Management Consulting/Intl. Mktg

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Question
‘Cultural diversities across countries impact the marketing strategies of an international
        marketer’. Justify the statement by giving suitable examples.

Answer
Culture is the learned ways of group living and the group’s responses to various stimuli. It is also the total way of life and thinking patterns that are passed from generation to generation. It encompasses norms, values, customs, art, and beliefs. Culture is the patterns of behavior and thinking that people living in social groups learn, create, and share. Culture distinguishes one human group from others. A people's culture includes their beliefs, rules of behavior, language, rituals, art, technology, styles of dress, ways of producing and cooking food, religion, and political and economic systems. Anthropologists commonly use the term culture to refer to a society or group in which many or all people live and think in the same ways. Likewise, any group of people who share a common culture—and in particular, common rules of behavior and a basic form of social organization—constitutes a society. Thus, the terms culture and society are somewhat interchangeable
Culture is prescriptive. It prescribes that kinds of behavior considered acceptable in the society. The prescriptive characteristic of culture simplifies a consumer’s decision-making process by limiting product choices to those, which are socially acceptable. These same characteristics create problems for those products not in tune with the consumer’s cultural beliefs. Culture is socially shared. Culture cannot exist by itself. Members of a society must share it. Thus acting to reinforce culture’s perspective nature. Culture is learned. Culture is not inherited genetically; it must be learned and acquired. Socialization or enculturation occurs when a person absorbs or learns the culture in which he or she is raised. Culture facilitates communication. One useful function provided by culture is to facilitate communication. Culture usually imposes common habits of though and feeling among people. Thus, within a given group culture makes it easier for people to communicate with one another. But culture may also impede communication across groups because of a lack of shared common culture values. This one reason why a standardized advertisement may have difficulty communicating with consumers in foreign countries.
How marketing efforts interact with a culture determines the success or failure of a product. Advertising and promotion require special attention because the play a key role in communicating product concepts and benefits to the target segment.
EXAMPLE
McDonald's  beef  hamburger  is   famous   worldwide. It  was not  introduced  in  INDIA,
as  the  initial   market  research  by  McDonald  indicated  strong  culture  resentment
to  the  beef  products.
======================================================
Culture is cumulative. Culture is based on hundreds or even thousands of years of accumulated circumstances. Each generation adds something of its own of culture before passing the heritage on to the next generation. Therefore culture tends to be broader based over time, because new ideas are incorporated and become a part of the culture. Culture is dynamic. Culture is passed along from generation to generation, but one should not assume that culture is static and immune to change. Culture is constantly changing it adapts itself to new situations and new sources of knowledge.
International Marketing and buyer behavior: An understanding of buyer behavior is central to successful marketing. To develop effective marketing programs, the marketing manager must have knowledge of the needs and wants of potential buyers, how they arise, and how and where they are likely to be satisfied. Buyer behavior is affected by many factors. Class, education, age, and psychosocial traits are just four of the many factors useful in distinguishing different buyer groups. Researching the relationships that exist between the marketing-mix variables and buyer needs and response. From this effort have evolved many buyer behavior models, concepts, and techniques.
EXAMPLE
Campbell Soups lost $30 million in Europe before it accepted the idea that British and U.S. soup consumers were different in three important ways. First British soups consumers have different taste preferences. Campbell soups made no attempt to modify the taste of their soups for the British palate. Second, British soup consumers had not been educated to the condensed soup product concept. Because of the smaller can size. Third, British soup consumers did not respond the same way to U.S. advertisement as U.S. consumer did.
==========================================================
Various  factors  exist  in the  socio-cultural  systems  in  most
countries. They  keep  changing  too. The  organization
-if  it does nothing,and  it  will be  left standing still/ perhaps left  behind.
-if  it  uses  these  factors and  make  adaptable  policies, it  can expand.
-if  it  too cautious/does nothing,  it  could contract.

IT  IS  A  MATTER  FOR  THE  ORGANIZATION  HOW  IT
-IS  FLEXIBLE   TO  THE  SITUATIONS
-IS  ADAPTABLE  TO  THE  SITUATIONS
-STRATEGIES  AND  ITS    OPTIONS
-EXPLOITS  THE  OPPORTUNITIES.
ETC ETC
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
International  Marketing Strategy Development is the outcome of marketing mix elements.
Develop ''marketing strategies'' to change the marketing mix
to respond to changing SOCIO / CULTURAL   expectations.
=============================================================
1. Fashion trends

-changes in  lifestyle of  the population segment  could  affect the demand  for   products/services.

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  MEETING   THE  NEEDS.


