Management Consulting/Written Analysis

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Question
"Hi sir,

I am doing MBA General in Annamalai University. If you give me the answers for the below questions related to the subject of Written Analysis it will be very grateful to you. Thanks in advance

Write Short Notes on:

1. Meaning of communication.
2. Write short note on Visual Communication.
3. Write is informal communication
4. To make communication effective, what will you
do?
5. What are the elements of group behaviour?
6. Define interpersonal conflict.
7. Differentiate between encoding and decoding.
8. What is report writing?

Answer
1.   Meaning of communication.
Communication  is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior.
Communication is defined  as “any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.”
Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender
Effective communication
Effective communication occurs when a desired effect is the result of intentional or unintentional information sharing, which is interpreted between multiple entities and acted on in a desired way. This effect also ensures the message is not distorted during the communication process. Effective communication should generate the desired effect and maintain the effect, with the potential to increase the effect of the message. Therefore, effective communication serves the purpose for which it was planned or designed. Possible purposes might be to elicit change, generate action, create understanding, inform or communicate a certain idea or point of view. When the desired effect is not achieved, factors such as barriers to communication are explored, with the intention being to discover how the communication has been ineffective.
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2. Write short note on Visual Communication.
VISUAL COMMUNICATION
There's an old saying that "a picture is worth a thousand words." Life would indeed be difficult without paintings, photographs, diagrams, charts, drawings, and graphic symbols. These are some of the reasons why SHOWING is such an important form of communication.
•   Most people understand things better when they have seen how they work.
•   Involved, complex ideas can be presented clearly and quickly using visual aids.
•   People retain information longer when it is presented to them visually.
•   Visuals can be used to communicate to a wide range of people with differing backgrounds.
•   Visuals are useful when trying to condense information into a short time period.
Visual aids--used imaginatively and appropriately--will help your audience remember more. Consider the following:
•   People think in terms of images, not words, so visuals help them retain and recall technical information.
•   Visuals attract and hold the attention of observers.
•   Visuals simplify technical information.
•   Visuals may be useful in presenting technical information to a nontechnical audience.
Questions to Ask about Visual Aids:
•   Is my objective clear?
•   What are my key points? Do they deserve the emphasis that a visual aid gives?
•   What visual aid or aids have I planned to use?
•   Will the visual aid clarify my spoken words? Will it support my spoken words rather than replace them?
•   Is each visual aid simple, orderly and consistent? Is it free from incompatible and complicating ideas, symbols, art techniques and typefaces? Can my audience quickly and easily grasp what they see or must it be read to them? Avoid making it a reading session.
•   Is it symbolic or pictorial? Which treatment is best for my subject? Which treatment is best from the standpoint of my audience?
•   Is my visual direct and to the point? Is the art functional or ornate? Is it really one visual aid or several? If my subject is complex, will it be presented in easily comprehensible units? (Drop-ons or overlays) Was my artwork designed just for this presentation?
•   Is my visual aid realistic? Does it give all the pertinent facts? Have the facts been distorted?
•   Is my visual aid as effective as it can be made? Have I used all the available techniques to make it so?
•   Did I put enough effort into the planning of the visual aid? Have I sought criticism from others?
•   Will it achieve my objectives? Will my audience understand, appreciate and believe it? If my presentation calls for some action by the audience, will it stimulate them to do so willingly?
•   Have I overlooked anything in the use of the visual aid? Have I tested the visual aid? Have I planned one or more rehearsals; if not, why? Will my visual aid material be visible to the entire audience?
Visual Aid Checklist
Slides
( ) Does the projector work properly? Bulb, lenses, change mechanism, fan.
( ) Does each slide present a simple, clear message?
( ) Are the slides arranged and numbered consistently and consecutively?
( ) Are the slides clean and mounted properly?
( ) Will the audience be able to see slide details in the location I plan to use?
( ) Does the slide tray have a title slide at the beginning and a blind slide at the end to avoid blinding the audience with light?
Power Point or Transparencies
( ) Is the lettering large enough to be seen by the audience?
( ) Is the projector placed so that the audience has an unobstructed view?
( ) Is the projector and slide color scheme adequate for the lighting of the room being used?
( ) Does the projected image fit the screen?
( ) Are my slides in proper order?
( ) Does each present a clear message?
( ) Is the projector compatible with the computer being used?
Video Tape
( ) Do you have the correct machine for the tape you plan to show (Beta or VHS)?
( ) Is the equipment in proper working order?
( ) Is the tape set to start at the proper place and does it "track" properly?
( ) Will the WHOLE audience be able to see the presentation?
( ) Is the sound level on the monitor(s) set at the proper level?
The Location
( ) Does the room match the size of the audience?
( ) Is the location accessible to the physically disabled?
( ) Can the lighting be controlled for showing slides and transparencies? If so, is a reading light available?
