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Question
1.   What is alienation? Explain the Sociological and Psychological approach to alienation. Discuss how alienation can be dealt with an example.

2.   Describe how stress can be managed and identify the strategies to cope with stress and burn out. Illustrate with reference to an organisation as to what strategies they use to deal with stress.

3.   Discuss the importance of delegation and the forces which influence delegation. Describe how delegation improved the effectiveness of an organisation with an example.

4.   Describe the importance of ethics in present day environment of organisations. Discuss how organisations can promote ethical behavior. Illustrate.

5.   Discuss and describe various dimensions of Diversity and the approaches to deal with Diversity.

Answer

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PLEASE  FORWARD  THESE  BALANCE  QUESTIONS  TO  MY  EMAIL  ID   
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LEO  LINGHAM
==========================================









1] What is alienation? Explain the Sociological and Psychological approach to alienation. Discuss how alienation can be dealt with an example.
The issue of employee alienation can refer to several different issues: alienation from the company as well as alienation from society as a whole. Companies and the way they are structured have an effect on both of these factors, and the corporate culture which permeates an organization can determine whether its employees enjoy a high level of morale, or whether they feel alienated from their surroundings and their employer.
Where employees only communicate with their managers when there is a problem, can create feelings of alienation because the employee's only contact with the manager is when there are negative circumstances involved.
- Managers who take the time to let employees know when they are doing a good job not only build a better personal relationship with the employee, but also build a situation where the employee feels valued by the organization. Again, this managerial approach requires active participation by the company as a whole, beginning with the upper echelons of management.
-Company structure itself (the organizational structure) can also be a factor in whether employees feel that they are part of the organization, or whether they feel alienated. Companies which have hierarchical organizations with many layers of management are likely to have artificial "walls" between workers. Companies which are structured in a more vertical manner, meaning that they have fewer layers of management, are more likely to have employees who feel that they are an important part of the organization and who are not alienated from the company. It is important for companies to develop cultures and organizations which foster employee
participation.

THERE  ARE  TWO  MAJOR  ALIENATION  FACTORS.
1.INDIVIDUAL  PERSONAL  FACTORS.
-personality
-values
-belief
-job satisfaction
-supervisor  impact
-ethics
-lack of  mentoring
etc  
2.ORGANIZATIONAL  FACTORS.
The relationship between two types of alienation--alienation from work and alienation from expressive relations--and
- two structural properties of organizations--centralization and formalization . Both alienation from work and alienation from expressive relations are found to be more prominent in highly centralized and highly formalized organizations
===================================================
ORGANIZATION   FACTORS  INFLUENCING  INDIVIDUAL  ALIENATION.

Hierarchy of Authority
1 Even small matters have to be referred to some one higher up for a final answer.
2 I have to check with the boss before I do almost anything.
3 A person who wants to make his own decisions would quickly become discouraged .
4 Everyone here has one superior to whom he regularly reports.
5 There can be little action until a MANAGER approves a decision.
6 Staff members  always get their orders from higher up.
7 I get approval for decision I make.
8 Only  MANAGERS  can decide how things are to be done.
9 Employees are expected to follow written orders without questioning them.
10 As if going through the proper channels is more important than doing our jobs right.
11 Whenever we have a problem, we are supposed to go to the same person for an answer.
12 Going through the proper channels is constantly stressed.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of  involvement,
-lack  of  empowerment
-lack  of responsibility
-lack  of   accountability
-no  role  in  decision  making
-limited  options]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Division of Labor

13 We are expected to do  all  types  of work.
14 Employment  involves a variety of tasks and responsibilities from day to day .
15 We do a lot of paper work, which could be done by  others.
16 We  do  not receive   adequate  training.
17 Assignment of  duties is made without regard for the  individual's experience or training
18 There is an overlap in the job responsibilities .
19 There is really no systematic procedure for promotion.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of   effective  delegation,
-lack  of   training
-lack  of  proper job  descriptions
-lack  of   effective  systems/ procedures
-limited  options]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Rules and Regulations

20 Smoking is permitted only in certain designated places.
21 People here make their own rules on the job .
22 Staff    cannot  take  leave  unless they have permission.
23 Staff members feel as though they are constantly being watched to see that they obey all the
rules.
24 Rules govern the style and type of clothing, which I wear to the  workplace.
25 I follow rules stating when I am to arrive and/or depart from the workplace.
26 I obey a lot of rules regarding my personal behavior in and around the workplace.
27 I follow workplace rules, which regulate my attendance.
28  Employees  are aware of rules regarding their behavior in and around the school.
29 We are to follow strict operating procedures at all times.
30 Employees follow clearly specified procedures for doing the job here.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ -some  staff  dislike  strict  rules/ regulations.
-some  staff hate  strict   supervision.
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Procedural Specifications

