Management Consulting/Principles Of Management

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Question
1)a) "Management is a series of functions to be performed in a sequential order". Explain the statement describing Management Process in short.
b) "Unplanned actions may lead to a mess". Elucidate the statement with the help of significance of planning.

2."Man power can be procured from with in the organization as well as from out side the organization? Do you agree? "Write the sources of procuring man power.
    
3."A misconceived and incapable leader may take his followers to dangers of life". Explain the statement. Describe the qualities and trait of any two successful, Entrepreneurs in India.  

4.Discuss the importance of different types of plans in an organization. Explain how these plans are made in government sectors and in an I.T. Company.

Answer
Q1   ANSWER   SLOTTED  IN  ANOTHER  PAPER  DUE  TO  SPACE  CONSTRAINT.



2. a misconcieved and incapable leader may take his followers to dangers of life". explain the statement. describe the qualities and trait of any to sucessful,entrepreneurs in india.
THIS  STATEMENT  IS VERY  TRUE.
effectiveness of leaders depend on how their leadership style interrelates with situation in which they operate".
  A  leader is someone who understands and lives life in line with their purpose. Someone who is authentic, who has a clear sense of their own personal values and is seen by others to embody those values. Someone who believes in giving first, with no expectation of a return. Someone who inspires others to follow their example, just by being themselves. T
  
  LEADERS  SHOW
  
  -Drive
  -Vision
  -Leadership motivation
  -Integrity
  -Self confidence
  -Knowledge  in  some fields
  etc
  
  But this  does  not  ensure  success  as  a  leader.
  
  There  are  other  characteristics, that  helps  to  make  a
  leader  success, like
  
  -group  leadership
  -organizational  talent
  -sensitivity
  -collaboration
  -persuasiveness
  -rapport building
  -analyzing  situations
  -making  judgement
  -decision  making
  -planning
  -delegating
  -empowering
  -controlling
  -appraising
  -communicating
  -iniating
  -flexibility
  -adaptability
  etc etc
  
  Most  of  these  are  needed  for  managing  situations  and  people.
  
  Most  leaders  are  not  born   with  all  these  factors, but  trained
  either  in  classrooms  or  self  taught  on  jobs.
  
  Most  of  the  above  factors  are  learnable.
  
  Hence  leadership   is  a  combination  of  born  talents  and   trained   skills/ knowledge.
  Provide team leadership
1   Create an environment oriented to trust, open communication, creative thinking, and cohesive team effort

2   Provide the team with a vision of the project objectives

3   Motivate and inspire team members

4   Lead by setting a good example (role model) - behavior consistent with words

5   Coach and help develop team members; help resolve dysfunctional behavior

    *Facilitate problem solving and collaboration
1   Strive for team consensus and win-win agreements

2   Ensure discussions and decisions lead toward closure

3   Maintain healthy group dynamics

4   Intervene when necessary to aid the group in resolving issues

5   Assure that the team members have the necessary education and training to effectively participate on the team

6   Encourage creativity, risk-taking, and constant improvement

7   Recognize and celebrate team and team member accomplishments and exceptional performance
    *Focus the team on the tasks at hand or the internal and external customer requirements
1   Coordinate with internal and external customers as necessary

2   Familiarize the team with the customer needs, specifications, design targets, the development process, design standards, techniques and tools to support task performance

3   Assure that the team addresses all relevant issues within the specifications and various standards

4   Provide necessary business information

5   Serve as meeting manager, WHEN  YOU  HAVE  A  MEETING.
6   Initiate sub-groups or sub-teams as appropriate to resolve issues and perform tasks in parallel

7   Ensure deliverables are prepared to satisfy the project requirements, cost and schedule

8   Help keep the team focused and on track
   *Coordinate team logistics
1   Work with functional managers and the team sponsor to obtain necessary resources to support the team's requirements

2   Obtain and coordinate space, furniture, equipment, and communication lines for team members

3   Establish meeting times, places and agendas

4   Coordinate the review, presentation and release of design layouts, drawings, analysis and other documentation

5   Coordinates meetings with the product committee, project manager and functional management to discuss project impediments, needed resources or issues/delays in completing the task
    *Communicate team status, task accomplishment, and direction
1   Provide status reporting of team activities against the program plan or schedule

2   Keep the project manager and product committee informed of task accomplishment, issues and status

3   Serve as a focal point to communicate and resolve interface and integration issues with other teams

4   Escalate issues which cannot be resolved by the team

5   Provide guidance to the team based on management direction

Communicating

•   Communicating with Coworkers:  Communicating information using either face-to-face, written, or via telephone or computer.

•   Active Listening:  Listening intently to what others are saying and asking for further details when appropriate.

•   Facilitating Discussion: Promoting the involvement of various individuals and a norm of openness and collegiality during group discussions.

•   Public Speaking:  Vocalizing clearly, maintaining a comfortable pace, and using appropriate non-verbal behaviors during formal presentations. Utilizing visual aids during presentations. Engaging the audience and responding to questions from the audience.

•   Developing External Contacts:  Developing portfolio of external contacts within the professional community.

