. The main concern for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes, which results in less innovative decisions.
Features 1. Does only enough to preserve job and job seniority. Gives little and enjoys little. 3. Protects himself by not being noticed by others.
Implications 1. Tries to stay in the same post for a long time.
The country club style (1,9)
This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for production. Managers using this style pay much attention to the security and comfort of the employees, in hopes that this would increase performance. The resulting atmosphere is usually friendly, but not necessarily productive.
The produce or perish style (9,1)
With a high concern for production, and a low concern for people, managers using this style find employee needs unimportant; they provide their employees with money and expect performance back. Managers using this style also pressure their employees through rules and punishments to achieve the company goals. This dictatorial style is based on Theory X of Douglas McGregor, and is commonly applied by companies on the edge of real or perceived failure.This is used in case of crisis management.
The middle-of-the-road style (5,5)
Managers using this style try to balance between company goals and workers' needs. By giving some concern to both people and production, managers who use this style hope to achieve acceptable performance.
The team style (9,9)
In this style, high concern is paid both to people and production. As suggested by the propositions of Theory Y, managers choosing to use this style encourage teamwork and commitment among employees. This method relies heavily on making employees feel as a constructive part of the company.
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9) What is he origin of organizational culture? Why do different organizations have different culture?

The field of organizational behavior and the related discipline of management science began investigating organizations in terms of culture as early as the 1930s. The final phase of the famous Hawthorne studies at the Western Electric Company marked the first systematic attempt to use a concept of culture to understand the work environment. While an important step forward in qualitative research, the investigation was rather blunt and the understanding of organizational culture remained fairly primitive durin g the following decades. Most mid-century attempts at understanding were conducted by scholars steeped in quantitative psychology and sociology, though by the 1970s researchers more explicitly and emphatically appropriated the theories and methods of anthropology. The late-century upsurge of interest in organizational culture is credited largely to the economic conditions of the 1970s when international competition had heightened and more foreign companies were operating factories in the United States. Specifically, the success of the Japanese in many industries sparked curiosity about

whether their differing corporate values, attitudes, and behaviors were responsible for their often superior performance.
The 1982 publication of Peters & Wasserman’s In Search of Excellence stirred both popular and professional interest through its suggestion that organizations with strong cultures were more effective.
Corporate culture was offered as an asset that could be managed to improve business performance.
Since the early 1980s, academic and applied exploration of organizational culture has steadily increased and even now there is little indication of abatement as changes in data management, work organization, values, lifestyles, demographics, knowledge-intensive work, outsourcing, and a host of other social, economic, and technological factors continue to impact the relationship between organizations, workers, and the workplace.
Organizational culture arises from four sources: (1) the characteristics of its people, (2) organizational ethics, (3) property rights, and (4) organizational  structure.

The people within an organization are the primary source of culture; companies attract those with similar values, and over time culture becomes more distinct. The founder establishes culture by setting values and hiring the first members. The second source of culture is ethics, a product of societal, professional, and individual ethics. Ethics can control behavior. The third source is property rights, given to members to receive and use organizational resources. The distribution of property rights motivates employees. Organizational structure influences culture. A mechanistic structure promotes a conservative, stable culture, and an organic structure promotes an innovative culture. Each company’s pattern of interaction among these four variables sets its culture apart.



CULTURE  IS FOUND
ESPOUSED VALUES:
Those values championed
by a company’s leadership.

OBSERVABLE ARTIFACTS:
Architecture & Physical Surroundings
Products
Technologies
Style (clothing - art - publications)
Published Values / Mission Statements
Myths / Stories / Rituals


BASIC ASSUMPTIONS:
Underlying (often unconscious) determinants of an organization’s attitudes, thought processes and actions.