31 Standard procedures are to be followed in almost all situations.
32 The organization stresses following the established procedures.
33 Whatever situation arises, we have procedures to follow in dealing with most matters.
34 The same procedure is used in different situations.
35 There is only one way to do the job- the boss's way.
36 The same procedures are to be followed in most situations.
37  Standardized  workplace methods and procedures are used by all staff-members.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ some  staff   dislike  strict  procedures.
-some  staff  dislike  standardized  methods/  procedures.  
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Formality in Relations

38 The management  here sticks pretty much to themselves.
39 No one here calls his superior by his first name.
40 The relationship in this organization is really very impersonal.
41 People who have been  warned,   are instructed in roper procedures for talking with
them.
42 The  management  does not like staff get-togethers if it is not for official matters.
43  My relations with other staff  are formal and impersonal.
44 Staff meetings proceed in a formal manner.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of   informality,
-lack  of   flexibility
-lack  of  understanding  of  others]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Promotions Based on Technical Competence

45 People are not promoted simply because they have "pull."
46 Promotions are based on merit in this organization.
47 (People here are given raises according to how well they are liked rather than how well they do
their job .
48 There is little chance for promotion unless you are "in" with the boss .
49 In order to get a promotion, you have to "know somebody" .
50 Past   experience plays a large part in the assignment to this organization.
51If you do not support  management, how well you do your job is not important .
52 The functions  are highly  departmentalized.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of    credit  to  merit,
-lack  of   transparency
-lack  of  credit  to  talent
-lack  of   recognition ]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
LACK  OF  Friendly Climate

53 A person gets  no chance to develop good friends here.
54 A very friendly atmosphere is not evident to everyone who works here.
55 The management  never   sponsoring employee get-togethers.
THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of   friendliness,
-lack  of   management  support
-lack  of  warmth  in  the  working  climate
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
SENSE OF POWER SCALE


1. I do things at this  workplace  that I would not do if it were up to me.
2. When things get rough in my workplace l, I just have to take it the way it is .
3.  managers  are not open to my ideas on workplace  matters.
4. I have not  been given enough authority to do my job well.
5.There are lots of things I can't do although I know they are right .
6.If only I could do my job more independently .
7. I am not given chance to contribute to important decisions made about the workplace.
8. I have little to say over what  will work with me on my job .
9. If I really want, I cannot  force the changes in rules.
10.I feel that I do not know what is going on in the upper levels of administration .

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of  involvement,
-lack  of  empowerment
-lack  of responsibility
-lack  of   accountability
-no  role  in  decision  making
-limited  options]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
HOW  CAN  WE  REDUCE  OR  REMOVE  ALIENATION  
AT  THE  WORKPLACE.
-by  reviewing  organizational structure (size, formalization, centralization),
-by  removing  job-related tensions,
-by  improving leadership,
-by  working  on  supervisory behavior,
-by improving  morale  by   lifting  thru  motivation  program
-by creating    job satisfaction,
-by  supporting  change / innovation,
-by improving  work  climate,
-by  improving  employee communication,
-by  introducing  conflict management  resolutions,
-by  changing   work- culture,
-by  introducing  systems  for  decision making / problem solving,
-by  introducing   work  ethics,
-by  creating  an   atmosphere  for  honesty / trust,
-by  improving  interpersonal relations  thru  programs,
-by  providing  for  job commitment,
-by  givivng  importance  to   job involvement,
-by creating  a climate  for  job satisfaction,
-by  providing  support  for   mentoring,
-by conducting   organizational assessment / effectiveness  program,
-by  reviewing   power / authority / control,
-by  providing autonomy,
-by  respecting  self  esteem.
-by  introducing   performance  management  sustem  ,
which  include generalized work activity, work context: taxonomy and measurement of the work environment, organizational context, abilities, occupational interests and values, work styles, occupation-specific descriptors, occupational descriptor covariates, cross-domain analysis, occupational classification: using skills and generalized work activity to create job families.
-by  organizational   audit   which  includes  
measures of organizational communication, including communication satisfaction, organizational communications scales and audits, conflict management, team building, group communication, mentoring, communication competence, communication load, communication style, leadership, and organizational commitment. Also includes measures of instructional communication, interpersonal communication and mass communication.
-introduction to organizational assessment, a process for assessing organizations, methodology in constructing and evaluating OAI (organizational assessment instruments), overall organizational context and structure, the context and design of organizational units, the context and design of jobs, external unit relationships, the inter-organizational field, the revised organizational assessment framework and instruments, glossary for the revised organization assessment instruments, OAI unit supervisor questionnaire, OAI unit member questionnaire, OAI focal unit questionnaire, OAI other unit questionnaire, computing structural indices of inter-unit networks.
-INTRODUCING   DEMOCRATIC  CULTURE  AT  THE  WORKPLACE.
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2] Describe how stress can be managed and identify the strategies to cope with stress and burn out. Illustrate with reference to an organisation as to what strategies they use to deal with stress.
Work-related stress is the response people may have when
presented with work demands and pressures that are not
matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge
their ability to cope.

