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Management Consulting/PRINCIPLES & PRACTICE OF MANAGEMENT

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Question
How will you influence people to strive willingly for group objectives in your organization (target based industry)? Apply your interpersonal influence through communication process towards attaining your specialized goals?

Answer
HERE  IS SOME  USEFUL  MATERIAL.
REGARDS
LEO LINGHAM
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THIS  EXERCISE  INVOLVES  FOUR  ELEMENTS.
1.SETTING  OBJECTIVES.
2.MANAGING  BY  INFLUENCE
3.MANAGING ''CHANGE''
4.MANAGING  BY  COMMUNICATION.
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1.SETTING  OBJECTIVES.
Stating Objectives
OBJECTIVES  are something that you will try to make happen in the future. Since that's a ways down the road it's good to get some check points along the route. Once your  OBJECTIVES  are approved, it's important to make a plan to reach them.

Taking one step at a time is best. Reaching each step shows you're making progress and can give you a feeling of success. This will help keep you going even though there may be problems.

Your plan works like a map and has specific statements (objectives). Objectives describe short term steps which must be reached along the route to your OBJECTIVES. Objectives tell who is responsible to do what by when and how it will be done.

It's also important to identify ways to find out if progress is being made on objectives. State things in a way that permit you to know when they've been accomplished.

Write down your   objectives, and the steps you plan to take to reach them. It doesn't have to be a big deal. It's been found that you are more likely to follow your plan if you have it written down. Also, it's important to check your plan with your superior so that you are sure it's okay. By doing this you also can get your superior's support in carrying out your objectives.

OBJECTIVES can be of great value in day to day efforts. If your goals are not clear you may get blamed or punished for not doing something you didn't know you were responsible for. You also might spend time on low priority tasks or work that you enjoy doing instead of things that are important to your superior and your organization.



The Role of Expectations

What you expect of your employees  and what your people expect of themselves has a great deal to do with how they perform. Low  OBJECTIVES  mean low expectations and low achievement. Low expectations result in individuals having lower expectations of themselves in their ability to reach  OBJECTIVES.

How hard someone will work to reach a goal depends on how important that goal is to them. It also depends on whether or not they believe they can achieve it. People have expectations of themselves. Others also have expectations for them. It's been proven that people rise or fall to the level set for them by people who are important to them.


To get the best from your employees  you need to expect the best. You must be reasonable and keep your expectations in line with their ability to produce. Since people are different, you will have to take the strengths and skills of each individual into account. Goals should be high enough to challenge the employee but not so high that they can't be reached. People should be encouraged to stretch, but only as far as they can be successful. Once challenging goals have been set your workers will need your support, help, encouragement, and coaching.

Goals and objectives should be worked out with the employee. Listen carefully to the individual's hopes andplans and, as much as you can, include these in the objectives. State what is expected clearly and specifically. Include signs of progress such as quantity and quality of output. These are called performance standards, certainly not a new idea. Make sure there is agreement on the goals, objectives, and standards. Everyone should be expecting the same things. Such understanding will encourage workers to go ahead comfortably.

People are more willing to have high expectations of themselves when they can take reasonable risks. They need to be fairly certain they will be successful and be assured that if they fail, after making a real effort, they won't be punished. Failing or making mistakes, while giving things a hard try, should be seen by all as learning experiences. The failure should not be seen by you, fellow workers, or the individual as affecting their value as a person or an employee, Having this attitude will encourage individuals to move ahead toward their objectives with confidence. They will take reasonable chances to stretch themselves and not worry about being punished or seen as unworthy.

Research shows that motivation is highest when the risk factor is about 80/20   when the chances of succeeding  are  high. Of course the amount of risk seen as reasonable depends on how secure and confident the individual is. The risk factor should be tailored to the individual. Some respond very well to such challenges. It gets their juices flowing. Others may be a bit timid about taking chances so they will be more cautious about setting high expectations for themselves.


SUMMING  UP.

Here are some actions you can take as a manager to make setting goals and objectives a successful experience.



1.Have  clear goals and objectives Yourself and share  them with your employees.


2.Plan jointly with your employees. Include their work related goals and expectations in the overall goals for the work group.

3.Check to see that work group goals fit with organizational purposes.

4.Make sure goals are worthwhile, measurable, and realistic.

5.Be certain that objectives state who, what, when,and how.

6.Make plans to move step by step toward the objectives. Watch for the blocks which may have to be faced and think about ways to get around them.

but reasonable, expectations.

8. Treat honest failures and mistakes as learning experiences. Make certain that the employees' self worth doesn't suffer.
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MANAGING BY INFLUENCE
Leadership is the total effect you have on the people and events around you. This effect is your influence. Effectiv leading is being consciously responsible for your
organisational influence.

AUTHORITY AND  INFLUENCE

Managers/Supervisors can accomplish results in one or two
ways: through

1. Authority -the right or power to command thought,
opinion or behaviour

or through

2.Influence  the power to produce results without the
direct use of force or command

SIX STEPS TO EXPANDING  YOUR INFLUENCE

Leadership is the total effect you have on the people and events
around you. This effect is your influence. Effective leading is
being consciously responsible for your organisational influence.
The steps to expanding your influence involve an understanding of
the separation between authority and influence, followed by an
examination of your present leadership impact.

Step 1: Compare Your Influence to Your Authority

To have the ability to manage by influence, you must distinguish
between the effect of your authority and the effect of your
influence. When you find that your influence is less than your
authority and responsiblity, you're in trouble. Your organisation
has escaped from your control.

This may explain the Peter Principle, which says you rise to your
level of incompetence. Because most managers advance on the basis
of their personal strength and technical abilities, they can manage
a small group by hands on management, and still reamin techncally
strong. Thier personal supervision is enough to keep the group
under control. As they succeed and get promoted, they reach a point
where they can't personally oversee all the work of the larger
group.

Now they need to rely on management skills. Yet, in many cases,
these business strengths have not been fully developed and there's
no time to stop and build them. So these managers forge ahead  
with their organizations slightly out of control.