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10) Explain the concept of learning , supported by examples.
Learning is the lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes.
I might add to that:
•   It is not dependent upon classes and courses – though these can be very useful tools for learning
•   It does not require a degree, certificate, or grade to prove its worth – though clearly these have social value that most people would be unwise to ignore
•   It does require – in varying degrees, and in varying times and circumstances – activities like practice, reflection, interaction with the environment (in the broadest sense), and social interaction. The latter, in particular, can be greatly facilitated by the range of new technologies for communication and collaboration now available to us.
•   It does not always – probably not even most of the time – happen consciously – though I think that those who strive for a more conscious approach to learning throughout their lives – whether at work or otherwise – tend to be more successful in pretty much whatever way they define success.

Learning is a "change" in knowledge, behaviour, attitudes, values, priorities, or creativity that can result when learners interact with information. It occurs to the
extent that learners are motivated to change, and it is applied in the real world to the extent they take successful steps to integrate that learning into the real world situation.


WHAT DOES LEARNING DO?

It helps the participants become motivated to learn.

Helps the participants effectively handle course information and
experience.

Helps the participants develop knowledge, skills, values and
attitudes and creative ideas.

Helps the participants transfer their learning to the application
environment.



TRAINING  AND DEVELOPMENT  ARE  THE  TOOLS    WHICH
HELPS   TO  DEVELOP  THE  LEARNING   CAPACITY   OF   THE
INDIVIDUAL  AND   THE  ORGANIZATION .


IT  IS  THROUGH   LEARNING, THE  PARTICIPANTS
IMPROVE - DEVELOP  THEIR  CAREER  AND  THE
OUTCOMES  OF  THE ORGANIZATION.



1.LEARNING  Broadens  the participants'  interests  /  awareness.

2. LEARNING  broadens  the  participants' business  perspectives.

3.LEARNING  Exposes the  participants  to new avenues  of  practices  thoughts.

4.LEARNING Prepares the  participants  for  greater  responsibility.

5.LEARNING  Permits the  participants  to  greater interaction  internal/external channels.

6.LEARNING  Helps  to  prepare participants  for  promotions  within  the  organization.

7.LEARNING  Helps  to  prepare the  participants    for  additional  responsibilities.

8.LEARNING  Helps to  provide  the  participants   with modern  practices/ techniques.

9.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants     to  share  ideas concepts  with  others.

10.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new technologies.

11.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new  processes.

12.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  culture.

13.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  OD programs.

etc  etc.

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How LEARNING   Benefits the Organization