Stress occurs in a wide range  of work  circumstances but is
often made worse when  employees feel they
have little support from supervisors and
colleagues and where they have little control
over work or how they can cope with its
demands and pressures.

There is often confusion between pressure or challenge and stress and
sometimes it is used to excuse bad management practice.
Pressure at the workplace is unavoidable due to the demands of the
contemporary work environment. Pressure perceived as acceptable by
an individual, may even keep workers alert, motivated, able to work
and learn, depending on the available resources and personal
characteristics. However, when that pressure becomes excessive or
otherwise unmanageable it leads to stress. Stress can damage your
workers’ health and your business performance.

Stress results from a mismatch between the demands and pressures on
the person, on the one hand, and their knowledge and abilities, on the
other. It challenges their ability to cope with work. This includes not only
situations where the pressures of work exceed the worker’s ability to cope
but also where the worker’s knowledge and abilities are not sufficiently
utilised and that is a problem for them.

A healthy job is likely to be one where the pressures on employees are
appropriate in relation to their abilities and resources, to the amount of
control they have over their work, and to the support they receive from
people who matter to them. As health is not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity but a positive state of complete physical, mental and social
well-being , a healthy working environment is one in which
there is not only an absence of harmful conditions but an abundance of
health promoting ones.

These may include continuous assessment of risks to health, the
provision of appropriate information and training on health issues and
the availability of health promoting organisational support practices
and structures. A healthy work environment is one in which staff have
made health and health promotion a priority and part of their working
lives.

Poor work organisation, that is the way we design jobs and work
systems, and the way we manage them, can cause work stress.
Excessive and otherwise unmanageable demands and pressures can be
caused by poor work design, poor management and unsatisfactory working
conditions. Similarly, these things can result in workers not receiving
sufficient support from others or not having enough control over their work
and its pressures.

Research findings show that the most stressful type of work is that which
values excessive demands and pressures that are not matched to workers’
knowledge and abilities, where there is little opportunity to exercise any
choice or control, and where there is little support from others.
The more the demands and pressures of work are matched to the knowledge
and abilities of workers, the less likely they are to experience work stress.
The more support workers receive from others at work, or in relation to
work, the less likely they are to experience work stress.
The more control workers have over their work and the way they do it and
the more they participate in decisions that concern their jobs, the less likely
they are to experience work stress.

Most of the causes of work stress concern the way work is designed and the
way in which organisations are managed. Because these aspects of work

What causes work stress?

$ have the potential for causing  harm, they are called ‘stress-
related hazards’.
The literature on stress generally recognises nine categories of
stress-related hazards and these are listed   BELOW.
One should keep in mind, though, that some of these
hazards may not be universal or may not be considered
harmful in specific cultures.
1.Stress-related Hazards
2.Work Content:
3.Job Content
• Monotonous, under-stimulating, meaningless tasks
• Lack of variety
• Unpleasant tasks
• Aversive tasks
4.Workload and Work pace
• Having too much or too little to do
• Working under time pressures
5.Working Hours
• Strict and inflexible working schedules
• Long and unsocial hours
• Unpredictable working hours
• Badly designed shift systems
6.Participation and Control
• Lack of participation in decision making
• Lack of control (for example, over work methods,
work pace, working hours and the work
environment)