•   Communicating Outside the Organization: Exchanging information with others outside the organization (e.g., customers, other organizations) using face-to-face, written, telephonic or electronic means.


There are a number of different approaches, or 'styles' to leadership and management that are based on different assumptions and theories. The style that individuals use will be based on a combination of their beliefs, values and preferences, as well as the organizational culture and norms which will encourage some styles and discourage others.
Charismatic Leadership
Participative Leadership
Situational Leadership
Transactional Leadership
Transformational Leadership
The Quiet Leader
Servant Leadership
=======================================================
1.Charismatic Leadership
ASSUMPTIONS
Charm and grace are all that is needed to create followers.
Self-belief is a fundamental need of leaders.
People follow others that they personally admire.
Style
The Charismatic Leader gathers followers through dint of personality and charm, rather than any form of external power or authority.

It is interesting to watch a Charismatic Leader 'working the room' as they move from person to person. They pay much attention to the person they are talking to at any one moment, making that person feel like they are, for that time, the most important person in the world.
Charismatic Leaders pay a great deal of attention in scanning and reading their environment, and are good at picking up the moods and concerns of both individuals and larger audiences. They then will hone their actions and words to suit the situation.
Charismatic Leaders use a wide range of methods to manage their image and, if they are not naturally charismatic, may practice assiduously at developing their skills. They may engender trust through visible self-sacrifice and taking personal risks in the name of their beliefs. They will show great confidence in their followers. They are very persuasive and make very effective use of body language as well as verbal language.
Deliberate charisma is played out in a theatrical sense, where the leader is 'playing to the house' to create a desired effect. They also make effective use of storytelling, including the use of symbolism and metaphor.
Leading the team
Charismatic Leaders who are building a group, whether it is a political party, a cult or a business team, will often focus strongly on making the group very clear and distinct, separating it from other groups. They will then build the image of the group, in particular in the minds of their followers, as being far superior to all others.
The Charismatic Leader will typically attach themselves firmly to the identify of the group, such that to join the group is to become one with the leader. In doing so, they create an unchallengeable position for themselves.
Alternative views
The description above is purely based on charisma and takes into account varying moral positions. Other descriptions tend to assume a more benevolent approach.
five behavioral attributes of Charismatic Leaders that indicate a more transformational viewpoint:
1   Vision and articulation;
2   Sensitivity to the environment;
3   Sensitivity to member needs;
4   Personal risk taking;
5   Performing unconventional behaviour.
charismatic leaders seek to instil both commitment to ideological goals and also devotion to themselves. The extent to which either of these two goals is dominant depends on the underlying motivations and needs of the leader.
Discussion
The Charismatic Leader and the Transformational Leader can have many similarities, in that the Transformational Leader may well be charismatic. Their main difference is in their basic focus. Whereas the Transformational Leader has a basic focus of transforming the organization and, quite possibly, their followers, the Charismatic Leader may not want to change anything.
Despite their charm and apparent concern, the Charismatic Leader may well be somewhat more concerned with themselves than anyone else. A typical experience with them is that whilst you are talking with them, it is like being bathed in a warm and pleasant glow, in which they are very convincing. Yet afterwards, ask the sunbeam of their attention is moved elsewhere, you may begin to question what they said (or even whether they said anything of significance at all).
The values of the Charismatic Leader are highly significant. If they are well-intentioned towards others, they can elevate and transform an entire company. If they are selfish and Machiavellian, they can create cults and effectively rape the minds (and potentially the bodies) of the followers.
Their self-belief is so high, they can easily believe that they are infallible, and hence lead their followers into an abyss, even when they have received adequate warning from others. The self-belief can also lead them into psychotic narcissism, where their self-absorption or need for admiration and worship can lead to their followers questioning their leadership.
They may also be intolerant of challengers and their irreplaceability (intentional or otherwise) can mean that there are no successors when they leave.
======================================================================
2.Participative Leadership
Assumptions
Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions.
People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making.
People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals.
When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision.
Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone.
Style
A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Often, however, as it is within the managers' whim to give or deny control to his or her subordinates, most participative activity is within the immediate team. The question of how much influence others are given thus may vary on the manager's preferences and beliefs, and a whole spectrum of participation is possible.
There are many varieties on this spectrum, including stages where the leader sells the idea to the team. Another variant is for the leader to describe the 'what' of objectives or goals and let the team or individuals decide the 'how' of the process by which the 'how' will be achieved (this is often called 'Management by Objectives').
The level of participation may also depend on the type of decision being made. Decisions on how to implement goals may be highly participative, whilst decisions during subordinate performance evaluations are more likely to be taken by the manager.
Discussion
There are many potential benefits of participative leadership, as indicated in the assumptions, above.
This approach is also known as consultation, empowerment, joint decision-making, democratic leadership, Management By Objective (MBO) and power-sharing.
Participative Leadership can be a sham when managers ask for opinions and then ignore them. This is likely to lead to cynicism and feelings of betrayal.
===========================================================
3. Situational Leadership
Assumptions
The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors.
Style
When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactional or transformational methods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple.
Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may be another factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior.
The leaders' perception of the follower and the situation will affect what they do rather than the truth of the situation. The leader's perception of themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders' behavior.
other approaches and identifies six variables:
1   Subordinate effort: the motivation and actual effort expended.
2   Subordinate ability and role clarity: followers knowing what to do and how to do it.
3   Organization of the work: the structure of the work and utilization of resources.
4   Cooperation and cohesiveness: of the group in working together.
5   Resources and support: the availability of tools, materials, people, etc.
6   External coordination: the need to collaborate with other groups.
Leaders here work on such factors as external relationships, acquisition of resources, managing demands on the group and managing the structures and culture of the group.
Discussion
three forces that led to the leader's action: the forces in the situation, the forces in then follower and also forces in the leader. This recognizes that the leader's style is highly variable, and even such distant events as a family argument can lead to the displacement activity of a more aggressive stance in an argument than usual.
leaders not only consider the likelihood of a follower accepting a suggestion, but also the overall importance of getting things done. Thus in critical situations, a leader is more likely to be directive in style simply because of the implications of failure.
==================================================================
4. Transactional Leadership