•   Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitude towards profit orientation
•   Improves job knowledge and skills at all levels in the organisation
•   Improves workforce morale
•   Helps people and organisational alignment
•   Enhances corporate image
•   Fosters authenticity, openness and trust
•   Improves boss-subordinate relationships
•   Aids Organisational development
•   Learns from the trainee
•   Helps prepare guidelines for work
•   Aids implementation of organisational policies
•   Helps predict future needs
•   Enhances decision making and problem solving
•   Enhances “promotion” probability
•   Aids replicating “success” factors
•   Enhances productivity
•   Optimizes resources
•   Enhances “learning orientation”
•   Improves labour-management relations
•   Enhances internal expertise / reduces dependence on consultants
•   Helps transition from Q1 to Q2
•   Helps conflict management
•   Enhances communication
•   Helps “change management”
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Compare and contrast conditioned & instrumental learning.
Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments with dogs. The gist of the experiment is this: Pavlov presented dogs with food, and measured their salivary response (how much they drooled). Then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. At first, the dogs did not begin salivating until the food was presented. After a while, however, the dogs began to salivate when the sound of the bell was presented. They learned to associate the sound of the bell with the presentation of the food. As far as their immediate physiological responses were concerned, the sound of the bell became equivalent to the presentation of the food.
Classical conditioning is used by trainers for two purposes: To condition (train) autonomic responses, such as the drooling, producing adrenaline, or reducing adrenaline (calming) without using the stimuli that would naturally create such a response; and, to create an association between a stimulus that normally would not have any effect on the animal and a stimulus that would.
Stimuli that animals react to without training are called primary or unconditioned stimuli (US). They include food, pain, and other "hardwired" or "instinctive" stimuli. Animals do not have to learn to react to an electric shock, for example. Pavlov's dogs did not need to learn about food.
Stimuli that animals react to only after learning about them are called secondary or conditioned stimuli (CS). These are stimuli that have been associated with a primary stimulus. In Pavlov's experiment, the sound of the bell meant nothing to the dogs at first. After its sound was associated with the presentation of food, it became a conditioned stimulus. If a warning buzzer is associated with the shock, the animals will learn to fear it.
Secondary stimuli are things that the trainee has to learn to like or dislike. Examples include school grades and money. A slip of paper with an "A" or an "F" written on it has no meaning to a person who has never learned the meaning of the grade. Yet students work hard to gain "A's" and avoid "F's". A coin or piece of paper money has no meaning to a person who doesn't use that sort of system. Yet people have been known to work hard to gain this secondary reinforcer.
Application
Classical conditioning is very important to animal trainers, because it is difficult to supply an animal with one of the things it naturally likes (or dislikes) in time for it to be an important consequence of the behavior. In other words, it's hard to toss a fish to a dolphin while it's in the middle of a jump or finding a piece of equipment on the ocean floor a hundred meters below. So trainers will associate something that's easier to "deliver" with something the animal wants through classical conditioning. Some trainers call this a bridge (because it bridges the time between when the animal performs a desired behavior and when it gets its reward). Marine mammal trainers use a whistle. Many other trainers use a clicker, a cricket-like box with a metal tongue that makes a click-click sound when you press it.
You can classically condition a clicker by clicking it and delivering some desirable treat, many times in a row. Simply click the clicker, pause a moment, and give the dog (or other animal) the treat. After you've done this a few times, you may see the animal visibly startle, look towards the treat, or look to you. This indicates that she's starting to form the association. Some clicker trainers call this "charging up the clicker". It's also called "creating a conditioned reinforcer". The click sound becomes a signal for an upcoming reinforcement. As a shorthand, some clicker trainers will say that the click = the treat.
Operant Conditioning
Classical conditioning forms an association between two stimuli. Operant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and a consequence. (It is also called response-stimulus or RS conditioning because it forms an association between the animal's response [behavior] and the stimulus that follows [consequence])
Four Possible Consequences
There are four possible consequences to any behavior. They are:
Something Good can start or be presented;
Something Good can end or be taken away;
Something Bad can start or be presented;
Something Bad can end or be taken away.
Consequences have to be immediate, or clearly linked to the behavior. With verbal humans, we can explain the connection between the consequence and the behavior, even if they are separated in time. For example, you might tell a friend that you'll buy dinner for them since they helped you move, or a parent might explain that the child can't go to summer camp because of her bad grades. With very young children, humans who don't have verbal skills, and animals, you can't explain the connection between the consequence and the behavior. For the animal, the consequence has to be immediate. The way to work around this is to use a bridge (see above).
Technical Terms
The technical term for "an event started" or "an item presented" is positive, since it's something that's added to the animal's environment.
The technical term for "an event ended" or "an item taken away" is negative, since it's something that's subtracted from the animal's environment.