These managers have authority and responsibility, but not enough
influence. Often, they just try to exert more authority. If you've
done this, you know it simply doesn't work beyond a certain point.
You become a juggler, throwing more balls into the air moment by
moment. But the time soon comes when you must can't handle any
more. Then it's t ime to begin managing by influence.

Step 2: Use Influence Without Authority

Let's take a closer look at authority and influence to find out
what really gets the job done. Managers are often uncertain about
how they get results. Having authority clouds the issue, yet some
might think that enough authority can get the job done regardless
of influence.

A good salesman assumes he has 100% influence as he meets with
a prospect. But suppose he doesn't make the sale. How much
influence did he have? You might say "none" or "not enough". When
he goes into the next prospect  of f ice, how much

influence does a good salesman assume he has? Again, 100 percent!
Why? Because, since he has no authority, he's forced to rely once
more on his influence. It wouldn't make any sense for him to assume
he has no influence. If he did that, he might as well stay home.

Managers, on the other hand, do have authority and often attempt to
manage using only their authority. In fact, some managers act as if
they have no influence, just authority. They go out and wield only
their authority. And if a little doesn't work, they try wielding
more.


Step 3: Recognise that your Influence can undermine your
authority

A company, call it Shoe World of Sydney, hired a new manager for
one store   thereby giving him authority to manage the store. Robyn
Williams, the firm's General Manager, found that every time the new
manager, Peter, had a problem, he would call her. She would solve
the problem, and he would carry out her solution perfectly. The
only catch: he wasn't solving problems without her.

Soon, Robyn realized whe had an extra drain on her   Peter and his
problems. She started to think she had made a mistake in hiring
Peter and considered replacing him. If he couldn't do the job she
had given him, he was no help to her. She was going to tell him
about her unhappiness, but after some thought, decided to try a
different tactic.

On Peter's next call about a problem, Robyn asked how he would solve
it. He advised an answer that she thought would work, and she told
him to go ahead with it. Robyn was delighted. The next time he
called, she did the same thing, and it worked again. After two more
weeks of this, Peter stopped calling on her to solve problems.

Robyn gained respect for Peter and several months later she asked
him why he was calling her so much at first. He told her, "On my
first day, you told me, 'Anytime you have a problem, call me.' I
did, and you seemed very happy to solve the problem. I called again
and you acted pleased about being directly involved, so I kept on
working with you that way. I thought that's what you wanted. I was
going to suggest that I make more decisions, but I wanted to wait a
few months till I felt more secure. Then you started to trust me,
and I didn't need to mention it to you."

Robyn Williams saw how careful she had to be about little things
she said that could influence people and cause trouble. She began
considering the possibility that everything she does has an impact.
She started finding little things to do to cause success.


Step 4: Enhance the Influence you Already have

You normally use 20% or less of your brain. To be smarter, you
don't need a brain transplant. You just need to use more of what
you have.

In the same manner. You just need to learn how to use more of what
you already have. You need to use more of your born leadership.

At first, realizing that you use so little of your influence may
sound like bad news, but there's good news in it also. If you can
increase the use of your influence from the present 20% up to 22%,
that's an increase of 2/20ths or 10%. Wouldn't it be wonderful to
increase your effectiveness by 10%? Especially if you're already
doing a good job.

Ten percent more influence would make a big difference for most
managers. It would provide an opportunity to achieve results that
they've given up on as impossible.

Step 5: Identify Leadership Opportunties

What are the implications of greater influence on your part? Let's
consider this by discussing different approaches to opening a
locked door. If a door were locked and you were told to open it,
but you had no key, how would you do it?

You might use a cannon and blow it open. If you did, you'd be able
to say, "I got the job done?" But there are some undesirable side
effects: ruined door, damaged ceiling, no more door jam, lots of
cleanup.

If, however, you had the key, would you choose the cannon? Of
course not! You only use harsh means when a lighter, gentler way
isn't available.

The same holds true for your leadership and influence. Sometimes
you're faced with job situations that seem to require a cannon
because you haven't found the key. But knowing the cost of the
cannon   employee turmoil and distrust, permanent scars and broken
relationships, possibly the resignation of an employee   you leave
the door closed and proceed, even though slightly handicapped by
the loss of the room beyond the door. You're satisfied that the
cost of the harsh, authoritative action would be greater than the
gain.

As you reclaim more of your influence, you'll discover more keys.
You'll be able to gently open doors that you felt were closed
forever. The key is influence.

Step 6: Confront Your Influence

When you use 20% of your brain, the 80% you are not using doesn't
affect you. Influence is different. You use 20% of your influence
consciously. But with influence, the 80% you are not consciously
using, you are unconsciously using!

When you are the boss, you are never without influence:

YOU CAN NEVER NOT LEAD

Everything you do, and everything you don'tdo, has an effect.

You lead by acts of commission, and you lead by acts of omission. You
are always leading and influencing.

Leadership is the total effect you have on the people and events
around you, regardless of your authority. In this light, leadership
is influence. It differs radically from hands on managment or
direct supervision.

You influence all of your people all the time. But this should come
as no great surprise. Managers need to be particularly aware of
this fact. Indeed, many things may occur at your company that you
would like to think happen inspite of you, not because of you.

So, even though you have 100% authority, not everything happens the
way you want it to. Does this mean there is a gap between your
authority and your influence? No and yes. No: you have 100%
influence, and you can never not lead, so a gap never appears. Yes:
you use only 20% of your influence consciously, so a gap does
separate your authority and the amount of conscious influence you
are exerting.

The sum of your influence   conscious and unconscious   totals
100%. It is so pervasive that you seldom stop to take account of
it. Perhaps you've been so busy seeing what you think are signs of
your lack of influence that you've lost sight of the proof of your
influence. To gain a new objectivity, it's time to think quietly
about your life as a leader.

You gain extraordinary power when you take conscious responsibility
for the fact that you are always Managing By Influence.



HOW TO USE LEVERAGE  WHEN MANAGING BY INFLUENCE

A lever is a total that helps you to gain the ability to move
a heavy load.

Managing by authority, with hands on and direct supervision,
provides this type of leverage. But you have to move your end
a long way to achieve a small movement at the other end.