Assumptions
People are motivated by reward and punishment.
Social systems work best with a clear chain of command.
When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager.
The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.
Style
The transactional leader works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following orders. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place.
The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinate's manager) gets authority over the subordinate.
When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding).
The transactional leader often uses management by exception, working on the principle that if something is operating to defined (and hence expected) performance then it does not need attention. Exceptions to expectation require praise and reward for exceeding expectation, whilst some kind of corrective action is applied for performance below expectation.
Whereas Transformational Leadership has more of a 'selling' style, Transactional Leadership, once the contract is in place, takes a 'telling' style.
Discussion
Transactional leadership is based in contingency, in that reward or punishment is contingent upon performance.
Despite much research that highlights its limitations, Transactional Leadership is still a popular approach with many managers. Indeed, in the Leadership vs. Management spectrum, it is very much towards the management end of the scale.
The main limitation is the assumption of 'rational man', a person who is largely motivated by money and simple reward, and hence whose behavior is predictable. The underlying psychology is Behaviorism, including the Classical Conditioning of Pavlov and Skinner's Operant Conditioning. These theories are largely based on controlled laboratory experiments (often with animals) and ignore complex emotional factors and social values.
In practice, there is sufficient truth in Behaviorism to sustain Transactional approaches. This is reinforced by the supply-and-demand situation of much employment, coupled with the effects of deeper needs, as in Maslow's Hierarchy. When the demand for a skill outstrips the supply, then Transactional Leadership often is insufficient, and other approaches are more effective.
===================================================
5. Transformational Leadership

Assumptions
People will follow a person who inspires them.
A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.
The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
Style
Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed.

Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The important factor is the leader buys into it, hook, line and sinker.

The next step, which in fact never stops, is to constantly sell the vision. This takes energy and commitment, as few people will immediately buy into a radical vision, and some will join the show much more slowly than others. The Transformational Leader thus takes every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others to climb on board the bandwagon.
In order to create followers, the Transformational Leader has to be very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling. In effect, they are selling themselves as well as the vision.

In parallel with the selling activity is seeking the way forward. Some Transformational Leaders know the way, and simply want others to follow them. Others do not have a ready strategy, but will happily lead the exploration of possible routes to the promised land.
The route forwards may not be obvious and may not be plotted in details, but with a clear vision, the direction will always be known. Thus finding the way forward can be an ongoing process of course correction, and the Transformational Leader will accept that there will be failures and blind canyons along the way. As long as they feel progress is being made, they will be happy.

The final stage is to remain up-front and central during the action. Transformational Leaders are always visible and will stand up to be counted rather than hide behind their troops. They show by their attitudes and actions how everyone else should behave. They also make continued efforts to motivate and rally their followers, constantly doing the rounds, listening, soothing and enthusing.
It is their unswerving commitment as much as anything else that keeps people going, particularly through the darker times when some may question whether the vision can ever be achieved. If the people do not believe that they can succeed, then their efforts will flag. The Transformational Leader seeks to infect and reinfect their followers with a high level of commitment to the vision.
One of the methods the Transformational Leader uses to sustain motivation is in the use of ceremonies, rituals and other cultural symbolism. Small changes get big hurrahs, pumping up their significance as indicators of real progress.
Overall, they balance their attention between action that creates progress and the mental state of their followers. Perhaps more than other approaches, they are people-oriented and believe that success comes first and last through deep and sustained commitment.
Discussion
Whilst the Transformational Leader seeks overtly to transform the organization, there is also a tacit promise to followers that they also will be transformed in some way, perhaps to be more like this amazing leader. In some respects, then, the followers are the product of the transformation.
Transformational Leaders are often charismatic, but are not as narcissistic as pure Charismatic Leaders, who succeed through a believe in themselves rather than a believe in others.
One of the traps of Transformational Leadership is that passion and confidence can easily be mistaken for truth and reality. Whilst it is true that great things have been achieved through enthusiastic leadership, it is also true that many passionate people have led the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm. Just because someone believes they are right, it does not mean they are right.
Paradoxically, the energy that gets people going can also cause them to give up. Transformational Leaders often have large amounts of enthusiasm which, if relentlessly applied, can wear out their followers.
Transformational Leaders also tend to see the big picture, but not the details, where the devil often lurks. If they do not have people to take care of this level of information, then they are usually doomed to fail.
Finally, Transformational Leaders, by definition, seek to transform. When the organization does not need transforming and people are happy as they are, then such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, however, given the right situation they come into their own and can be personally responsible for saving entire companies.
======================================
6. The Quiet Leader
Assumptions
The actions of a leader speak louder than his or her words.
People are motivated when you give them credit rather than take it yourself.
Ego and aggression are neither necessary nor constructive.
Style
The approach of quiet leaders is the antithesis of the classic charismatic (and often transformational) leaders in that they base their success not on ego and force of character but on their thoughts and actions. Although they are strongly task-focused, they are neither bullies nor unnecessarily unkind and may persuade people through rational argument and a form of benevolent Transactional Leadership.

