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Management Consulting/Need Ansers for the MBA Questions


Hi sir,

I am doing MBA General in Annamalai University. If you give me the answers for the below questions related to the subject of Organisational Behaviour it will be very greatful to you. Thanks in advance

Write a short notes on:

1. Social System
2. Introvert
3. Projection
4. Social Loafing
5.Self Actualization need
6. what is classical condition?

1.Social System
Social systems or social structure in general refer to entities or groups in definite relation to each other, to relatively enduring patterns of behavior and relationship within social systems, or to social institutions and norms becoming embedded into social systems in such a way that they shape the behavior of actors within those social systems. Social systems can be said to be the patterns of behavior of a group of people possessing similar characteristics due to their existence in same society.
This category has the following 17 subcategories, out of 17 total.
•   ► Society‎
•   ► Caste‎
•   ►Community‎
•   ► Economic systems‎
•   ► Feudalism‎
•   ► Social groups‎
Information society‎
•   ► Social institutions‎

Management systems‎
•   Mutualism (movemet)
•   ► Oligarchy‎
•   ► Organizations‎
Political systems‎
•   ► Polygamy‎

•   ► Schools of thought‎
•   ► Self-organization‎
•   ►Sociodynamis‎

2. Introvert
an introvert is not simply a person who is shy. In fact, being shy has little to do with being an introvert! Shyness has an element of apprehension, nervousness and anxiety, and while an introvert may also be shy, introversion itself is not shyness. Basically, an introvert is a person who is energized by being alone and whose energy is drained by being around other people.

Introverts are more concerned with the inner world of the mind. They enjoy thinking, exploring their thoughts and feelings. They often avoid social situations because being around people drains their energy. This is true even if they have good social skills. After being with people for any length of time, such as at a party, they need time alone to "recharge."

When introverts want to be alone, it is not, by itself, a sign of depression. It means that they either need to regain their energy from being around people or that they simply want the time to be with their own thoughts. Being with people, even people they like and are comfortable with, can prevent them from their desire to be quietly introspective.

Being introspective, though, does not mean that an introvert never has conversations. However, those conversations are generally about ideas and concepts, not about what they consider the trivial matters of social small talk.

Introverts make up about 60% of the gifted population but only about 25-40% of the general population.

3. Projection

A projection is the transformation of points and lines in one plane onto another plane by connecting corresponding points on the two planes with parallel lines. This can be visualized as shining a (point) light source (located at infinity) through a translucent sheet of paper and making an image of whatever is drawn on it on a second sheet of paper. The branch of geometry dealing with the properties and invariants of geometric figures under projection is called projective geometry.

The projection of a vector  onto a vector  is given by

where  is the dot product, and the length of this projection is

General projections are considered by Foley and VanDam (1983).
The average projected area over all orientations of any ellipsoid is 1/4 the total surface area. This theorem also holds for any convex solid.
4. Social Loafing
Social loafing describes the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they are part of a group. Because all members of the group are pooling their effort to achieve a common goal, each member of the group contributes less than they would if they were individually responsible.
For example, imagine that your teacher assigned you to work on a class project with a group of ten other students. If you were working on your own, you would have broken down the assignment into steps and started work right away. Since you are part of a group, however, the social loafing tendency makes it likely that you would put less effort into the project. Instead of assuming responsibility for certain tasks, you might simply assume that one of the other group members will take care of it.

Groups can be fantastically unproductive because they provide such wonderful camouflage. Under cover of group work people will slack off, happy in the knowledge others are probably doing the same. And even if they're not: who'll know?

This is what psychologists have nattily called social loafing and it was beautifully demonstrated by a French professor of agricultural engineering called Max Ringelmann as early as the 1890s.
Ringelmann, often credited as one of the founders of social psychology, had people pull on ropes either separately or in groups of various sizes and he measured how hard they pulled. He found that the more people were in the group, the less work they did (see graph).
Notice that people did about half as much work when there were 8 others in the group than they did on their own.
Lazy and you know it? Don't bother clapping your hands
Since Ringelmann's original study many others have got the same result using different types of tasks. Most entertainingly Professor Bibb Latané and colleagues had people cheering, shouting and clapping in groups as loud as they could (Latané et al., 1979). When people were in groups of six they only shouted at one-third of their full capacity. The lazy so-and-sos.
The effect has been found in different cultures including Indians, Taiwanese, French, Polish and Americans, it's been found in tasks as diverse as pumping air, swimming, evaluating poems, navigating mazes and in restaurant tipping. However social loafing is less prevalent in collectivist cultures such as those in many Asian countries, indeed sometimes it is reversed.
It's not hard to see why this finding might worry people in charge of all kinds of organisations. But note that social loafing is most detrimental to the productivity of a group when it is carrying out 'additive tasks': ones where the effort of each group member is summed. Not all tasks fit in to this category. For example a group problem-solving session relies on the brains of the best people in the group - social loafing wouldn't necessarily reduce productivity in this group as markedly.
Causes and remedies
These are some of the standard explanations put forward for the social loafing effect:
•   People expect each other to loaf. Whether consciously or unconsciously people say to themselves: everyone else is going to slack off a bit so I'll slack off a bit as well because it's not fair if I do more work than the others.
•   Anonymity. When groups are larger the individuals become more anonymous. Imagine you're doing something on your own: if it goes well you get all the glory, if it goes wrong you get all the blame. In a group both blame and glory is spread, so there's less carrot and less stick.
•   No standards. Often groups don't have set standards so there's no clear ideal for which to aim.
These explanations naturally beg the question of how people would behave if they didn't expect each other to loaf, they weren't anonymous and there were clear standards - after all groups do often work under much better conditions than those induced in some laboratory studies. Indeed lab studies have often been criticised for giving people boring or meaningless tasks and for putting them in random groups.
Still people in groups clearly do loaf in real life so here are a few factors found to be important in reducing social loafing:
•   Task importance. Studies have shown that when people think the task is important they do less loafing. Zacarro (1984) found that groups constructing 'moon tents' (don't ask me!) worked harder if they thought the relevance of the task was high, thought they were in competition with another group and were encouraged to think the task was attractive.
•   Group importance. When the group is important to its members they work harder. Worchel et al. (1998) had people building paper chains in two groups, one which had name tags, matching coats and a sense of competition. Compared to a group given none of these, they produced 5 more paper chains.
•   Decreasing the 'sucker effect'. The sucker effect is that feeling of being duped when you think that other people in the group are slacking off. Reducing or eliminating this perception is another key to a productive group.
This is just three, many more have been suggested, including: how easily each member's contribution can be evaluated, how unique each individual's contribution is and how individually identifiable they are. The drift is that people can be made to work harder by cutting off their natural tendency to hide in the group

5.Self Actualization need
Need for self-actualization :
Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, it includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. It is to maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something.

As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level.
Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and ease of understanding. However, research does not validate these theory. Maslow provided no empirical evidence and other several studies that sought to validate the theory found no support for it.

As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above that level.
6. what is classical condition?
Classical conditioning   is a form of  associative  learning .The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus  along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under investigation. This is  referred  as a conditioned stimulus (CS). Conversely, presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. This is the   unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. called this the conditioned response (CR).
Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear  conditioning , eyeblink  conditioning  and the foot contraction conditioning .
A technique used in behavioral training. A naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Then, a previously neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the previously neutral stimulus comes to evoke the response without the presence of the naturally occurring stimulus. The two elements are then known as the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned response.

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Leo Lingham


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