Management Consulting/MBA assignment

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Question
What is an ideal resource profile and how does it get influenced by practical consideration of project execution?

Answer
What is an ideal resource profile and how does it get influenced by practical considerations of project execution?


What is PROJECT’S  ideal resource profile
RESOURCES
   Means to complete project activities are called RESOURCES.
   Examples are People, Machinery, Material, Capital, Time, etc.
   Peak demands of resources over short periods is undesirable.
   Resources may be limited or unlimited in nature from project to project.
Resource Utilization Factor
   The degree to which a resource may be used is measured in terms of a Resource Utilization Factor.
Mathematically,
Usable Resources x Days Used x 100 R.U.F. (%) = Usable Resources x Days available.
Resource Profile
   Plot of daily Resource requirements versus time is called
•   Resource Profile
•   Resource-use Graph
•   Histogram

Resource Allocation
To assign required resources to work activities such that available resources are not exceeded.
Resource Leveling
   Smoothening of a resource demand is called Resource leveling.
   Resource leveling is an attempt to assign resources to project activities in a manner that will improve productivity and efficiency.
Ideal Condition

Early-start and Late-start Histograms

Ideal Level Histogram

Practical & Target Histogram

Objects of Resource Leveling
   Fixed Crew Size
   Learning Curve
   Start-up Problems
   Completion Congestion
Techniques for Resource Leveling
   Sum of Resources Square method
   Burgess Leveling Procedure
   Wiest Leveling Procedure
Limited Resource Allocation
   Where resources e.g., plant, labour, materials (or capitals) are restricted, the activities have to be rescheduled to satisfy this form of constraint. T
his will imply scheduling those activities that use such resources, in a sequential or serial fashion. And this might create the situation where activities overrun their allowable float.
   If resource limitations are known at the outset, for example, only one site crane is available, then the original network plan for the project can include this constraint.
   In certain cases, it may be possible to hire additional plant to cover peak requirements; in this case no rescheduling of the activities is called for
Algorithm
1.   Calculate initial early start (ES) and late start (LS) time for each activity in the project, and set time now equal to1, i.e., T = 1
2.   Determine the initial eligible activity set (EAS), i.e., those activities with all predecessor activities scheduled.
3.   From among the members of the current EAS, determine the ordered scheduling set (OSS) of activities i.e., activities with ES < T, ordered according to LS with smallest values first and within this characteristic, according to least activity duration first.
4.   Consider the activities in OSS in the order listed and schedule those activities for which sufficient resources are available for the duration of the activity. As activities are scheduled, update the level of resources available, and update the members of EAS.
5.   Have all activities been scheduled, i.e., is EAS empty set ?
If Yes STOP
If No Set T new = T old + 1, and
compute new ES times for the updated EAS.
6.   Go to step 3 and continue.
EXAMPLE
Reschedule the Project given in Figure keeping in view the limitation of Resources L to be 8 per day and M to be 6 per day.


Let T = 1
EAS : A B C (E F)
ES : 1 1 1
LS : 6 1 7
OSS : B A C
Schedule B to days 1-2
Remove B from EAS
Add F to EAS
Let T = 2
EAS : A C E F
ES : 2 2 3 3
LS : 6 7 4 3
OSS : A C
No Activity can be scheduled on T = 2
Let T = 3
EAS : A C E F (I D)
ES : 3 3 3 3
LS : 6 7 4 3
OSS : F E A C
Schedule F to days 3-10
Remove F from EAS
Schedule E to days 3-7
Remove E from EAS.
Schedule A to days 3-4
Remove A from EAS EAS
Add I & D to EAS
Let T = 4
EAS : C I D
ES : 4 8 5
LS : 7 9 8
OSS : C
No Activity can be scheduled on T = 4
Let T = 5
EAS : C I D ( G )
ES : 5 8 5
LS : 7 9 8
OSS : C D
Schedule C to day 5
Remove C from EAS
Add G to EAS
Let T = 6
EAS : I D G
ES : 8 6 6
LS : 9 8 8
OSS : G D
No Activity can be scheduled on T = 6
Note: G and D have same LS. These are ordered on less duration first.