identified five levels of effectiveness people can take in organizations. At level four is the merely effective leader, whilst at level five the leader who combines professional will with personal humility. The 'professional will' indicates how they are far from being timid wilting flowers and will march against any advice if they believe it is the right thing to do. In 'personal humility' they put the well-being of others before their own personal needs, for example giving others credit after successes but taking personal responsibility for failures.

The quiet leader is not a modern invention .
The very highest is barely known by men,
Then comes that which they know and love,
Then that which is feared,
Then that which is despised.
He who does not trust enough will not be trusted.
When actions are performed
Without unnecessary speech,
People say “We did it!”
Here again, the highest level of leadership is virtually invisible.
Discussion
To some extent, the emphasis on the quiet leader is a reaction against the lauding of charismatic leaders in the press. In particular during the heady days of the dot-com boom of the 1990s, some very verbal leaders got much coverage. Meanwhile, the quiet leaders were getting on with the job.
Being quiet, of course, is not the secret of the universe, and leaders still need to see the way forwards. Their job can be harder when they are faced with people of a more external character.
For people accustomed to an extraverted charismatic style, a quiet style can be very confusing and they may downplay the person, which is usually a mistake. Successful quiet leaders often play the values card to persuade others, showing selfishness and lack of emotional control as being unworthy characteristics. Again there is a trap in this and leadership teams can fall into patterns of behavior where peace and harmony are prized over any form of challenge and conflict.
=================================================
7. Servant leadership

Assumptions
The leader has responsibility for the followers.
Leaders have a responsibility towards society and those who are disadvantaged.
People who want to help others best do this by leading them.
Style
The servant leader serves others, rather than others serving the leader. Serving others thus comes by helping them to achieve and improve.
There are two criteria of servant leadership:
1   The people served grow as individuals, becoming 'healthier, wiser, more autonomous and more likely themselves to become servants' .
2   The extent to which the leadership benefits those who are least advantaged in society (or at least does not disadvantage them).
Principles of servant leadership defined by the Alliance for Servant Leadership are:
1   Transformation as a vehicle for personal and institutional growth.
2   Personal growth as a route to better serve others.
3   Enabling environments that empower and encourage service.
4   Service as a fundamental goals.
5   Trusting relationships as a basic platform for collaboration and service.
6   Creating commitment as a way to collaborative activity.
7   Community building as a way to create environments in which people can trust each other and work together.
8   Nurturing the spirit as a way to provide joy and fulfilment in meaningful work.
---- listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to growth of people, and building community.
Discussion
Greenleaf says that true leadership "emerges from those whose primary motivation is a deep desire to help others." Servant leadership is a very moral position, putting the well-being of the followers before other goals.
It is easy to dismiss servant leadership as soft and easy, though this is not necessarily so, as individual followers may be expected to make sacrifices for the good of the whole, in the way of the servant leader.
The focus on the less privileged in society shows the servant leader as serving not just their followers but also the whole of society.
Servant leadership is a natural model for working in the public sector. It requires more careful interpretation in the private sector lest the needs of the shareholders and customers and the rigors of market competition are lost.
A challenge to servant leadership is in the assumption of the leader that the followers want to change. There is also the question of what 'better' is and who decides this.
Servant leadership aligns closely with religious morals and has been adopted by several Christian organizations.
===================================================
CHARACTERISTICS  OF  Effective Leaders
1   They are honest. This gives them credibility, resulting in the trust and confidence of their people. Credible leaders foster greater pride in the organization, a stronger spirit of cooperation and teamwork, and more feelings of ownership and personal responsibility.
2   They do what they say they will do. They keep their promises and follow through on their commitments.
3   They make sure their actions are consistent with the wishes of the people they lead. They have a clear idea of what others value and what they can do.
4   They believe in the inherent self worth of others.
5   They admit to their mistakes. They realize that attempting to hide a mistake is damaging and erodes credibility.
6   They create a trusting and open climate.
7   They help others to be successful and to feel empowered.
8   They don't push too much. They encourage members to do more, but know when it's too much.
9   They roll up their sleeves. They show the members they aren't just the figurehead or decision maker. Members respect leaders more when they show the willingness to work alongside them.
10   They avoid phrases that cause resentment, reluctance and resistance. For instance, instead of saying you have to do something, effective leaders request or recommend that members do something.