% Work Context:
7.Career Development, Status and Pay
• Job insecurity
• Lack of promotion prospects
• Under-promotion or over-promotion
• Work of ‘low social value’
• Piece rate payments schemes
• Unclear or unfair performance evaluation systems
• Being over-skilled or under-skilled for the job
8.Role in the Organisation
• Unclear role
• Conflicting roles within the same job
• Responsibility for people
• Continuously dealing with other people and their
problems
9.Interpersonal Relationships
• Inadequate, inconsiderate or unsupportive
supervision
• Poor relationships with co-workers
• Bullying, harassment and violence
• Isolated or solitary work
• No agreed procedures for dealing with problems
or complaints
10.Organisational Culture
• Poor communication
• Poor leadership
• Lack of clarity about organisational objectives and
structure
11.Home-Work Interface
• Conflicting demands of work and home
• Lack of support for domestic problems at work
• Lack of support for work problems at home
&
4.1 The effects of work stress on individuals
Stress affects different  people in different ways.
The experience of work stress can cause unusual and dysfunctional
behaviour at work and contribute to poor physical and mental
health. In extreme cases, long-term stress or traumatic events at work
may lead to psychological problems and be conductive to
psychiatric disorders resulting in absence from work and preventing
the worker from being able to work again.
When under stress, people find it difficult to maintain a healthy
balance between work and non- work life. At the same time, they
may engage in unhealthy

The effects of work  stress
When affected by work stress people may:
• become increasingly distressed  and irritable
• become unable to relax or  concentrate
• have difficulty thinking logically  and making decisions
• enjoy their work less and feel less  committed to it
• feel tired, depressed, anxious
• have difficulty sleeping
• experience serious physical problems, such as:
- heart disease,
- disorders of the digestive system,
- increases in blood pressure, headaches,
- musculo-skeletal disorders (such as low back pain and upper limb
disorders)

' activities, such as smoking drinking and
abusing drugs.

Stress may also affect the immune system, impairing people’s ability to
fight infections.
Work stress is thought to affect organisations by:
• increasing absenteeism
• decreasing commitment to work
• increasing staff turn-over
• impairing performance and  productivity
• increasing unsafe working practices
and accident rates
• increasing complaints from clients and customers
• adversely affecting staff recruitment
• increasing liability to legal claims and
actions by stressed workers
• damaging the organisation’s image
both among its workers and externally
4.2 The effects of work  stress on organisations
If key staff or a large number of workers are affected,
work stress may challenge the healthiness and performance
of their organisation.
Unhealthy organisations do not get the best from their workers
and this may affect not only their performance in the increasingly
competitive market but eventually even their survival.
==================
The organisation I am  referring to

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*marketing
*manufacturing
*sales
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*distribution
*warehousing/  transportation
*TQM  

Assessing risks at work
The experience of work stress is a challenge to the health and safety
of workers and to the healthiness of their organisations. Employers
should have a policy for the management of worker health that
makes reference to work stress. They should enable that policy to be
implemented by putting the appropriate arrangements in place. Such
arrangements should address the issues of risk assessment, timely reaction
and rehabilitation. Organisational level strategies for managing existing
work stress focus on combating the risks at source.
Work stress can be effectively managed by applying a risk management
approach as is successfully done with other major health and safety
problems. A risk management approach assesses the possible risks in
the work environment that may cause particular existing hazards to
cause harm to employees. A hazard is an event or situation that has
the potential for causing harm. Harm refers to physical or psychological
deterioration of health. The causes of stress are hazards related to the
design and management of work and working conditions, and such
hazards can be managed and their effects controlled in the same way
as other hazards.


Risk assessment:
what  THIS  ORGANIZATION  DOES  about it

Assessing the risks of work-related stress involves answering the following
basic questions:
• Is there a problem? Could work stress be affecting your workers’ health?
• How can the stress problem be solved?
• Is the whole system being monitored?
The aim of these questions is to identify work practices or circumstances
that may cause significant imbalances of demand and resources. In the
case of stress it is the associations of these imbalances with signs of stress in
individual employees and work groups that indicate their significance. Once
identified and assessed, steps may be taken to reduce work stress at the
group level.
It is not generally advisable to ask employees leading questions such as
‘are you stressed?’. Rather, you should explore the existing risks to your
employees’ health and then decide on the best approach for your own
work group. Your choice of action and your reasons for the chosen approach
should be recorded.
Approaches to exploring existing risks:
• You should ask employees directly about their work problems and
whether or not they feel their health may be adversely affected by
their work
• You could ask employees to describe the three ‘best’ and the three
‘worst’ aspects of their job, and to say whether they thought any of
those aspects of work place them under too much pressure
• Employees could be asked a set of more detailed questions, based
on the list given in the section on causes of stress , asking
them whether any of those possible problems apply to their own jobs
• Questions that are tailor-made to specific working contexts are likely
to be more useful in designing further actions than any ‘off-the-shelf’
package
• Sickness absence, staff turnover, performance levels, accidents and
mistakes should be regularly monitored and checked for excesses,
changes and patterns
All these sources of information can alert you to potential problems where
there is an identified imbalance of pressures and resources. They can alert
you to ‘at risk’ work and work groups where an imbalance is associated
with signs of stress.
The best way of finding out if your employees have problems at work and
why, is simply to ask them.
The person who is expert in the job is usually the person doing it. Very
often managers may have quite different views from employees about
what causes problems. Always ask employees for their views.