Anything that increases a behavior - makes it occur more frequently, makes it stronger, or makes it more likely to occur - is termed a reinforcer. Often, an animal (or person) will perceive "starting Something Good" or "ending Something Bad" as something worth pursuing, and they will repeat the behaviors that seem to cause these consequences. These consequences will increase the behaviors that lead to them, so they are reinforcers. These are consequences the animal will work to attain, so they strengthen the behavior.
Anything that decreases a behavior - makes it occur less frequently, makes it weaker, or makes it less likely to occur - is termed a punisher. Often, an animal (or person) will perceive "ending Something Good" or "starting Something Bad" as something worth avoiding, and they will not repeat the behaviors that seem to cause these consequences. These consequences will decrease the behaviors that lead to them, so they are punishers.
Applying these terms to the Four Possible Consequences, you get:
Something Good can start or be presented, so behavior increases = Positive Reinforcement (R+)
Something Good can end or be taken away, so behavior decreases = Negative Punishment (P-)
Something Bad can start or be presented, so behavior decreases = Positive Punishment (P+)
Something Bad can end or be taken away, so behavior increases = Negative Reinforcement (R-)
or:
   Reinforcement
(behavior increases)    Punishment
(behavior decreases)
Positive
(something added)   Positive Reinforcement:
Something added increases behavior   Positive Punishment
Something added decreases behavior
Negative
(something removed)   Negative Reinforcement
Something removed increases behavior   Negative Punishment
Something removed decreases behavior
Remember that these definitions are based on their actual effect on the behavior in question: they must reduce or strengthen the behavior to be considered a consequence and be defined as a punishment or reinforcement. Pleasures meant as rewards but that do not strengthen a behavior are indulgences, not reinforcement; aversives meant as a behavior weakener but which do not weaken a behavior are abuse, not punishment.
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The consequence of responding is the most important element in instrumental learning. In this type of learning, the behavior is instrumental in producing a change in the environment, and that environmental change in turn affects the probability of the behavior that produced it.
instrumental conditioning, called operant conditioning, involves environmental control of responses. In his experiments involving a rat being placed in a Skinner box, the light is viewed as a discriminative stimulus because it serves as a cue to indicate the particular conditions under which response will be reinforced. Reinforcement controls responding by selectively strengthening behaviors that act on the environment to produce change. The key is that the outcome of responding determines the future probability of behavior. The best conditioning occurs when reinforcers are given immediately.
Shaping
  Through the process of shaping, experimenters involved with training animals to perform can decrease the time required to learn the task. Shaping is achieved by reinforcing approximations to a goal behavior in a step-by-step fashion.
Basic Training Behaviors
  In positive reinforcement, also known as reward training, the emission of an operant response is followed by stimuli called positive reinforcers that make the actions that produce them more probable.
  When a response results in the production of an aversive stimulus, the conditioning procedure is called punishment. The effect of punishment is to suppress responses that have led to it.
  Omission training is one alternative to the use of punishment. In this procedure, a positive reinforcer is given as long as an unwanted behavior does not occur. When the unwanted behavior occurs, it results in the omission of the next scheduled reward.
  Negative reinforcement is a training procedure wherein operant behaviors terminate or postpone the delivery of aversive stimuli. Response probability increases.
Stimulus Control
  Generalization and discrimination are also of concern in operant conditioning, but they are usually dealt with as special cases of stimulus control. This concept presumes that only certain environmental events become defining features in conditioning.
Secondary Reinforcement
  Because reinforcers such as food and water are natural and have biological relevance, they are called primary reinforcers. They tend to be few in number, and they generally operate uniformly across species. When an event acquires reinforcing properties because of an association with a primary reinforcer, the event is labeled a secondary reinforcer.
Generalized Reinforcers
  Generalized reinforcers are secondary reinforcers that are associated with a wide variety of other reinforcers such as food, clothing, shelter, and luxury items. A major advantage is that motivation to respond is almost guaranteed.
Chaining
  Chaining occurs when a subject performs several different behaviors in sequence in order to obtain a reward. One example is that of a rat having to performs a series of tasks before a reward is available. Chains can often be very complex and complicated.
Schedules of reinforcement
  The schedule of reinforcement is probably the most heavily researched topic in all of operant conditioning. The significance of schedule variables comes from the fact that unique rates and patterns of responding are produced by selected schedule conditions. The two major types of reinforcement schedules are continuous reinforcement and intermittent reinforces. Continuous schedules are defined as schedules that reinforce the occurrence of every operant behavior that satisfies an accepted criterion. There are basically four types of intermittent schedules.
  In a fixed-ratio schedule, behavior is rewarded after a fixed number of responses have been made. An example of a FR schedule is an industrial worker whose wages are adjusted according to unit output.