Characteristics of a Successful Leadership

1   Choose to lead.
Be the person others choose to follow.
Provide vision for the future.
Provide inspiration.
Make other people feel important and appreciated.
Live your values. Behave ethically.
•   Set the pace through your expectations and example.
•   Establish an environment of continuous improvement.
•   Provide opportunities for people to grow, both personally and professionally.
•   Care and act with compassion.
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1.MR.RATAN  TATA—CHAIRMAN  OF  TATA  GROUP  IS  A  GOOD  EXAMPLE  OF    SITUATIONAL  LEADERSHIP.

Situational Leadership
Assumptions
The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors.
Style
When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style, such as using transactional or transformational methods. In practice, as they say, things are not that simple.
Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers. This, in turn, is affected by factors within the particular situation. The relationship between followers and the leader may be another factor that affects leader behavior as much as it does follower behavior.
The leaders' perception of the follower and the situation will affect what they do rather than the truth of the situation. The leader's perception of themselves and other factors such as stress and mood will also modify the leaders' behavior.
other approaches and identifies six variables:
2   Subordinate effort: the motivation and actual effort expended.
3   Subordinate ability and role clarity: followers knowing what to do and how to do it.
4   Organization of the work: the structure of the work and utilization of resources.
5   Cooperation and cohesiveness: of the group in working together.
6   Resources and support: the availability of tools, materials, people, etc.
7   External coordination: the need to collaborate with other groups.
Leaders here work on such factors as external relationships, acquisition of resources, managing demands on the group and managing the structures and culture of the group.
Discussion
three forces that led to the leader's action: the forces in the situation, the forces in then follower and also forces in the leader. This recognizes that the leader's style is highly variable, and even such distant events as a family argument can lead to the displacement activity of a more aggressive stance in an argument than usual.
leaders not only consider the likelihood of a follower accepting a suggestion, but also the overall importance of getting things done. Thus in critical situations, a leader is more likely to be directive in style simply because of the implications of failure.



2.MR. N. R. Narayana Murthy  Infosys Limited (formerly Infosys Technologies Limited)   IS  A  GOOD  EXAMPLE  OF    TRANSFORMATIONAL  LEADERSHIP .

Transformational Leadership

Assumptions
People will follow a person who inspires them.
A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.
The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
Style
Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed.

Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The important factor is the leader buys into it, hook, line and sinker.

The next step, which in fact never stops, is to constantly sell the vision. This takes energy and commitment, as few people will immediately buy into a radical vision, and some will join the show much more slowly than others. The Transformational Leader thus takes every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others to climb on board the bandwagon.
In order to create followers, the Transformational Leader has to be very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling. In effect, they are selling themselves as well as the vision.

In parallel with the selling activity is seeking the way forward. Some Transformational Leaders know the way, and simply want others to follow them. Others do not have a ready strategy, but will happily lead the exploration of possible routes to the promised land.
The route forwards may not be obvious and may not be plotted in details, but with a clear vision, the direction will always be known. Thus finding the way forward can be an ongoing process of course correction, and the Transformational Leader will accept that there will be failures and blind canyons along the way. As long as they feel progress is being made, they will be happy.

The final stage is to remain up-front and central during the action. Transformational Leaders are always visible and will stand up to be counted rather than hide behind their troops. They show by their attitudes and actions how everyone else should behave. They also make continued efforts to motivate and rally their followers, constantly doing the rounds, listening, soothing and enthusing.
It is their unswerving commitment as much as anything else that keeps people going, particularly through the darker times when some may question whether the vision can ever be achieved. If the people do not believe that they can succeed, then their efforts will flag. The Transformational Leader seeks to infect and reinfect their followers with a high level of commitment to the vision.
One of the methods the Transformational Leader uses to sustain motivation is in the use of ceremonies, rituals and other cultural symbolism. Small changes get big hurrahs, pumping up their significance as indicators of real progress.
Overall, they balance their attention between action that creates progress and the mental state of their followers. Perhaps more than other approaches, they are people-oriented and believe that success comes first and last through deep and sustained commitment.
Discussion
Whilst the Transformational Leader seeks overtly to transform the organization, there is also a tacit promise to followers that they also will be transformed in some way, perhaps to be more like this amazing leader. In some respects, then, the followers are the product of the transformation.
Transformational Leaders are often charismatic, but are not as narcissistic as pure Charismatic Leaders, who succeed through a believe in themselves rather than a believe in others.
One of the traps of Transformational Leadership is that passion and confidence can easily be mistaken for truth and reality. Whilst it is true that great things have been achieved through enthusiastic leadership, it is also true that many passionate people have led the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm. Just because someone believes they are right, it does not mean they are right.
Paradoxically, the energy that gets people going can also cause them to give up. Transformational Leaders often have large amounts of enthusiasm which, if relentlessly applied, can wear out their followers.
Transformational Leaders also tend to see the big picture, but not the details, where the devil often lurks. If they do not have people to take care of this level of information, then they are usually doomed to fail.
Finally, Transformational Leaders, by definition, seek to transform. When the organization does not need transforming and people are happy as they are, then such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, however, given the right situation they come into their own and can be personally responsible for saving entire companies.
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3.discuss the importance of different types of plans in an organisation. explain how these plans are mεde in government sectors and in an I.T. company