Essential steps, THE  ORGANIZATION  TAKES  in risk management
Risk management is essentially a problem solving approach to health and
safety problems and provides a vehicle for the continuous improvement
of work and working conditions and thus the health of workers and the
healthiness of their organisations.
Risk management proceeds through a cycle of five actions:
[1] an analysis of the situation and an assessment of risk,
[2] the design of an action plan to reduce the risk of work stress
[3] the implementation of that action plan and
[4] its evaluation, and
[5] learning and further action based on the results of that evaluation


The basic steps in stress risk management are presented BELOW.

Basic Steps in Stress Risk Management
**Think about the different work groups or workplaces that make up
your organisation. Ask yourself which are likely to be the most stressed
or stressful.
**What evidence have you got for this? (e.g. high absence rates, poor
health records, high accident rates, poor morale, worker or trades
union complaints, poor productivity etc.).
**Investigate the way in which the work of these groups or workplaces
is designed and managed, and examine their working conditions.
**Identify, collect and discuss the evidence that is available to you.
Work in a team with others who understand the work groups and
The Risk Management Cycle
Design  Action Plan  to reduce Risk
Assessment of Risk Learning and  further Action
Evaluation of Action Plan
Implementation of Action Plan

" workplaces. Consult the workers and trade unions possibly through
group discussions.
**Identify the main problems and their effects.
**Discuss this information with the responsible managers and other
relevant people, such as Occupational Health specialists, and with
the trade unions.
**Develop an action plan that is appropriate, reasonable and practical.
**Discuss how this plan might be implemented and made to work.
Inform the workers of the plan and how it will be implemented.
**Before its implementation, determine how this plan might best be
evaluated.
**Implement and evaluate the action plan.
**Discuss the results of the evaluation. What can be learned from the
successes and failures of the action plan? What can be done now?
**Revise action plan and implement a new one to target unaccounted
risks.


There are a number of ways by which the risk of work stress can be
reduced. These include:
ü primary prevention, reducing stress through:
*ergonomics,
*work and environmental design,
*organisational and management development,

ü secondary prevention, reducing stress through:
l worker education and training, and

ü tertiary prevention, reducing the impact of stress by:
l developing more sensitive and responsive management
systems and enhanced occupational health provision.

The organisation itself is a generator of different types of risk. Tertiary
prevention in organisations places an emphasis on the provision
of responsive and efficient occupational health services. Contemporary
work stress management should, therefore, encompass tertiary
prevention.
A good employer designs and manages work in a way that avoids
common risk factors for stress and prevents as much as possible
foreseeable problems.

The prevention of work stress

$ Well-designed work should include:
-Clear organisational structure
-Employees should be provided and practices
with clear information about the structure, purpose and practices
of the organisation.
-Appropriate selection, training and Each employee’s skills, knowledge
staff development and abilities should be matched
as much as possible to the needs of each job.
-Candidates for each job should be assessed against that job’s
requirements.
-Where necessary, suitable training should be provided.
-Effective supervision and guidance is important and can
help protect staff from stress.
-Job descriptions A job description will depend on
an understanding of the policy, objectives and strategy of the
organisation, on the purpose and organisation of work and on the
way performance will be measured.
Job descriptions have to be clear.
It is important that an employee’s manager and other key staff are
aware of the relevant details of the job and make sure that demands
are appropriate.

% The better employees understand their job, the more they will be
able to direct the appropriate efforts towards doing it well.

Communication
Managers should talk to their staff, listen to them and make it clear
that they have been heard.
Communication of work
expectations should be comprehensible, consistent with
the job description and complete.
Commitments made to staff  should be clear and kept.
Social environment
A reasonable level of socialising  and teamwork is often productive
as it can help increase commitment to work and to the
work group.
In an existing workplace it may be far from reasonable to expect all these
factors to be present or introduced where they are absent. It might therefore
be better to identify any mismatch between demands and pressures, on
the one hand, and workers knowledge and abilities, on the other, set
priorities for change and manage the change towards risk reduction.

There are various strategies to solve work stress problems.