P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]
========================================
customer expectation about NEW  FASHION

P1
1.ATTRACTING COMPETITORS' CUSTOMERS.

Sharper product differentiation.

Finding other products' uses.

Increasing promotional effort.
---------------------------------------
P2
2.INCREASING PRESENT CUSTOMERS' RATE OF USAGE.

Increasing the units of sales.

(Special price packages/cross selling products)

Reduction in price.

Price incentive for increased use.
-----------------------------------------------
P3
3.REDUCING NUMBER OF LOST CUSTOMERS.

Improving communication with present customers.

Promotion aiming at existing customers.

Understand reasons for losing customers.
---------------------------------------------------------

P4
4.   CONCENTRATING RESOURCES ON MOST PROFITABLE CUSTOMER SEGMENTS.

Concentrating on distribution channels reaching most profitable segments.

Offering total customer service at higher price.
========================================================================
2.Consumer values

-people  have  their  individual values  and  they associate it with organization/products/services,

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  MEETING   THE   CONSUMER  VALUES.


P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]
===================================================
customer expectation about NEW  VALUES

P1
1..Repositioning.
----------------------------------------
P2
2.ATTRACTING NON USERS.

Inducing trial use, BY EXPOITING PRICE POINTS.

Being flexible in pricing.
---------------------------------
P3
3.ATTRACTING OTHER MARKET SEGMENTS.

Seeking other distribution channels.

Advertising in other media.
-------------------------------------
P4
4.NEW GEOGRAPHICAL MARKETS.

National market expansion.

Regional market expansion.

Export market expansion.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.Changing attitudes of society

-society attitude  change with time/education/more information etc. Organization  must listen
and respond to these  attitudes. Otherwise  people could   protest  against the organization.

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  MEETING   THE  NEEDS  OF  SOCIETAL  MARKETING.

Develop ''marketing strategies'' to change the marketing mix
to respond to changing SOCIO / CULTURAL   expectations.

P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.Organised consumer groups and pressure groups

-organized consumer groups  and  pressure group  activists are  engaging  organizations
selling / promoting  fatty  foods etc.

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  POSITIONING   THE  COMPANY / PRODUCTS.

Develop ''marketing strategies'' to change the marketing mix
to respond to changing SOCIO / CULTURAL   expectations.

P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]

=========================================================
5. Population trends

-population  trends / the  changes  within  it  affect the  demand  for  products/services.
A  classical  example  is  the greying population , where  a  significant  proportion of
the  population   moves  into  the  bracket  of  +55 and  above.

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  MEETING   THE  CHANGING  / DEMANDS  NEEDS   OF   THE  GREY MARKET.

Develop ''marketing strategies'' to change the marketing mix
to respond to changing SOCIO / CULTURAL   expectations.

P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6. Average disposable incomes

-as the  average  disposable incomes  go  up, the  demand  for  products/services go
up, as  people  lift  their  lifestyle.

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  MANAGING  THE  MARKETING  MIX  EFFECTIVELY.

Develop ''marketing strategies'' to change the marketing mix
to respond to changing SOCIO / CULTURAL   expectations.

P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7. Changes affecting end use of products

-in the  same  manner, the  organization must  monitor the  new  end  use
applications of  products/services,

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  MEETING   THE  NEEDS  THROUGH  EFFECTIVE PRODUCT  DEVELOPMENT,
PLANNING  AND  PRODUCT  MARKETING.

Develop ''marketing strategies'' to change the marketing mix
to respond to changing SOCIO / CULTURAL   expectations.

P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.Demographic  factors

*Changes in the structure of the population (e.g. impact of declining birthrate and an ageing population)
-population  trends / the  changes  within  it  affect the  demand  for  products/services.

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  MANAGING   THE  MARKETING  MIX  EFFECTIVELY.

Develop ''marketing strategies'' to change the marketing mix
to respond to changing SOCIO / CULTURAL   expectations.

P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.Population drift to and between capital cities

-population  drift  also    affect the  demand  for  products/services.

MARKETING  MUST  RESPOND  TO   THESE  CHALLENGES / OPPORTUNITIES
BY  MANAGING   THE  MARKETING  MIX  EFFECTIVELY.

Develop ''marketing strategies'' to change the marketing mix
to respond to changing SOCIO / CULTURAL   expectations.

P1=PRODUCT
P2=PRICE
P3=PROMOTIONS
P4=PLACE [ SALES/DISTRIBUTION]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
=========================================================###########################

Management Consulting

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Leo Lingham

Expertise

management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc

Experience

18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc

PLUS

24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
human resource management, management training, business coaching,
counseling etc

Organizations
PRINCIPAL -- BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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