Planning processes with middle and long term character
Strategic planning is a key planning process for a well managed nonprofit organization. It is discussed in detail in another section of this website.
ou can learn more about the key planning tasks involved on the following web pages:
•   Analyzing the current organizational situation
•   Developing a vision statement
•   Developing a mission statement
•   Defining core values
•   Developing strategies
•   Developing strategic goals and objectives

The main features of other middle and long-term planning processes are explained here:
•   Business planning
•   Program planning
•   Project planning
•   Human Resources planning
•   Financial planning
•   Action planning
•   Risk planning
•   Marketing  planning
•   Production  planning
•   Demand  planning
•   Logistics  planning
•   Distribution  planning
•   Sales  planning
Short-term planning
A generally accepted definition of what constitutes a short-term, middlear-term and long-term planning horizon does not exist.
I use the following definitions:
Long-term planning: at least 3 years.
Middle-term-planning: from around 1 year up to 3 years.
Short-term planning: less than 1 year.
An example of short-term planning would be planning the production of goods for the next week or month.
This is a task that NGOs will go through regularly that generate income through selling goods and services:
•   How much shall we produce?
•   Shall we build up stock or reduce stock?
•   On which days shall we produce what product?
•   Which raw materials and components do we have to order?
•   Etc.
Another example of short-term planning would the preparation of a Cash-Flow forecast that shows the weekly cash movements for the next three months.
It will include:
•   Expected cash receipts
•   Scheduled payments
•   The resulting cash surplus or deficit
•   The opening and closing bank balance
You will also be involved in short-term planning when you have identified a critical performance problem that has to be immediately corrected.
The action plan will specify:
•   The desired result
•   Activities that will achieve the desired result
•   A time schedule for each activity
•   Responsibilities
•   Resources needed

There are three main types of plans that a manager will use in his or her pursuit of company goals, which include operational, tactical and strategic. If you think about these three types of plans as stepping stones, you can see how their relationship to one another aids in the achievement of organizational goals. Operational plans are necessary to attain tactical plans and tactical plans lead to the achievement of strategic plans. Then, in true planning fashion, there are also plans to backup plans that fail. These are known as contingency plans. To better understand how each type of plan is used by managers, let's take a look at an example from Nino's Pizzeria and how Tommy, Martha and Frank carry out their planning responsibilities.
Strategic Plans
To best understand the relationship between the different types of plans, let's start at the top. Strategic plans are designed with the entire organization in mind and begin with an organization's mission. Top-level managers, such as CEOs or presidents, will design and execute strategic plans to paint a picture of the desired future and long-term goals of the organization. Essentially, strategic plans look ahead to where the organization wants to be in three, five, even ten years. Strategic plans, provided by top-level managers, serve as the framework for lower-level planning.
 