  In a fixed-interval schedule, the subject is rewarded for the first response that occurs after a specified period of time has elapsed. One example of a fixed-interval schedule is waiting for a fruit to ripen on a tree.
  Under variable-ratio schedule conditions, the number of responses required for reinforcement changes, depending on where the subject is in the schedule. A familiar example of a VR schedule is provided by slot machines at gambing casinos.
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The most important similarity is that, in both classical conditioning and instrumental learning, subjects learn to associate paired events. One very important difference is:
•   in classical conditioning, the learned response (the CR) is elicited involuntarily by a stimulus that comes before it (the CS);
•   in instrumental learning, the learned response (the instrumental response) is emitted voluntarily because of its consequence — that is, because of a stimulus (a reward) that follows it.
The degree to which a response is voluntary is best represented on a continuum:
Involuntary <------------------------------> Voluntary
1.   Mostly or Fully Involuntary Responses. For most people, it is difficult to voluntarily express a believable smile — that is, to fake a smile that looks genuine to others. This is, in part, because the motor cortex controls the voluntary expression of (fake) smiles, whereas a different part of the brain, the cingulate cortex, controls involuntary (real) smiles. Because different areas of the brain are involved, fake smiles usually look different than real smiles do, although some people are very good at faking smiles. (Go here to see how good you are at spotting fake smiles.)
2.   More Involuntary Than Voluntary Responses. It is virtually impossible not to salivate when asked to inhibit this response after food has been placed on one's tongue, although one may be able to voluntarily salivate, perhaps by thinking of food, when asked to do so.
3.   More Voluntary Than Involuntary Responses. Shaking hands generally is thought to be a voluntary response, and it is, most of the time. However, if someone unexpectedly sticks his hand out in a way that makes it look like he wants to shake your hand, you generally will stick your hand out without thinking (that is, involuntarily). While you're doing this, the person may, as a joke, pull his hand back, leaving you feeling stupid.
4.   Mostly or Fully Voluntary. It is quite easy for most people to move their left thumbs when asked to do so; and to not move their left thumbs when asked not to do so. Thus, this is a voluntary behavior. A already stated, the motor cortex is intimately involved in the control of voluntary responses to stimuli.
In classical conditioning, the development of an association between the CS and UCS is indicated by the development of a reflexive (involuntary) response, the CR. Thus, conditioned responses generally are mostly or fully involuntary responses (#1 above). In instrumental learning, on the other hand, subjects learn that, when placed within a particular situation, the performance of a voluntary (nonreflexive) response to the situation is followed by a rewarding (or punishing) consequence. Thus, instrumental responses often are mostly or fully voluntary (#4 above), although there are cases in which one of the other types of responses better reflects the situation. For the purposes of this class, however, we will characterize instrumental responses as mostly or fully voluntary, with the realization that, in future courses, you probably will find that the situation is more complicated.
Another way to think of the difference between classical conditioning and instrumental learning is:
•   in classical conditioning, the CR is elicited involuntarily by a stimulus that comes before it, the CS;
•   in instrumental learning, the instrumental response is emitted voluntarily because of a stimulus that follows it, the reward. (For now, we are ignoring punishment.)
You may have noticed that the wording here is almost identical to the wording used a few paragraphs back (click here), but with different words bolded. This second difference really is just a different way of thinking about the first difference.
Another important difference between classical conditioning and instrumental learning involves the nature of the association formed in each:
•   in classical conditioning, two stimuli are associated — the CS is associated with the UCS after they have been paired repeatedly;
•   in instrumental learning, a response is associated with a stimulus that follows it — the instrumental response is associated with the reward after they have been paired repeatedly. (Again, for now, we are ignoring punishment.)
There is a complication with instrumental learning that I haven't talked about yet. Although it is true that the instrumental response is associated with a stimulus that follows it (the consequence), it's also true that the instrumental response is a response to a stimulus or stimuli that come before it: the situation in which the response occurs. For example, raising your hand in class is a learned instrumental response: you have learned to raise your hand because it is "rewarded" by the consequence of getting called on by the teacher. However, you probably don't raise your hand in any situation other than one in which there is a teacher (or some other authority figure) speaking to a group of students (or some other group). You have learned to raise your hand in response to a situation containing the following stimuli: the sight of a teacher in a classrooom. Thus, in addition to associating the instrumental response of raising your hand with the consequence of getting called on, you also have associated it with the preceding stimuli of the sight of a teacher in a classroom. The stimulus that comes before the response may be thought of as a "triggering" stimulus: it tells the person that, in the situation containing that stimulus, the response has been rewarded (or punished) in the past.
It is "more correct," therefore, to think of instrumental learning as involving the association of a "triggering" stimulus with a response with a rewarding (or punishing) stimulus: the situation is associated with the instrumental response, which is associated with the consequence.