Managing By Influence employs a more powerful type of
leverage. When you discover your full influence, you find out
how to accomplish big results through little movements on your
part, recognizing a power you didn't realize you had. You
learn how the little things you do, or don't do, create big
results, freeing you to get more done in less time. Grab the
short end of the stick and you'll get a lot of work done.

Managing By Influence incorporates three specific levers.

Lever (1) Leading to Change

Lever (2) Managing the Climate

Lever (3) Promoting Commitment

UNDERSTANDING THE  ESSENCE OF LEADERSHIP

The essence of leadership is knowing thatYOU CAN
NEVER NOT LEAD. You have 100% influence, all of the
time.You lead by acts of commission and by acts of omission.

All other information about leading takes second place to this.
Until you understand this, and understand your responsibility for
things as they are now and as they have been, you'll never lead with
your full potential. You can't get new control of your organization
until you recognize that it's always been in your control, even if
you were not aware of it. As we explain how to manage by influence,
we'll go into some details and techniques, but it will always come
back to this. If you learn nothing more than this, and come to grips
with it more deeply than you ever have before, you will become a
more effective manager.

USE YOUR INFLUENCE TO INCREASE YOUR IMPACT

Leaders are made, and they are made by effort and hard work. What
type of efort and hard work does it take to make you into a better
leader? It takes an objective look at yourself, perhaps the hardest
work there is in life, but also the most fruitful for growth. Then
it takes the effort to apply appropriate techniques and practice.

You need courage to look at yourself objectively, to see how well
you're accomplishing your mission. In the case of your leadership,
it means taking responsibility for everything that happens in your
organization.

As you find the links between yourself and your organization and
discover more influence than you thought you had, you can adjust
your attitudes and behaviour. While these changes may require
effort, most people find that the difficult part is in the
discovery.

THREE WAYS TO EXPAND YOUR INFLUENCE

Just as the best athletes use replays and coaches, you need to get
more objective about the way you lead your organisation,
determining how you're already leading   both the good and the bad.
Corrections may require less effort and hard work than the
evaluation. And some corrections begin without conscious thought,
once recognition is made. Here are three ways to expand your
influence.

1. Ask "The Question of Influence"

You can learn how to expand your influence by observing that
pragmatic group of workers, salespeople. A good salesperson assumes
he has 100% influence at the start of every sales interview. If he
misses a sale, he doesn't assume he had too little influence. He
asks himself, "What did I do, (or not do), to make that prospect
not buy?"

Always ask yourself the Question of Influence, "What did I do (or
not do) to make this happen (or not happen)?"

2. Take a Useful Point of View

Asking yourself the Question of Influence, even when you're
convinced you had no influence in the matter, brings you to the
second way to expand your influence: taking a usefial point of view.
Ask yourself the Question of Influence because
you know the truth: YOU CAN NEVER NOT LEAD. Even

if you don't recognize it at the moment, it's the truth. Discipline
yourself to take this point of view.

People take a point of view by habit. Whatever that point of view
is, it's not something they were born with   it's an outlook
acquired by habit.

After you've gained the habit of taking this responsible point of
view, you'll find how useful it is as a key to opening doors that
seemed locked. Even if you can't see how you could possibly have
influenced a matter, ask yourself, "What did I do (or not do) to
make this happen (or not happen)?"

It's useless to assume you had no influence. It means your
organisation is out of your control. It also means you're helpless
to make it work the way you want. Leadership is the total effect you
have on the people and events around you. You can become a more
effective leader by taking conscious responsibility for your
influence.

3. Use Those Around You As Your Mirror

Many times you will ask yourself The Question of Influence and
not know the answer. At these times, you can reach for the
third way to expand your influence: using the people around
you as your mirror. Ask  those involved or those who can
observe you objectively,"What did I do (or not do) to make
this happen (or not happen)?"

For example, if you've delegated a task and find it undone, you
might ask the person to whom you've delegated it, "Can you tell me
what I did, or didn't do, that caused you to not get the task done?
I'm not asking what you could have done better,

but what / could have done better." As you ask this, you'll be
leading others to imitate your sense of self responsibility by
looking to their own actions, not the actions of others, to
explain success or failure.

Don't pass up this opportunity to learn more about what you do
well. You can grow by realizing your unconscious strengths too, not
just your unconscious weaknesses. On a job well done, you might
acknowledge someone for his or her part in the success and then
ask, "What did I do, or not do, to make it easier for you to
achieve success?" Get all the feedback you can, just as the great
salesperson does.

SEVEN TIPS FOR BUILDING  YOUR INFLUENCE

1.Learn a lesson from Football Coaches and make every
action count.

2.Often ask yourself "Do I need to chancre?"

3.Don't limit yourself by your past.

4.Don't underestimate your leadership ability.

5.You can't delegate your res ponsibility.

6.Learn from accidents and increase your influence.

7.Monitor your influence.

NINE VARIATIONS ON THE QUESTION OF INFLUENCE

The Question of Influence is, What  did Ido (or notdo) to make this
happen (or not  happen)? While these particular words ask the question
precisely, you can use any words you prefer which convey the same
meaning. If you have difficulty in any given situation, consider
these variations.

1.Did I follow through when I used my authority or did I

look the other way, thereby giving a conflicting message?

2.If I were one of my people, how would I feel about me in

this situation? What did they want or need from me?

3.Was I active or passive in this situation? What effect

did my passivity have?

4.How did I really want it to turn out? Did I do whatever

was needed to make that happen? Did I act as if it was a
high priority to me?

5.Did my silence give consent or approval without my

recognizing it? Was that counterproductive?

6.What could I have done differently? What effect would

that have had?

7.Did that success happen by accident? How did I influence

it? What part did I play?

8.Did my actions speak louder than my words?
9.How would I have read my behaviour if I were one of my

people?
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MANAGING  BY CHANGE

SETTING  OBJECTIVES   AND  DRIVING FOR  RESULTS
IS  A  CHANGE .