Work Redesign
The best strategies for work redesign focus on demands, knowledge
and abilities, support and control and include:
• Changing the demands of work (e.g. by changing the way the job is
done or the working environment, sharing the workload differently).
• Ensure that employees have or develop the appropriate knowledge
and abilities to perform their jobs effectively (e.g. by selecting and
training them properly and by reviewing their progress regularly).
• Improve employees’ control over the way they do their work (e.g.
introduce flexi-time, job-sharing, more consultation about working
practices).
• Increase the amount and quality of support they receive (e.g.
introduce ‘people management’ training schemes for supervisors,
allow interaction among employees, encourage co-operation and
teamwork).

Solving work stress  problems

Stress Management Training
• Ask employees to attend classes on relaxation, time management,
assertiveness training or exercise.
Ergonomics and Environmental Design
• Improve equipment used at work and physical working conditions.
Management Development
• Improve managers’ attitudes towards dealing with work stress, their
knowledge and understanding of it and their skills to deal with the
issue as effectively as possible.
Organisational Development
• Implement better work systems and management systems. Develop
a more friendly and supportive culture.
There are basically three ways by which employers can detect problems
early and prevent them from becoming serious. These are presented below.
Early detection and prevention of work stress-related problems:
• Regularly monitoring staff satisfaction and health.
• Making sure staff know whom to talk to about problems.
• Knowing where to refer employees to for professional help when
they appear to be experiencing real difficulties. Small businesses
would perhaps refer in the first instance to their employees’ General
Practitioner. Larger businesses may have access to their own
occupational health service or Employee Assistance Programme.

It is essential that you take steps to confirm the effectiveness of the measures
you have taken to correct work stress.
You should follow up your findings after a suitable period and compare
them with your earlier findings and interpretation at the time of the initial
assessment.
Your method of follow-up should be recorded and explained. If necessary,
you may have to revise your approach to work stress problems.

Caring for troubled workers

This is tertiary prevention to work stress. When all efforts towards
preventing work stress and controlling foreseeable risk have failed,
you need to act swiftly and appropriately to deal with workers who
are being hurt by the experience of work stress. You will be involved both
in identifying employees in trouble and in managing their problem.
In cases that cannot be handled by the employer or manager, expert
assistance should be sought.

Steps of tertiary prevention of work stress:
Identifying the problem
• Work stress is usually revealed by observations of worker difficulties
or worker complaints of difficulties and ill health.
• Signs include irritability, aggression, errors, decreased performance,
increases in smoking, drinking and substance abuse, higher levels
of absenteeism and clients’ complaints.
• You should look for any changes in workers’ behaviour or health.
Such warning signs should never be ignored. Where these signs
coincide with excessive work pressures or demands, you should
consider that the workers may be suffering from work stress.

What should you do to help?
• An individual worker’s problems and the solutions to those problems
should be discussed with the worker, described and agreed.
• Timing of such discussions may depend on worker’s state of well-
being.
• Possible interventions, both individual (e.g. training, medical
treatment, counselling) and organisational (e.g. job re-design,
changes in management practices) should be planned, implemented
and evaluated.
Records
• Careful records should be kept, and progress evaluated.
• Records should be accurate, deal with facts and points of evidence.
Opinions and judgements should not be represented as facts.
• Proposed actions and the reasons for their selections should be
agreed where possible and recorded.

Organisational culture

Organisational culture is one of the key factors in determining how
successful an organisation will be in managing work stress.

Organisational culture is reflected in the attitudes of staff, their shared beliefs
about the organisation, their shared value systems and common and
approved ways of behaving at work.

Organisational culture also concerns how problems are recognised and
solved. It can affect what is experienced as stressful, how that experience
translates into health difficulties, how both stress and health are reported
and how the organisation responds to such reports.

Employers, managers and trade union representatives must therefore
become aware of the culture of an organisation, and explore it in relation
to the management of work stress. If necessary, these parties must engage
in culture change activities as an important aspect of improving the
management of stress at work.

Resources for managing work stress
All employers should carefully consider the systems that they have
in place for assessing, preventing and otherwise managing work
stress.
You must be aware of your organisation’s systems and resources for
managing stress.
Internal resources may include occupational health services, human
resource management (personnel), training departments or other
individuals with responsibility for staff well-being and health.
Individual problems which are complex, difficult and not manageable
internally, are best dealt with by a counselling psychologist, clinical
psychologist, counsellor, or an occupational physician who may consult
with a general practitioner or other specialist functions as deemed necessary.
Identification of any groups at risk within your organisation is crucial and
should accompany the examination of available organisational resources
for managing work stress.