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example how a particular behavior is learned & modified in Organization
Principles of Effective Learning
• Teaching/ Training   is designing for learning
• Designing for learning is an art form
• As in any art form, there are principles that
guide good design

Principles of Effective Learning

Many heads are better than one -
by  COLLABORATION
----------------------------------------------
We don’t automatically have the  necessary skills to learn
by
- DEVELOP SKILLS
- cooperative
- organisational
- thinking
- operational - task specific
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The brain needs to be stimulated to learn
by
CHALLENGE
CURIOSITY
MYSTERY/INTRIGUE
EXCITEMENT
RELEVANCE
--------------------------------------------------------------
We need to feel secure to  learn
by
PROTECT SELF
ESTEEM
SAFE, SUPPORTIVE
ENVIRONMENT
NON-THREATENING
---------------------------------------------------------------------
We can be challenged/stimulated by  the standards set by others
by
-HEALTHY
-COMPETITION
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The brain needs to talk to learn
by
- SHARING
-DISCUSSION
-DEBATE
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We learn with our whole body
by
- MULTISENSORY
-EXPERIENTIAL
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We learn when we have a purpose
by
- FOCUS/GOAL
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We yearn to achieve
by
- ACCESSIBLE,
ACHIEVABLE
CHALLENGES.
CELEBRATION
REWARD
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We yearn for enrichment
by
- VARIETY/DIVERSITY
CREATIVITY
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We learn by copying
by
- MODELLING
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Understanding develops through  examples, metaphor & models
by
- SHOW EXAMPLES
AND NON-EXAMPLES
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We need to know how we’re  going
by
- FEEDBACK
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We yearn to express ourselves
by
- OWNERSHIP CHOICE
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Everyone likes to be acknowledged  and to contribute
by
- INVOLVEMENT
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Understanding is essential to  meaningful language acquisition
by
UNDERSTANDING
BEFORE DEFINTION  & PROPOSITION
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Learning is constructing and  reconstructing meaning
by
- VALUE PRIOR
KNOWLEDGE
--------------------------------------------------------------
The brain finds it easy to learn  patterns
- difficult to learn  arbitrary information
by
DRAW OUT THE ESSENCE/MEANING
FIND THE PATTERN
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Mastery in learning requires  practice and persistence
by
- PERSEVERANCE
-CONSOLIDATION
-PRACTICE
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THE  OUTCOME  OF   THE  EFFECTIVE  TRAINING/LEARNING
The form of evaluation that we undertake is determined by the criteria that we choose, or are told to use, to measure success:
1.Efficiency
Efficiency is a measure of the amount of learning achieved relative to the amount of effort put in. In practical terms this means the amount of time it takes to complete a piece of training. Efficiency has a direct relation to cost – the more efficient a training method is, the less it will cost.
2.Reactions
Reactions are what you measure with the ‘happy sheet’. Reactions are important because, if students react negatively to your courses, they are less likely to transfer what they learned to their work and more likely to give bad reports to their peers, leading in turn to lower student numbers.
3.Learning
Learning, in terms of new or improved skills, knowledge and attitudes, is the primary aim of a training event. Learning can be measured objectively using a test or exam or some form of assessed exercise. If a student has to achieve a certain level of learning to obtain a ‘pass mark’, then the number of passes may be used as an evaluation measure. Another important aspect of learning is the degree of retention – how much of the learning has stuck after the course is over.
4.Behaviour change
If a student has learned something from a course, you hope that this will be reflected in their behaviour on the job. If a student employs what they have learned appropriately, then their work behaviour will meet desired criteria. Behaviour can be measured through observation or, in some cases, through some automated means. To assess behaviour change requires that the measurements are taken before and after the training.
5.Performance change
If, as a result of training, students are using appropriate behaviours on the job, then you would expect that to have a positive impact on performance. A wide variety of indicators can be employed to measure the impact of training on performance – numbers of complaints, sales made, output per hour and so on. It is hard to be sure that it is training that has made the difference without making comparisons to a control group – a group of employees who have not been through the training.
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TO  ACHIEVE  THE  EFFECTIVE  LEARNING    PRINCIPLES  AND
TO  GAIN  THE  TRAINING  OUTCOME,
AN  APPROPRIATE   MEDIUM  IS  REQUIRED---
--THAT  IS  THE  RIGHT  MIX  OF   TRAINING METHODS.
 