How do you manage change?
The honest answer is that you manage it pretty much the same way you’d manage anything else of a turbulent, messy, chaotic nature, that is, you don’t really manage it, you grapple with it. It’s more a matter of leadership ability than management skill.
The first thing to do is jump in. You can’t do anything about it from the outside.
A clear sense of mission or purpose is essential. The simpler the mission statement the better. “Kick ass in the marketplace” is a whole lot more meaningful than “Respond to market needs with a range of products and services that have been carefully designed and developed to compare so favorably in our customers’ eyes with the products and services offered by our competitors that the majority of buying decisions will be made in our favor.”
Build a team. “Lone wolves” have their uses, but managing change isn’t one of them. On the other hand, the right kind of lone wolf makes an excellent temporary team leader.
Maintain a flat organizational team structure and rely on minimal and informal reporting requirements.
Pick people with relevant skills and high energy levels. You’ll need both.
Toss out the rulebook. Change, by definition, calls for a configured response, not adherence to prefigured routines.
Shift to an action-feedback model. Plan and act in short intervals. Do your analysis on the fly. No lengthy up-front studies, please. Remember the hare and the tortoise.
Set flexible priorities. You must have the ability to drop what you’re doing and tend to something more important.
Treat everything as a temporary measure. Don’t “lock in” until the last minute, and then insist on the right to change your mind.
Ask for volunteers. You’ll be surprised at who shows up. You’ll be pleasantly surprised by what they can do.
Find a good “straw boss” or team leader and stay out of his or her way.
Give the team members whatever they ask for — except authority. They’ll generally ask only for what they really need in the way of resources. If they start asking for authority, that’s a signal they’re headed toward some kind of power-based confrontation and that spells trouble. Nip it in the bud!
Concentrate dispersed knowledge. Start and maintain an issues logbook. Let anyone go anywhere and talk to anyone about anything. Keep the communications barriers low, widely spaced, and easily hurdled. Initially, if things look chaotic, relax — they are
Remember, the task of change management is to bring order to a messy situation, not pretend that it’s already well organized and disciplined.

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HOW  DO   YOU   INITIATE CHANGE

Often it is easier to carry out a job if there is a specific plan to follow. When major changes are to be installed, careful planning and preparation are necessary. Strengthening the forces promoting the change and weakening resistance to it are the main tasks.

CREATE A CLIMATE FOR CHANGE

How people react to proposed changes is greatly influenced by the kind of climate for change that the manager/supervisor has created in the department.

HOW IS THE RIGHT KIND OF CLIMATE CREATED?

Supervisors and managers who have enthusiasm for progress and change build a healthy climate.

Creating the right climate is more than just passing on changes. It involves:

Encouraging employees to seek ways of improving their jobs.

Seeking suggestions and ideas from employees.

This requires the manager/supervisor to listen and seriously consider suggestions. It is easy to see that there is a great deal of ego involvement in coming forth with an idea for improvement. Change can become an exciting and dynamic way of life. The manager/supervisor determines the climate in which they initiate change.

GET READY TO SELL

Much of the difficulty in getting co operation stems from the employees lack of understanding of how the change will affect them. With a little effort, managers/supervisors can find most of the answers to employees' questions before they are even asked. Answers to these questions would be useful.

What is the reason for the change? Whom will it benefit and how? Will it inconvenience anyone, if so, for how long? Will training or re training be necessary? When does it go into effect?

Armed with the answers to these questions a manager/supervisor can head off many objections and can develop a plan to present the change.

IDENTIFY THE SOURCES OF HELP

Why should you, the managers and supervisors, shoulder the burden alone? Staff can frequently be a great help in preparing to sell a change by explaining technical aspects and demonstrating new techniques.

One of the most overlooked sources of help in introducing changes are the informal leaders in the work group. With their help the job becomes easier. Giving recognition to informal leaders puts them in a co operative frame of mind.

Since union stewards are often informal leaders, their co operation ought to be solicited. The backing of union stewards makes the job easier.

ANTICIPATE OBJECTIONS

Change that upsets routines, requires new knowledge or skills, or inconveniences people are bound to meet with some objections or resistance. Looking at a change from the employees point of view will usually be enough to help determine what their objections are likely to be. Knowing the objections, we can, with a little creative thought, turn these objections into advantages.

Showing the staff with reason or logic will not do the job. Managers/supervisors have to convince people that the change is really best for them and that will not happen until their objections are dealt with seriously.

SELL BENEFITS

Everyone is concerned with, "What's in it for me?"

"Will the change mean more satisfying work. greater security. opportunity to show what I can do. more responsibility. more pay. less fatigue. less confusion. greater independence?"

The benefits used to motivate people to co operate should be put on as personal a level as possible. It would be dishonest, however, not to recognise any disadvantages that a change may bring. These can usually be countered with long range benefits.

One of the techniques that is helpful in identifying the characteristics and values of the proposed changed condition is a "Word Picture". The picture makes the new condition desirable in the minds of the staff.

A)One of the ways this concept of "word picture" is used, is the physical change in office layout or new equipment or any other physical changes.

B)To picture or model a change in policy, organization or operation is more difficult than the physical change. The principle is the same. The picture can help in communicating the desirability of the change and in fine tuning the change because it makes it possible to discuss how things will operate. It may take the form of a flow chart, an organization chart or a description of relationships.

To use this approach for deciding whether to initiate a change, you can take the following steps:

Describe as clearly as possible the present situation.

Describe as clearly as possible the desired situation.

Analyse what specific changes will have to take place in the key factors involved to produce the desired situation. Look at such key factors as bosses, employees, equipment, physical environment, policies and procedures, work methods, materials and time. Identify the relevant factors.

Assess the strengths of the forces promoting the desired situation and of those resisting it.

Determine what action to take. Choices are:

A)Do nothing, the resistant forces are stronger than the forces promoting change.

B)Act to strengthen the promoting forces and/or to weaken resistance, by concentrating one's efforts on the key factors.

LISTEN IN DEPTH

Employees have a right to be heard. If employees are treated with respect, they probably will respond in kind. They will feel better too, if they know their concerns have been considered.