Tactical Plans
Now that you have a general idea for how organizational planning evolves, let's look at the next level of planning, known as tactical planning. Tactical plans support strategic plans by translating them into specific plans relevant to a distinct area of the organization. Tactical plans are concerned with the responsibility and functionality of lower-level departments to fulfill their parts of the strategic plan.
Operational Plans
Operational plans sit at the bottom of the totem pole; they are the plans that are made by frontline, or low-level, managers. All operational plans are focused on the specific procedures and processes that occur within the lowest levels of the organization. Managers must plan the routine tasks of the department using a high level of detail.
Operational plans can be either single-use or ongoing plans. Single-use plans are those plans that are intended to be used only once. They include activities that would not be repeated and often have an expiration. Creating a monthly budget and developing a promotional advertisement for the quarter to increase the sales of a certain product are examples of how Frank would utilize single-use planning.
Ongoing plans are those plans that are built to withstand the test of time. They are created with the intent to be used several times and undergo changes when necessary. Outlining an employee's performance goals for the year would be considered an ongoing plan that Frank must develop, assess and update, if necessary. Ongoing plans are typically a policy, procedure or rule. Policies are general statements, or guidelines, that aid a manager in understanding routine responsibilities of his or her role as a manager. Examples of policies include things such as hiring, training, outlining and assessing performance appraisals and disciplining and terminating subordinates. A procedure details the step-by-step process of carrying out a certain task, such as assessing, ordering and stocking inventory. A rule provides managers and employees with specific and explicit guidelines of behavior that is what they should and should not do as a member of the organization.
Contingency Plans
Even the best plans can fail, especially in today's fast-paced, chaotic business environment, and as such, it is important for managers at all levels to engage in contingency planning. Contingency plans allow a manager to be flexible and change-savvy by providing an alternative course of action, which can be implemented if and when an original plan fails to produce the anticipated result. Having a contingency plan might seem like extra work, but much like a reserve parachute when skydiving, it's better to have it and not need it than to need it and not have it.
Achieving organizational goals starts with top managers who create strategic plans that paint a picture of the desired future and long-term goals of the organization, such as increasing productivity or profitability. These strategic plans serve as a framework for lower-level planning. Tactical plans support strategic plans by translating them into specific plans relevant to a distinct area of the organization.
Tactical plans are concerned with the responsibility and functionality of lower-level departments to fulfill their parts of the strategic plan, such as testing out a new product that can shorten production time.
Operational plans are made by frontline, or lower-level, managers and are focused on the specific procedures and processes that occur within the lowest levels, almost the individual level, of the organization. Examples of operational plans include things like scheduling employees each week; assessing, ordering and stocking inventory or creating a monthly budget.
Operational plans can be either single-use or ongoing plans. Single-use plans are those plans that are intended to be used only once. They include activities that would not be repeated and often have an expiration, such as a monthly budget. Ongoing plans are those plans that are built to withstand the test of time. They are created with the intent to be used several times and undergo changes when necessary. Outlining an employee's performance goals for the year would be considered an ongoing plan. Ongoing plans are typically a policy, procedure or rule.
IN SUMMARY
Plans commit individuals, departments, organizations, and the resources of each to specific actions for the future. Effectively designed organizational goals fit into a hierarchy so that the achievement of goals at low levels permits the attainment of high-level goals. This process is called a means-ends chain because low-level goals lead to accomplishment of high-level goals.
Three major types of plans can help managers achieve their organization's goals: strategic, tactical, and operational. Operational plans lead to the achievement of tactical plans, which in turn lead to the attainment of strategic plans. In addition to these three types of plans, managers should also develop a contingency plan in case their original plans fail.
Operational plans
The specific results expected from departments, work groups, and individuals are the operational goals. These goals are precise and measurable. “Process 150 sales applications each week” or “Publish 20 books this quarter” are examples of operational goals.
An operational plan is one that a manager uses to accomplish his or her job responsibilities. Supervisors, team leaders, and facilitators develop operational plans to support tactical plans (see the next section). Operational plans can be a single-use plan or an ongoing plan.
•   Single-use plans apply to activities that do not recur or repeat. A one-time occurrence, such as a special sales program, is a single-use plan because it deals with the who, what, where, how, and how much of an activity. A budget is also a single-use plan because it predicts sources and amounts of income and how much they are used for a specific project.
•   Continuing or ongoing plans are usually made once and retain their value over a period of years while undergoing periodic revisions and updates. The following are examples of ongoing plans:
•   A policy provides a broad guideline for managers to follow when dealing with important areas of decision making. Policies are general statements that explain how a manager should attempt to handle routine management responsibilities. Typical human resources policies, for example, address such matters as employee hiring, terminations, performance appraisals, pay increases, and discipline.
•   A procedure is a set of step-by-step directions that explains how activities or tasks are to be carried out. Most organizations have procedures for purchasing supplies and equipment, for example. This procedure usually begins with a supervisor completing a purchasing requisition. The requisition is then sent to the next level of management for approval. The approved requisition is forwarded to the purchasing department. Depending on the amount of the request, the purchasing department may place an order, or they may need to secure quotations and/or bids for several vendors before placing the order. By defining the steps to be taken and the order in which they are to be done, procedures provide a standardized way of responding to a repetitive problem.
•   A rule is an explicit statement that tells an employee what he or she can and cannot do. Rules are “do” and “don't” statements put into place to promote the safety of employees and the uniform treatment and behavior of employees. For example, rules about tardiness and absenteeism permit supervisors to make discipline decisions rapidly and with a high degree of fairness.
Tactical plans
A tactical plan is concerned with what the lower level units within each division must do, how they must do it, and who is in charge at each level. Tactics are the means needed to activate a strategy and make it work.
Tactical plans are concerned with shorter time frames and narrower scopes than are strategic plans. These plans usually span one year or less because they are considered short-term goals. Long-term goals, on the other hand, can take several years or more to accomplish. Normally, it is the middle manager's responsibility to take the broad strategic plan and identify specific tactical actions.