There are many different ways to train.  How can a manager charged with training his or her employees choose an appropriate method?
The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company, the trainee, and on the task being performed. The method should suit the audience, the content, the business¡¦ environment, and the learning objective. Ideally, the method chosen will motivate employees to learn, help employees prepare themselves for learning, enable the trainees to apply and practice what they've been taught, help trainees retain and transfer what they have learned, and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge.
Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include:
-Age, gender, or level of education of the trainees
-Learning styles of the trainees
-Number of trainees
-Budget
-Trainer's skills and training style
Common group training methods include:
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Lecture
A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and institutions. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner.
Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details.
Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally.
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Demonstration
Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training. The trainer shows trainees how to do something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated.
Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. It engages several senses: seeing, hearing, feeling, touching.
Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught, poor work habits can be learned by the trainee.
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Seminar
Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures, discussions, conferences, demonstrations.
Pros: Group members are involved in the training. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity.
Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods.
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Conference
The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions.
Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep sessions interesting.
Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager¡¦s ideas, causing conflict.
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Panel
A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people.
Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives.
Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate.
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Role Playing
During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training.
Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers.
Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch.
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Case Studies
A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information  that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided.
Pros: A case study  can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important.
Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track.
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Simulations
Trainees participate in a reality-based, interactive  activity where they imitate actions required on the job. It is a useful technique for skills development.
Pros: Training becomes more reality-based, as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. Simulations involve yet another learning style, increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned.
Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly. Only perfect practice makes perfect.
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Projects
Projects require the trainees to do something on the job which improves the business as well as helps them learn about the topic of training. It might involve participation on a team, the creation of a database, or the forming of a new process. The type of project will vary by business and the skill level of the trainee.
Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced employees. Projects can be chosen which help solve problems  or otherwise improve the operation. Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of the training. Little time is needed to prepare the training experience.
Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose, trainees may think they are doing somebody else¡¦s work. Also, if they do not have an interest in the project or there is no immediate impact on their own jobs, it will be difficult to obtain and maintain their interest.
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Common individual training methods include:
Self-discovery
Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises, books, and research.
Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning.
Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. It is also more difficult to measure the employee¡¦s progress.
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Movies/videos/computer-based training
Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program.
Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee.
Cons: It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs.
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On-the-job training
This is the most common method of training. The trainee is placed on the job and the manager or mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. To be successful, the training should be done according to a structured program that uses task lists, job breakdowns, and performance standards as a lesson  plan.
Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the employee's needs. It is highly practical and reality-based. It also helps the employee establish important relationships with his or her supervisor or mentor.
Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. There is often a tendency to have a person learn by doing the job, providing no real training.
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Mentoring