FOLLOW UP

After having conscientiously sold the benefits of a change, it is tremendously important that the managers/supervisors see that their promises have materialized. A sincere interest in how the change has affected the employee and a willingness to make adjustments, help build the climate in which future changes will be initiated.

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CHANGES AND COMMUNICATION

The following steps will help you to minimize  resistance:

1.Explain why. Provide all the facts about the reason for changing. If there are risks, acknowledge them but explain why the risk is worth taking.

2.Objectively explain the benefits that could result from the change.

3.Seek questions/clarifications and answer them.

4.Invite participation and ask for suggestions because the people involved know the situation best.

5.Avoid surprise because this stirs unreasoning opposition more than any other factor.

6.Acknowledge the rough spots and explain how you plan to smooth the change.

7.Set standards and explain your expectations.

8.Contact the informal leaders and use their resources.

9.Acknowledge and reinforce the staff's co operation and give them feedback on the progress.

10.Keep the two way communications open for suggestions and corrections.
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MANAGE  BY  COMMUNICATION.

The importance of communication for a manager.
Various barriers to effective communication and how to overcome them to make communication more effective.

Communication is one of the basic functions of management in any organization and its importance can hardly be overemphasized. It is a process of transmitting information, ideas, thoughts, opinions and plans between various parts of an organization.
You cannot have human relations without communication. However, good and effective communication is required not only for good human relations but also for good and successful business.
You can use softwares like business writing software for writing effective business communication, which is required at various levels and for various aspects in an organization such as -
Importance of communication for manager and employee relations:

Effective communication of information and decision is an essential component for management-employee relations. The manager cannot get the work done from employees unless they are communicated effectively of what he wants to be done? He should also be sure of some basic facts such as how to communicate and what results can be expected from that communication. Most of management problems arise because of lack of effective communication. Chances of misunderstanding and misrepresentation can be minimized with proper communication system.
For motivation and employee morale:

Communication is also a basic tool for motivation, which can improve morale of the employees in an organization. Inappropriate or faulty communication among employees or between manager and his subordinates is the major cause of conflict and low morale at work. Manager should clarify to employees about what is to be done, how well are they doing and what can be done for better performance to improve their motivation. He can prepare a written statement, clearly outlining the relationship between company objectives and personal objectives and integrating the interest of the two.
For increase productivity:

With effective communication, you can maintain a good human relation in the organization and by encouraging ideas or suggestions from employees or workers and implementing them whenever possible, you can also increase production at low cost.
For employees:

It is through the communication that employees submit their work reports, comments, grievances and suggestions to their seniors or management. Organization should have effective and speedy communication policy and procedures to avoid delays, misunderstandings, confusion or distortions of facts and to establish harmony among all the concerned people and departments.
Importance of written communication:

Communication may be made through oral or written. In oral communication, listeners can make out what speakers is trying to say, but in written communication, text matter in the message is a reflection of your thinking. So, written communication or message should be clear, purposeful and concise with correct words, to avoid any misinterpretation of your message. Written communications provides a permanent record for future use and it also gives an opportunity to employees to put up their comments or suggestions in writing.
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Barriers to Effective Communication
There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the communication process. This can occur when people now each other very well and should understand the sources of error. In a work setting, it is even more common since interactions involve people who not only don't have years of experience with each other, but communication is complicated by the complex and often conflictual relationships that exist at work. In a work setting, the following suggests a number of sources of noise:
•   Language: The choice of words or language in which a sender encodes a message will influence the quality of communication. Because language is a symbolic representation of a phenomenon, room for interpreation and distortion of the meaning exists. In the above example, the Boss uses language (this is the third day you've missed) that is likely to convey far more than objective information. To Terry it conveys indifference to her medical problems. Note that the same words will be interpreted different by each different person. Meaning has to be given to words and many factors affect how an individual will attribute meaning to particular words. It is important to note that no two people will attribute the exact same meaning to the same words.
•   defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past
•   misreading of body language, tone and other non-verbal forms of communication (see section below)
•   noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)
•   receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues
•   power struggles
•   self-fulfilling assupmtions
•   language-different levels of meaning
•   managers hesitation to be candid
•   assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you
•   distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people
•   Perceptual Biases: People attend to stimuli in the environment in very different ways. We each have shortcuts that we use to organize data. Invariably, these shortcuts introduce some biases into communication. Some of these shortcuts include stereotyping, projection, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotyping is one of the most common. This is when we assume that the other person has certain characteristics based on the group to which they belong without validating that they in fact have these characteristics.
•   Interpersonal Relationships: How we perceive communication is affected by the past experience with the individual. Percpetion is also affected by the organizational relationship two people have. For example, communication from a superior may be perceived differently than that from a subordinate or peer
•   Cultural Differences: Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values, motives, aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given some dramatic differences across cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space, and privacy, the opportunities for mis-communication while we are in cross-cultural situations are plentiful.
===============================================
TO  OVERCOME   BARRIERS   AND   TO  BE EFFECTIVE  COMMUNICATION  IN  BUSINESS
Face-to-face meetings can result in awkward pauses and initial shyness for those who are not brimming with confidence. To help you over this hurdle, you can approach the meeting fully prepared and well armed if you have a look at the following factors.
In order to get your message across, think about what you are trying to achieve during the dialogue:
•   What information do you wish to convey?
•   What do you want the other person to do as a result?
Organise yourself beforehand. Jot down notes about your major points. Be positive and keep the message simple.
Clarity is Paramount for Effective Communication
What is communication? In short, it's signalling. The transmission, by speaking, writing or gestures, of information which evokes understanding.
That's simple enough, isn't it? Straightforward in theory but in practice it's fraught with dangers - particularly if you have high expectations from these important business connections.
Communication is not just speaking, writing or gesticulating. It's more than the transmission of information. Something else has to occur for the communication to be complete. The other party in the communication process has to engage their brain and receive the message.
There are some points to remember when considering the various methods of communication and some hazards to be aware of when dealing with business relationships:
•   Only 7% of the impact you make comes from the words you speak.
•   The rest is visual - your appearance, the sound of your voice and your body language.
•   You can break that 7% further down into sections:
•   the type of words you use
•   the sort of sentences you use
•   how you phrase them.
Voicing Your Thoughts
Pay attention to your voice. Tone, inflection, volume and pitch are all areas to consider. Most people don't need to develop their speaking voice, but there are many who do not understand how to use it effectively.
The simplest way is to compare the voice to a piece of music - it is the voice that is the instrument of
interpretation of the spoken word.
Those who have had some training in public speaking sometimes use mnemonics as memory joggers for optimum vocal effect. One simple example is R S V P P P:
•   Rhythm
•   Speed
•   Voice
•   Pitch
•   Pause
•   Projection.
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Key Techniques  FOR  OVERCOMING   BARRIERS  IN  COMMUNICATION
Focus the discussion on the information needed
Judy, I've noticed in the past month that you've fallen behind on keeping the project schedule current. I'd like to figure out with you what we both can do to get it back on track.