W ork stress is a real challenge for workers and their employing
organisations. As organisations and their working environment
transform, so do the kinds of stress problems that employees
may face. It is important that your workplace is being continuously
monitored for stress problems.
Further, it is not only important to identify stress problems and to deal with
them but to promote healthy work and reduce harmful aspects of work.
Work in itself can be a self-promoting activity as long as it takes place in a
safe, development- and health-promoting environment.
Successful employers and managers
provide leadership in dealing with the
challenge of work stress
GOOD MANAGEMENT IS STRESS MANAGEMENT
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   3] Discuss the importance of delegation and the forces which influence delegation. Describe how delegation improved the effectiveness of an organisation with an example.

 Delegation is the process of giving decision-making authority to lower-level employees. For the process to be successful, a worker must be able to obtain the resources and cooperation needed for successful completion of the delegated task. Empowerment of the workforce and task delegation are closely intertwined. Empowerment occurs when upper-level employees share power with lower-level employees. This involves providing the training, tools and management support that employees need to accomplish a task. Thus, an enabled worker has both the authority and the capability to accomplish the work. Although authority can be delegated, responsibility cannot-the person who delegates a task is ultimately responsible for its success. The assigned worker is therefore accountable for meeting the goals and objectives of the task.

IMPORTANCE   of delegation
Effective delegation can benefit the manager, the employee, and the organization. Perhaps the most important benefit for the company is a higher quality of work. Delegation can improve quality of work by allowing the employees who have direct knowledge of products and services to make decisions and complete tasks. Quality can also improve through enhanced employee motivation. Employees may do a better job because they feel a personal accountability for the outcome, even though responsibility ultimately rests with the individual who made the delegation. Motivation should also be enhanced as delegation enriches the worker's job by expanding the types of tasks that are involved in it.
Managers who delegate effectively also receive several personal benefits; most importantly, they have more time to do their own jobs when they assign tasks to others. Given the hectic nature of managerial work, time is a precious commodity. Effective delegation frees the manager to focus on managerial tasks such as planning and control. Managers also benefit from the development of subordinates' skills. With a more highly skilled workforce, they have more flexibility in making assignments and are more efficient decision makers. Managers who develop their workforce are also likely to have high personal power with their staff and to be highly valued by their organization.
=======================
Factors could influence your decision to delegate work to a subordinate

Delegation  is the assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities. However the person who delegated the work remains accountable for the outcome of the delegate work. It allows a subordinate to make decisions, i.e. it is a shift of decision-making authority from one organizational level to a lower one.
FACTORS   FROM  THE  MANAGER'S  POINT
-an  effective/  talented  manager  would  delegate.
-an  effective /  talented  manager  who  has  interest  in  developing  the  subordinates.
-an overload  of  work  could  force  a  manager  to  delegate.
-the  task  could   recur  in  the  future ,  frquently
-the Time is  available for adequate training, for questions and answers, for opportunities to check progress, and for rework if that is necessary.
-the  Tasks in  hand  is  critical for long-term success   and  genuinely do need your attention
-the  subordinate  has  the  necessary  experience/ expertise   to handle  the   tasks.
-The task’s timelines/deadlines.
*How much time is there available to do the job?
*Is there time to redo the job if it’s not done properly the first time?
*What are the consequences of not completing the job on time?
-Your expectations or goals for the  task(s)
*How important is it that the results are of the highest possible quality?
*Is an "adequate" result good enough?
*Would a failure be crucial?
*How much would failure impact other things?

FACTORS  FROM   THE  STAFF  POINT'S   
-the   staff  have  the expertise  to  complete  the job.
-the  delay is  acceptable, if  the  staff  can't complete.
-the  staff  is  keen  to  take  the  opportunity to  grow/  develop.

-The experience, knowledge and skills of the individual as they apply to the delegated task.
*What knowledge, skills and attitude does the person already have?
*Do you have time and resources to provide any training needed?

-The individual’s preferred work style.
*How independent is the person?
*What does he or she want from his or her job?
*What are his or her long-term goals and interest, and how do these align with the work proposed?

-The current workload of this person.
*Does the person have time to take on more work?
workloads?
*Will your  delegating this task require reshuffling of other responsibilities and workloads?