In project management terminology, resources are required to carry out the project tasks. They can be people, equipment, facilities, funding, or anything else capable of definition (usually other than labour) required for the completion of a project activity. The lack of a resource will therefore be a constraint on the completion of the project activity. Resources may be storable or non storable. Storable resources remain available unless depleted by usage, and may be replenished by project tasks which produce them. Non-storable resources must be renewed for each time period, even if not utilised in previous time periods.
Resource scheduling, availability and optimisation are considered key to successful project management.
Allocation of limited resources is based on the priority given to each of the project activities. Their priority is calculated using the Critical path method and heuristic analysis. For a case with a constraint on the number of resources, the objective is to create the most efficient schedule possible - minimising project duration and maximising the use of the resources available.
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Resource and profile assignments
During the early stages of project planning, you assign profiles and resources to the project. A profile is defined in terms of skill, experience, competency, and rate. You can later replace a profile with a resource.
After you create work items, you can assign resources or profiles to the work items. A resource that is assigned to a project might not be assigned to a work item. If you unassign a resource at the project level or remove the user from the project area, the user cannot access the project artifacts. However, you can access and modify the removed resource data.
You can discretely assign resources and profiles to a project with different schedules. For example, you can assign resource A to a project from January 1 – January 10, and then assign that resource to the same project from January 15 – January 30. When you run an availability search for resource A, the availability of that resource is between January 10 – January 15.
More examples
•   Assigning profiles to projects
During the early stages of the project planning phase, you can add profiles to the project to complete the resource planning process. You can create planned assignments for projects by using profiles as placeholders for resources, and can specify dates and rates for the assignment before you decide which resource to use. You can replace the profiles with resources later.
•   Assigning a profile to work items
During the early stages of the project planning phase, you can add profiles to work items to complete the resource planning process. You can create planned assignments for work items by using profiles as placeholders for resources, and can specify dates and rates for the assignment before you decide which resource to use. You can replace the profiles with resources later.
•   Replacing profiles with resources
During the early stages of a project, before you know which resources you will use, you can assign suitable profiles based on the required competencies and skills for projects or tasks . You might know that you need a Java developer for a project before you know which developer is available for a project. A profile acts as a placeholder that you can later replace with a team member or resource. When you have identified the required resources, you can replace profiles with resources.
•   Unassign profiles
You might have to unassign profiles that are assigned to projects or work items. When you unassign a profile from a project or work item, the profile is not deleted from the database.
•   Assigning resources to a project
You assign resources to a project to ensure that those resources belong to that project. You can later assign the resources to work items. If you directly assign resources to work items, those resources are automatically added to the project. When you assign resources to a project, the resource calendar is updated and blocked accordingly.
•   Assigning resource to work items
Before work can begin on your project, you must assign a resource to work items. You can assign resources that are available in the resource pool or that are assigned to the project. When you assign resources to a work item, the assignment is for the entire duration of the work item by default. You can change the assignment dates based on resource availability or work item requirement. After you assign a resource to a work item and specify the work item period, the calendars for the resource are blocked accordingly.
•   Unassigning resources
You can unassign resources at the project or work item level. If you unassign a resource at the project level or remove the user from the project area, the user cannot access the project artifacts. However, you can access and modify the removed resource data.
Related tasks







Managing project resources
Managing project resources is an integral aspect of project management that includes the following tasks: include creating resource requirements in the form of resource profiles, identifying resources that best fit the resource requirements, assigning these resources to the project and project work item types, and scheduling the resource assignments considering project requirements and resource availability.
•   Creating resource requirements in the form of resource profiles
•   Identifying the resources that best fit the resource requirements
•   Assigning resources to project and work items
•   Scheduling resource assignments after considering project requirements and resource availability
•   Resource calendar
The resource calendar comes into existence when you create a user and assign a base calendar to the user from the administration area. A resource calendar defines the number of working hours per day for the resource. You, as a team member, can add and modify exceptions to the resource calendar.
•   Editing resource details
Both you and the project manager can add and modify certain project management attributes on your profile including calendar, skills, and competencies.
•   Resource and profile searches
You can search a resource or profile by creating and running queries. You run a query when you want bulk search results or when you do not know the resource or profile name. You can select attributes and conditions to ensure that you find the right resources and profiles.
•   Resource and profile assignments
During the early stages of project planning, you assign profiles and resources to the project. A profile is defined in terms of skill, experience, competency, and rate. You can later replace a profile with a resource.
•   Role validation
Assigning roles to resources assigned to WBS elements is a project manager's function. You validate roles to define the rights and permissions that are granted to resources when they are already assigned to a work breakdown structure (WBS) element. IBM® Rational® Project Conductor provides the roles of a team member and a project lead. When a role is not selected, the assigned resource takes up the default role. You can also define the roles that are required for your project in the process specification based on the project requirements
•   Assigning roles to resources
Based on the project requirements, you can define the roles that are required for your project in the process specification. These roles are project specific. In addition to the team-member and project-lead roles, you can define new roles in the process specification, which is available as process roles in the Resource and Profile Assignment viewlet. You can assign roles to a resource only when you assign resources to a project.
•   Aggregating resources at the project level
A project manager can aggregate resource data and identify allocated resources at the project level. By aggregating resource data, you can roll up and view information for resources who are assigned and can be assigned to the project.
•   Resource pools
You create pools to group resources based on their geography, domain-expertise, business unit, and other characteristics. You can also create pool types to group pools. For example, you can have pool types named India and USA, and have pools named IT infrastructure and Business Process Outsourcing associated to those pool types. Later, you can assign resources to the pools.
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Managing profiles
A profile is a set of resource characteristics or criteria that you use to plan project activities. Profiles are defined in terms of skills, competencies, experience, and rates. You can use profile criteria to search for resources that best match the project requirements. After you identify suitable resources, profiles are replaced with the resources.
A profile is a combination of the following attributes:
•   Skills: Knowledge of a particular technology or domain; for example, Java™, Jazz™, or Linux®
•   Competencies: Levels in the organizational structure or hierarchy that are usually defined in terms of a role or position; for example, manager, or developer
•   Experience: The number of years of work experience
•   Rates: The cost and selling rates
Profiles are created as common application data in the Administration area and can be assigned to projects and tasks. Skills, competencies, and rates must be defined so that they are available for you to select when you create a profile.
During the project planning phase, use profiles in place of actual resource records. Profile records behave the same way as resource records do, except profile records do not represent actual resources. Project managers assign profiles to projects and to project tasks, with a specified duration and effort. Later, as resources are identified for the profiles, the profiles can be replaced with the resources. The resources inherit the assignment properties of the profile, such as the start and finish dates, duration, and effort.
Each profile defines a set of resource criteria that is relevant to the organization. For example, an organization might have a profile for Project Managers in the C and C++ domain with 10 years of experience, and a profile for Java developers with 3 years of experience. These profiles can be assigned to projects to identify resources that match the criteria.
•   Creating profiles
Use a profile to outline a resource description in terms of skills, competencies, proficiency level, rate, and years of experience. Create one profile for each resource type description for your organization requirements. For example, to define resource descriptions for different programming resource types, create one profile for a Java programmer with two years of experience, and another profile for a Java team leader with five years of experience.
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