Use open-ended questions to expand the discussion
You've always kept the schedule up to the minute-until about a month ago. Why the change?

Use closed ended questions to prompt for specifics
"What projects are you working on that take time away from your work on this project (warning: closed ended questions are often disguised as open ended as in "Are you going to have trouble finishing this project?)

Encourage dialogue through eye contact and expression
This involves nodding in agreeemnt, smiling, leaning toward the speaker, making statements that acknowledge the speaker is being heard.
State your understanding of what you are hearing
This can be done by restating briefly what the other person is saying but don't make fun of it

"So it sounds like these phone calls have ended up taking a lot more time than you or Jay expected; you think the three of us should talk about priorities; is this your position?"

Summarize the key points;
try to get some agreement on the next steps and show appreciation for the effort made so far. "So let's call Jay right now and set up a time when we can meet and iron this out; keeping the schedule updated is a high priority and I'd like to get this settled by Wednesday.
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THE  BARRIERS  CAN  ALSO BE  OVERCOME  WITH
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Effective Feedback has most of the following characteristics:
•   descriptive (not evaluative)(avoids defensiveness.) By describing one's own reactions, it leaves the individual fee to use it or not to use it as he sees fit..
•   avoid accusations; present data if necessary
•   describe your own reactions or feelings; describe objective consequences that have or will occur; focus on behavior and your own reaction, not on other individual or his or her attributes
•   suggest more acceptable alternative; be prepared to discuss additional alternatives; focus on alternatives
•   specific rather than general.
•   focused on behavior not the person. It is important that we refer to what a person does rather than to what we think he is. Thus we might say that a person "talked more than anyone else in this meeting" rather than that he is a "loud-mouth."
•   It takes into account the needs of both the receiver and giver of feedback. It should be given to help, not to hurt. We too often give feedback because it makes us feel better or gives us a psychological advantage.
•   It is directed toward behavior which the receiver can do something about. A person gets frustrated when reminded of some shortcoming over which he has no control.
•   It is solicited rather than imposed. Feedback is most useful when the receiver himself has formulated the kind of question which those observing him can answer or when he actively seeks feedback.
•   Feedback is useful when well-timed (soon after the behavior-depending, of course, on the person's readiness to hear it, support available from others, and so forth). Excellent feedback presented at an inappropriate time may do more harm than good.
•   sharing of information, rather than giving advice allows a person to decide for himself, in accordance with his own goals and needs. When we give advice we tell him what to do, and to some degree take away his freedom to do decide for himself.
•   It involves the amount of information the receiver can use rather than the amount we would like to give. To overload a person with feedback is to reduce the possibility that he may be able to use what he receives effectively. When we give more than can be used, we are more often than not satisfying some need of our own rather than helping the other person.
•   It concerns what is said and done, or how, not why. The "why" involves assumptions regarding motive or intent and this tends to alienate the person generate resentment, suspicion, and distrust. If we are uncertain of his motives or intent, this uncertainty itself is feedback, however, and should be revealed.
•   It is checked to insure clear communication. One way of doing this is to have the receiver try to rephrase the feedback. No matter what the intent, feedback is often threatening and thus subject to considerable distortion or misinterpretation.
•   It is checked to determine degree of agreement from others. Such "consensual validation" is of value to both the sender and receiver.
•   It is followed by attention to the consequences of the feedback. The supervisor needs to become acutely aware of the effects of his feedback.
•   It is an important step toward authenticity. Constructive feedback opens the way to a relationship which is built on trust, honest, and genuine concern and mutual growth.
Part of the feedback process involves understanding and predicting how the other person will react. Or in the case of our receiving feedback, we need to understand ways that we respond to feedback, especially threatening feedback.
People often react negatively to threatening feedback. This reaction can take a number of forms including:
•   selective reception and selective perception
•   doubting motive of the giver
•   denying validity of the data
•   rationalizing
•   attack the giver of the data
Following the guidelines to effective feedback can go a long way to limit these kinds of reactions but we need to be conscious of them nonetheless and be ready to react appropriately.
When we are on the receiving end of feedback we should be careful to avoid these pitfalls. Try to keep these points in mind.
•   try not to be defensive
•   check on possible misunderstanding ("Let me restate what I am hearing")
•   gather information from other sources
•   don't overreact
•   ask for clarification
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THERE  ARE MANY  TOOLS  AVAILABLE  TO  IMPLEMENT
AND  ENABLE  THE  MANAGERS  TO COMMUNICATE  EFFECTIVELY.
======================================================
After action review
A process  that helps  teams to learn quickly from their successes and failures and share their learning with other teams. Involves conducting a structured and facilitated discussion after a task or project has been completed to review what should have happened, what actually happened and why it happened; this allows participants to learn how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses in subsequent tasks or projects.

Balanced scorecard
A business model developed by Kaplan and Norton as a tool to measure organisational performance against both short and long-term goals. The balanced scorecard is designed to focus managers' attention on those factors that most help the business strategy and so alongside financial measures, it adds measures for customers, internal processes and employee learning. Some organisations have used the balanced scorecard model in setting and measuring knowledge management strategies.

Benchmarking
The practice of comparing the performance of your organisation, department or function against the performance of 'the best' - whether they be other organisations, industry standards or internal departments. The aim is to look at how well you are doing compared to others in the same field or industry, and to learn from their best practices as a basis for improving your own.