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the organisation I am  referring to

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*marketing
*manufacturing
*sales
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*distribution
*warehousing/  transportation
*TQM  
===============================
IN   THIS  ORGANIZATION
Use the following principles to delegate successfully:
Clearly articulate the desired outcome. Begin with the end in mind and specify the desired results.
Clearly identify constraints and boundaries. Where are the lines of authority, responsibility and accountability? Should the person:
•   Wait to be told what to do?
•   Ask what to do?
•   Recommend what should be done, and then act?
•   Act, and then report results immediately?
•   Initiate action, and then report periodically?
Where possible, include people in the delegation process. Empower them to decide what tasks are to be delegated to them and when.
Match the amount of responsibility with the amount of authority. Understand that you can delegate some responsibility, however you can’t delegate away ultimate accountability. The buck stops with you!
Delegate to the lowest possible organizational level. The people who are closest to the work are best suited for the task, because they have the most intimate knowledge of the detail of everyday work. This also increases workplace efficiency, and helps to develop people.
Provide adequate support, and be available to answer questions. Ensure the project’s success through ongoing communication and monitoring as well as provision of resources and credit.
Focus on results. Concern yourself with what is accomplished, rather than detailing how the work should be done: Your way is not necessarily the only or even the best way! Allow the person to control his or her own methods and processes. This facilitates success and trust.
Avoid “upward delegation”. If there is a problem, don’t allow the person to shift responsibility for the task back to you: ask for recommended solutions; and don’t simply provide an answer.
Build motivation and commitment. Discuss how success will impact financial rewards, future opportunities, informal recognition, and other desirable consequences. Provide recognition where deserved.
Establish and maintain control.
•   Discuss timelines and deadlines.
•   Agree on a schedule of checkpoints at which you’ll review project progress.
•   Make adjustments as necessary.
•   Take time to review all submitted work.
In thoroughly considering these key points prior to and during the delegation process you will find that you delegate more successfully.
=============================================
WE  ADOPT the steps of successful delegation
1 Define the task
Confirm in your own mind that the task is suitable to be delegated. Does it meet the criteria for delegating?
2 Select the individual or team
What are your reasons for delegating to this person or team? What are they going to get out of it? What are you going to get out of it?
3 Assess ability and training needs
Is the other person or team of people capable of doing the task? Do they understand what needs to be done. If not, you can't delegate.
4 Explain the reasons
You must explain why the job or responsibility is being delegated. And why to that person or people? What is its importance and relevance? Where does it fit in the overall scheme of things?
5 State required results
What must be achieved? Clarify understanding by getting feedback from the other person. How will the task be measured? Make sure they know how you intend to decide that the job is being successfully done.
6 Consider resources required
Discuss and agree what is required to get the job done. Consider people, location, premises, equipment, money, materials, other related activities and services.
7 Agree deadlines
When must the job be finished? Or if an ongoing duty, when are the review dates? When are the reports due? And if the task is complex and has parts or stages, what are the priorities?
At this point you may need to confirm understanding with the other person of the previous points, getting ideas and interpretation. As well as showing you that the job can be done, this helps to reinforce commitment.
Methods of checking and controlling must be agreed with the other person. Failing to agree this in advance will cause this monitoring to seem like interference or lack of trust.
8 Support and communicate
Think about who else needs to know what's going on, and inform them. Involve the other person in considering this so they can see beyond the issue at hand. Do not leave the person to inform your own peers of their new responsibility. Warn the person about any awkward matters of politics or protocol. Inform your own boss if the task is important, and of sufficient profile.
9 Feedback on results
It is essential to let the person know how they are doing, and whether they have achieved their aims. If not, you must review with them why things did not go to plan, and deal with the problems. You must absorb the consequences of failure, and pass on the credit for success.
At first sight, delegation can feel like more hassle than it’s worth, however by delegating effectively, you can hugely expand the amount of work that you can deliver.
When you arrange the workload so that you are working on the tasks that have the highest priority for you, and other people are working on meaningful and challenging assignments, you have a recipe for success.
To delegate effectively, choose the right tasks to delegate, identify the right people to delegate to, and delegate in the right way. There’s a lot to this, but you’ll achieve so much more once you’re delegating effectively!
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THE  IMPACT  ON  THE  ORGANIZATION

FACTORS   FROM  THE  MANAGER'S  POINT
-  managers  would  delegate.
-  manager  has  interest  in  developing  the  subordinates.
-reduced overload  of  work  with   managers.
-the Time is  available for adequate training, for questions and answers, for opportunities to check progress, and for rework if that is necessary.
-meet The task’s timelines/deadlines.


FACTORS  FROM   THE  STAFF  POINT'S   
-the   staff  have  developed the expertise  to  complete  the job.
-there  is  no the  delay  in completing  the  job..
-the  staff  is  keen  to  take  the  opportunity to  grow/  develop.

-The experience, knowledge and skills of the employees improved as they apply to the delegated task.
*person have  more  time to take on more work.
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Leo Lingham

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