IT  CO. PLANNING
Organizational Planning
Organizational planning pertains to strategic or organizational-level planning.  Organizational planning relies on these same foundations, but its scope transcends individual projects.
As discussed in the "Technical Planning" practice area, when considering the planning activity, it is useful to distinguish between the process by which plans are created and the plans that result from that process. The process for generating plans is often very similar regardless of the organizational level at which it is applied. The process should differ primarily by who is involved and the scope of the effort to be planned. For organizational planning, senior and mid-level managers are often primary participants. The scope of the organizational planning process should include planning for cross-project activities or activities that are outside the scope of any project.
Regarding the plans themselves, there are different types of plans for addressing different purposes. Examples of organizational management plans include organizational strategic plans, funding plans, technology adoption plans, and organizational risk management plans.
As discussed in the "Technical Planning" practice area, a collection of interrelated plans is often more appropriate for accomplishing larger tasks than a monolithic master plan. Because of the broad scope of organizational planning, you should expect dependencies to exist among these plans and subordinate project plans. These relationships should be an explicit part of the plans.
Aspects Peculiar to Product Lines
There is nothing fundamentally different about a planning process for product lines. However, there are certain types of organizational management plans that are unique to product lines including
•   product line adoption plans: These plans describe how to transition an organization from its current way of development to a product line approach. (See the "Launching and Institutionalizing" practice area.)
•   core asset funding plans: Funding the development and maintenance of the core asset base is likely to be done at the organizational level. (See the "Funding" practice area.)
Besides these plans, other organizational plans that you might find in any development organization will take on a decidedly product line flavor. Organizational planning is used to facilitate the implementation of any of the technical management or organizational management practice areas that have organizational implementations [Clements 2005a]. The major plans are associated with
•   configuration management (CM): In a product line effort, CM is more complicated and reaches across all of the core asset and product-building projects and possibly even across product lines. It is usually appropriate to plan CM at the organizational level.
•   tool support: Tools are often considered core assets, and one of the savings a product line organization enjoys comes from using the same tool environment across all of its product efforts. If common tool support is provided and maintained across products in an organization, it should be planned organizationally.
•   training: Like tool support and CM, it pays to consider training at the cross-product level. An organizational plan for training should address: identifying training needs, establishing and maintaining the training capability, providing the training, and managing the training process including record keeping and effectiveness assessment [SEI 2006a].
•   structuring the organization: This plan will detail the transition steps and shifts in responsibility, outline any logistical or physical relocation, and assign schedules and resources.
•   risk management: This plan will assign people to participate in the process, account for any training or other preparation required, and lay out an engagement schedule.
There may be a recurring need to develop some of these types of plans. For example, in the case of a phased rollout in different parts of the organization, it may be useful to develop tailorable plan templates or provide examples that serve as core assets themselves to seed the planning process.
In addition to the plan dependencies that result from being at the organizational level, there will be additional dependencies owing to the product line approach. Organizational plans will have dependencies with project plans, and project plans will have external dependencies among other project plans. Organization-level plans may be necessary to coordinate project-to-project dependencies. In a product line context, the project plans can relate to core asset development, product development, or activities that cross between them.
Application to Core Asset Development
Organizational plans strongly related to core assets include those for
•   funding: Typically, core asset funding issues must be addressed at the organizational level.
•   priorities for core asset development: Especially when new core assets are being developed, product development projects may have competing needs for when particular core assets become available. Organization-level planning may be necessary to resolve the conflicts.
•   configuration management: In a multiple-project product line effort, it may be appropriate to plan the CM of core assets at the organization level.
•   risk management: Typically, an organizational risk management process would include risks related to core assets. Mitigation plans might be needed to address some of those risks.
•   product line adoption: A significant part of a product line adoption plan will be a description of how core assets will be created and maintained initially.
And, as is the case with technical (or project) plans, the organizational plans themselves (or parts of the plans) make fine core assets. Ideally, reusable plans should be tailorable in the same fashion as other core assets–that is, they have defined points of commonality and variability. Cost, effort, and schedule estimates may be useful candidates, particularly for reuse, as are work breakdown structures, goals, strategies, and objectives.
Application to Product Development
Typically, product development planning is handled below the organization level. Organizational planning would primarily provide constraints and priorities to guide project planning. Specifically, that might include
•   product line adoption: The product line adoption plan should describe what initial product development will be accomplished (for example, which project or projects will serve as pilot efforts for launching the product line). Project-level plans would detail how that would be accomplished.
•   risk management: Typically, an organizational risk management process would include risks related to product development. Mitigation plans might be needed to address some of those risks.
•   CM: In a multiple-project product line effort, it may be appropriate to plan the overall CM at the organization level. Project plans would have to be compatible with the CM plan.



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GOVERNMENT
There are many types of plans used in  GOVERNMENT human service organisations. While the essence of all plans is the same - answering questions such as where we are going and how we are going to get there -
we often give them different names depending on what the plan is for.
For example plans can be made for:
•   The organisation (e.g. strategic plan, service plans, financial plan)
•   A project (e.g. project plan, financial plan)
•   A team (e.g. team work plan)
•   A worker (e.g. individual work plan)
•   A client (e.g. individual service plan)
Some of the different types of plans and the questions they ask and attempt to answer are listed below.
The Organisation
Strategic Plan
Where are we? Where are we going? Why? How will we get there?
Service Plan
Who are the clients? What will be the benefits to them? How?
Operational Plan
What do we need to do to make it all happen and know we are on track?
Financial Plan
Where is the money coming from? Where is it going to? Will there be enough?
Evaluation Plan
How do we know we are doing a good job? How do we know how to improve what we are doing?
The Project
Project Plan
What are we trying to achieve? How will we make it happen?
Project Financial Plan
Where is the money coming from? Where is it going to? Will there be enough?
Project Evaluation Plan
How do we know we are doing a good job? How do we know how to improve what we are doing?
The Team
Team Work Plan
What are we on about? What do we need to do, when and why?
The Worker
Individual Work Plan
What am I on about? What do I need to do, when and why?
The Clients
Individual Service Plans / Case Management
What do I want to achieve? How can it happen?
A typical large organisation
In a large organisation there will be many plans, for example, a separate strategic plan, financial plan and operational plan. There will be project plans, team work plans, individual work plans. And if the organisation is a direct service provider there will be individual service plans or case management plans.
Very small organisations
A very small organisation many only require one plan which incporates the answers to all the questions above.
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