Best practice (or: Good practice)
A process or methodology that has been proven to work well and produce good results, and is therefore recommended as a model. Some people prefer to use the term 'good practice' as in reality it is debateable whether there is a single 'best' approach.

Coaching
A one-to-one relationship that aims to bring about individual learning and performance improvement, usually focusing on achieving predefined objectives within a specific time period. The role of the coach is to create a supportive environment in which to challenge and develop the critical thinking skills, ideas and behaviours of the person being coached, so that they might reach their full potential.

Double-loop learning (or: Generative learning)
In contrast to singleloop learning , which involves using knowledge to solve specific problems based on existing assumptions and often based on what has worked in the past, double-loop learning goes a step further and questions existing assumptions in order to create new insights.

E-Learning
The use of electronic information systems (especially internet technologies) to deliver learning and training.

Extranet
A website that links an organisation with other specific organisations or people. Extranets are only accessible to those specified organisations or people and are protected via passwords.

Groupware
Computer software applications that are linked together by networks, and so allow people to work together and share electronic communications and documents

Information
Data that has been organised within a context and translated into a form that has structure and meaning. (Note: while most people have an idea about what information is, it is rather difficult to define in a meaningful way).

Intranet
A computer network that functions like the internet, but the information and web pages are located on computers within an organisation rather than being accessible to the general public.


Continuous --Learning organisation
An organisation that views its success in the future as being based on continuous learning and adaptive behaviour. It therefore becomes skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting and retaining knowledge and then modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights.

Mentoring
Mentoring is a one-to-one learning relationship in which a senior member of an organisation is assigned to support the development of a newer or more junior member by sharing his or her knowledge, experience and wisdom with them. Related term: Coaching (Note: While the strength of mentoring lies in transferring the mentor's specific knowledge and wisdom, in coaching it lies in the coach's ability to facilitate and develop the other's own personal qualities.)

Organisational learning
The ability of an organisation to gain knowledge from experience through experimentation, observation, analysis and a willingness to examine both successes and failures, and to then use that knowledge to do things differently. While organisational learning cannot happen without individual learning, individual learning does not necessarily produce organisational learning. Organisational learning occurs when an organisation becomes collectively more knowledgeable and skillful in pursuing a set of goals.Single-loop learning (or: Adaptive learning)


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Leadership is the total effect you have on the people and events around you. This effect is your influence. Effectiv leading is being consciously responsible for your
organisational influence.

AUTHORITY AND  INFLUENCE

Managers/Supervisors can accomplish results in one or two
ways: through

1. Authority -the right or power to command thought,
opinion or behaviour

or through

2.Influence  the power to produce results without the
direct use of force or command

Most of you trust your influence less than your authority.
Even though you know you have the right to tell people how to
behave on the job, you often lack the ability to elicit that
behaviour, and as a result, feel you have too little real
influence and control.

Managing by authority implies direct controlling and
maneuvering towards a desired result.

Managing by influence, on the other hand, means the ability to
produce results by indirect or intangible means   to sway.





SIX STEPS TO EXPANDING  YOUR INFLUENCE

Leadership is the total effect you have on the people and events
around you. This effect is your influence. Effective leading is
being consciously responsible for your organisational influence.
The steps to expanding your influence involve an understanding of
the separation between authority and influence, followed by an
examination of your present leadership impact.

Step 1: Compare Your Influence to Your Authority

To have the ability to manage by influence, you must distinguish
between the effect of your authority and the effect of your
influence. When you find that your influence is less than your
authority and responsiblity, you're in trouble. Your organisation
has escaped from your control.

This may explain the Peter Principle, which says you rise to your
level of incompetence. Because most managers advance on the basis
of their personal strength and technical abilities, they can manage
a small group by hands on management, and still reamin techncally
strong. Thier personal supervision is enough to keep the group
under control. As they succeed and get promoted, they reach a point
where they can't personally oversee all the work of the larger
group.

Now they need to rely on management skills. Yet, in many cases,
these business strengths have not been fully developed and there's
no time to stop and build them. So these managers forge ahead  
with their organizations slightly out of control.

These managers have authority and responsibility, but not enough
influence. Often, they just try to exert more authority. If you've
done this, you know it simply doesn't work beyond a certain point.
You become a juggler, throwing more balls into the air moment by
moment. But the time soon comes when you must can't handle any
more. Then it's t ime to begin managing by influence.


Self Check

Is your influence as great as your authority and responsibility? To find out, ask yourself these  questions.

Do / ever feel things are out of my control? Do / ever think. If / had my way, things would be different around here? Do / ever feel 1just can,t get people to do things the way IV like them to be done?

After all, since you have the authority, everything must be going
the way you want. Right? Probably not. Most managers say, "It's not
all going my way." So you see the gap between

your right to command behaviour and your ability to evoke behaviour.

Step 2: Use Influence Without Authority

Let's take a closer look at authority and influence to find out
what really gets the job done. Managers are often uncertain about
how they get results. Having authority clouds the issue, yet some
might think that enough authority can get the job done regardless
of influence.

Consider the salesperson. He or she produces results without any
authority. After all, how much authority does the salesman have
over his prospect? None   no right or power to command behaviour.
If he did have authority, he would just call prospects and command,
"Order 30 units of our Mode 1 136 JS!"

So the salesman walks into a prospect's office armed with nothing
more than influence. How much influence does a salesman have over
the prospect? A lot. In fact, if he's a good salesman,
he assumes he has 100% influence. What would you call
him if he assumed he had no influence? A clerk   a cashier.

A good salesman assumes he has 100% influence as he meets with
a prospect. But suppose he doesn't make the sale. How much
influence did he have? You might say "none" or "not enough". When
he goes into the next prospect I s of f ice, how much

influence does a good salesman assume he has? Again, 100 percent!
Why? Because, since he has no authority, he's forced to rely once
more on his influence. It wouldn't make any sense for him to assume
he has no influence. If he did that, he might as well stay home.