A mentor can tutor  others in their learning. Mentors help employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. This system  is sometimes known as a buddy system.
Pros: It can take place before, during, or after a shift. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure.
Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen, the trainee can pick up bad habits.
When choosing from among these methods, the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees, the environment, and the investments available. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. With so many options, a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity.
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Four Ways to Maximize Learning Retention
As you design your presentation, remember that your instructional goal is to maximize the participants' understanding and retention of the subject matter. Ultimately, the participants will learn more if they can focus their attention on the subject matter and make the ideas relevant to themselves. Four ways to maximize understanding and retention follow; try to use some or all of them as you present your lecture.
1. OPENING SUMMARY: At the beginning of the lecture, state (or summarize in writing) its major points and conclusions to help participants organize their listening.
Example: A trainer began a lecture on PERT (Program/Project Evaluation and Review Technique) with the following opening summary: "I'm going to give you a thumbnail sketch of PERT before we look at it in detail. PERT was developed by the Navy Department for the Polaris missile. It is useful in the planning, scheduling, and monitoring and control aspects of project management. In the planning phase, it requires you to list the tasks entailed by the project, calculate the gross requirements for resources, and make time/cost estimates. In the scheduling phase, it involves laying out the tasks in a time sequence and detailing schedule or resource requirements. In the monitoring and control phase, it entails reviewing the schedule and actual performance, revising the schedule if necessary, and assessing the likelihood of jeopardy and cost escalation. PERT can be employed in such applications as building construction, installing a computer system, or the end-of-month closing of accounting records. Now, let's take a closer look at the process and examine when and how it works.
2. USE KEY TERMS: Reduce the major points in the lecture to key words that act as verbal subheadings or memory aids.
Example: A trainer was giving a presentation on supervisory styles. She decided to use these three catchy terms to describe alternatives open to supervisors:
Tell & Sell: In this mode, the supervisor explains to employees what is expected of them and why their cooperation is needed.
Tell & Listen: In this mode, too, the supervisor initially explains to employees what is expected but then asks for (and listens to) their feedback to his requests.
Listen & Tell: In this mode, the supervisor asks his employees to comment on the work they are doing, listens to their responses, and then tells them what he feels and wants.
3. PROVIDING EXAMPLES: As much as possible, provide real-life illustrations of the ideas in the lecture.
Example: In a course called "Selling to Your Client's Style," the trainer was teaching the personality types described in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument used widely to help people understand their personal style and the styles of others with whom they work. She was discussing the differences between a "Thinker" (T) type and a "Feeler" (F) type and illustrated the distinction with the following example: "A prospect who is a T will probably speak in a concise fashion, will appear to be firm and tough minded, likes to argue, and is focused on the bottom line. To be effective with a T, don't ramble, be logical, and address objections head on. A prospect who is an F, on the other hand, will appear personable and friendly, takes time to get to know you, seems to like harmony, and is more interested in process than outcome. With such a person, it's best to spend time getting to know the person, to be friendly and warm, to be affirming, and to understand that the prospect may have difficulty being critical and not reveal true feelings about your product or service."
4. ANALOGIES : If possible, make a comparison between your material and the knowledge or experience the participants already have.
Example: An instructor in an adult education class on auto mechanics realized how frustrating it must be for people to understand how a car works. He found an interesting way to explain the sequence of events in, of all places, a children's book. The instructional approach is performed entirely through analogies.
• The gasoline tank is like an oil can. The gasoline goes from here to the fuel pump.
• The fuel pump, which is like a water pump, pumps the gasoline to the carburetor.
• The carburetor, which is like a perfume atomizer, changes the liquid gasoline into a gasoline-and-air vapor, which goes to the cylinder.
• The cylinder is like a cannon with a piston in it.
• The spark plug, which is like a lighter, ignites the vapor in the cylinder. The vapor burns and expands quickly, pushing the piston down.

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Management Consulting

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Leo Lingham

Expertise

management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc

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18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc

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24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
human resource management, management training, business coaching,
counseling etc

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PRINCIPAL -- BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

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MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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