Managers, on the other hand, do have authority and often attempt to
manage using only their authority. In fact, some managers act as if
they have no influence, just authority. They go out and wield only
their authority. And if a little doesn't work, they try wielding
more.

Self Check

Do you sometimes act as if you had no influence, only authority? Ask yourself¬

Do / ever wonder why an employee hasn't done what / asked? I've already told the employee
three times to do it!

  If /get the sense that one of my people will not carry out an assignment the way / want it done,
do / everjust talk more loudly and firmly? Do / ever give assignments and thenjust let the
chips  fall where they may, while / sit back and hope for the best?

When you think you need to fall back on your authority to
accomplish something, remember: the salesperson performs his or her
entire task using influence alone.

Step 3: Recognise that your Influence can undermine your
authority

A company, call it Shoe World of Sydney, hired a new manager for
one store   thereby giving him authority to manage the store. Robyn
Williams, the firm's General Manager, found that every time the new
manager, Peter, had a problem, he would call her. She would solve
the problem, and he would carry out her solution perfectly. The
only catch: he wasn't solving problems without her.

Soon, Robyn realized whe had an extra drain on her   Peter and his
problems. She started to think she had made a mistake in hiring
Peter and considered replacing him. If he couldn't do the job she
had given him, he was no help to her. She was going to tell him
about her unhappiness, but after some thought, decided to try a
different tactic.

On Peter's next call about a problem, Robyn asked how he would solve
it. He advised an answer that she thought would work, and she told
him to go ahead with it. Robyn was delighted. The next time he
called, she did the same thing, and it worked again. After two more
weeks of this, Peter stopped calling on her to solve problems.

Robyn gained respect for Peter and several months later she asked
him why he was calling her so much at first. He told her, "On my
first day, you told me, 'Anytime you have a problem, call me.' I
did, and you seemed very happy to solve the problem. I called again
and you acted pleased about being directly involved, so I kept on
working with you that way. I thought that's what you wanted. I was
going to suggest that I make more decisions, but I wanted to wait a
few months till I felt more secure. Then you started to trust me,
and I didn't need to mention it to you."

Robyn Williams saw how careful she had to be about little things
she said that could influence people and cause trouble. She began
considering the possibility that everything she does has an impact.
She started finding little things to do to cause success.

Step 4: Enhance the Influence you Already have

You normally use 20% or less of your brain. To be smarter, you
don't need a brain transplant. You just need to use more of what
you have.

In the same manner. You just need to learn how to use more of what
you already have. You need to use more of your born leadership.

At first, realizing that you use so little of your influence may
sound like bad news, but there's good news in it also. If you can
increase the use of your influence from the present 20% up to 22%,
that's an increase of 2/20ths or 10%. Wouldn't it be wonderful to
increase your effectiveness by 10%? Especially if you're already
doing a good job.

Ten percent more influence would make a big difference for most
managers. It would provide an opportunity to achieve results that
they've given up on as impossible.

Step 5: Identify Leadership Opportunties

What are the implications of greater influence on your part? Let's
consider this by discussing different approaches to opening a
locked door. If a door were locked and you were told to open it,
but you had no key, how would you do it?

You might use a cannon and blow it open. If you did, you'd be able
to say, "I got the job done?" But there are some undesirable side
effects: ruined door, damaged ceiling, no more door jam, lots of
cleanup.

If, however, you had the key, would you choose the cannon? Of
course not! You only use harsh means when a lighter, gentler way
isn't available.

The same holds true for your leadership and influence. Sometimes
you're faced with job situations that seem to require a cannon
because you haven't found the key. But knowing the cost of the
cannon   employee turmoil and distrust, permanent scars and broken
relationships, possibly the resignation of an employee   you leave
the door closed and proceed, even though slightly handicapped by
the loss of the room beyond the door. You're satisfied that the
cost of the harsh, authoritative action would be greater than the
gain.

As you reclaim more of your influence, you'll discover more keys.
You'll be able to gently open doors that you felt were closed
forever. The key is influence.

Step 6: Confront Your Influence

When you use 20% of your brain, the 80% you are not using doesn't
affect you. Influence is different. You use 20% of your influence
consciously. But with influence, the 80% you are not consciously
using, you are unconsciously using!

When you are the boss, you are never without influence:

YOU CAN NEVER NOT LEAD

Everything you do, and everything you don'tdo, has an effect.

You lead by acts of commission, and you lead by acts of omission. You
are always leading and influencing.

Leadership is the total effect you have on the people and events
around you, regardless of your authority. In this light, leadership
is influence. It differs radically from hands on managment or
direct supervision.

You influence all of your people all the time. But this should come
as no great surprise. Managers need to be particularly aware of
this fact. Indeed, many things may occur at your company that you
would like to think happen in

spite of you, not because of you.

So, even though you have 100% authority, not everything happens the
way you want it to. Does this mean there is a gap between your
authority and your influence? No and yes. No: you have 100%
influence, and you can never not lead, so a gap never appears. Yes:
you use only 20% of your influence consciously, so a gap does
separate your authority and the amount of conscious influence you
are exerting.

The sum of your influence   conscious and unconscious   totals
100%. It is so pervasive that you seldom stop to take account of
it. Perhaps you've been so busy seeing what you think are signs of
your lack of influence that you've lost sight of the proof of your
influence. To gain a new objectivity, it's time to think quietly
about your life as a leader.

You gain extraordinary power when you take conscious responsibility
for the fact that you are always Managing By Influence.

  Self Check

Take a moment to look at your own situation. Ask yourself¬

After Ive delegated authority, do / often feel that I've lost control over the work? While /
understand in principle that the small things / do may have a big effect, am / uncertain how
this works in specific cases? ff a situation can"t be resolved without heavy use of authorily~
do / everjust let it go and tolerate it?

  WHEN YOU ARE IN
CONTROL

People usually perceive Harry Truman's famous quote, "The buck
stops here," as more of a burden than a blessing. You can
think of it as bad news: "No matter what happens, I get the
final responsibility, even if it was out of my control." In
reality, that "bad news" can lead to "good news".

You really are 100% influentia

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management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc

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18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc

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24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
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