( ) Is the location equipped with a projector cart or table?
( ) Are electrical outlets conveniently located--do I need extension cords?
( ) Is the room equipped with an adequate screen?
( ) If using video equipment, can monitors be set up at appropriate locations?
( ) Does the room have a speakers table or podium?
( ) Will the location be available prior to your meeting so you can set up and test your equipment?
( ) Is the room equipped with a newsprint easel or chalkboard?
( ) Does the room have chairs and tables or desks? Can they be rearranged if needed?
( ) Is the main entrance separated from the speaker area so that late arrivals will not disrupt your presentation?
Always check out the room and equipment in advance to see that it works properly! Never assume that it will work without trying it first. As a general rule, the more complicated the technolgy for an oral presentation, the more likely it will fail
Checklist for Tables and Charts
( ) Be ruthless with numbers: use the fewest possible that will still convey the point of the visual. Do not exceed twenty numbers or a single slide.
( ) Combine numbers into larger sums wherever possible; eliminate any number that does not contribute significantly to your message.
( ) Consider using a chart (pie, bar, etc.) for presenting some information, especially if you want to draw comparisons between two or more items.
( ) When preparing charts use colors or patterns with a lot of contrast.
( ) Split information into two or three smaller tables rather than using one huge table. Use no more than three or four columns per table.
( ) Have a short, yet descriptive, title that states the point of the visual. Put it at the top. Include a date at the bottom.
( ) Label columns clearly and at the top. Show the units (dollars or tons, for example). On the left, label the statistics being compared.
( ) Avoid footnotes and symbols that may not be generally understood by your audience.
( ) Use light horizontal lines if they improve readability.
( ) Be consistent. Do not mix pounds and tons, years and months, gross and net.
( ) Avoid decimal points whenever possible. Use round numbers for tables and graphs.
( ) Highlight the most important numbers with boxes, underlining, or color.
( ) If arithmetic operations are not obvious, state them: (less), or "Less Depreciation Expense."
( ) Eliminate zeros by expressing numbers in thousands or millions, if possible.
( ) Show negative numbers in parentheses, not with minus signs.
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3. Write is informal communication
INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
•   Communication arising out of al those channels of communication that fall outside the formal channels is known as informal communication.
•   Built around the social relationships of members of the organization.
•   Informal communication does not flow lines of authority as is the case of formal communication.
•   It arises due to the personal needs of the members of n organization.
•   At times, in informal communication, it is difficult to fix responsibility about accuracy of information. Such communication is usually oral and may be covered even by simple glance, gesture or smile or silence.
Informal Communication in the Workplace
On the other hand, informal communication in the workplace satisfies a variety of needs, particularly social and emotional, and are not based on the positions individuals occupy within the organizations. As a result, the communication is not managed or planned in any organized fashion. It’s more relaxed, casual and tends to be spread by word-of-mouth quickly throughout a department or organization because it’s not restricted to approvals and an established path of distribution.
Probably the most common term used for the informal communication in the workplace is “grapevine” and this communication that is sent through the organizational grapevine is often considered gossip or rumour. While grapevine communication can spread information quickly and can easily cross established organizational boundaries, the information it carries can be changed through the deletion or exaggeration crucial details thus causing the information inaccurate – even if it’s based on truth.
The use of the organizational grapevine as an informal communication channel often results when employees feel threatened, vulnerable, or when the organization is experiencing change and when communication from management is restricted and not forthcoming.
When used with thought and planning, however, there are several advantages of grapevine communication. It can
•   spread information quickly throughout an organization
•   serve a social purpose
•   reduce stress and anxiety
•   can be used to identify problems or lack of satisfaction in the workplace
While the organizational grapevine can never be eliminated, even if there are several advantages of grapevine communication, it can be reduced by removing the need for information. Managing the grapevine can be partly achieved by providing information through good, effective communication such as:
•   supplying sufficient information through the formal communication channel about the concerns that are of importance to employees and staff
•   present as much factual information as possible as soon as it is obtained
•   keep information coming on a regular basis especially during times of change when the employees are stressed and wondering what’s going on. Daily communication with them will reduce the pressure of uncertainty.
•   open the lines of the formal communication channels to receive feedback and concerns. Respond to these as quickly as possible. If concerns are submitted from staff and no response is given by management, rumours through grapevine communication will begin to fill in the communication gap which was created by management.
**INFORMAL   COMMUNICATION

The Grapevine is the informal, but powerful communication medium in every organization. The INFORMAL  is pervasive and,  highly persuasive.
We can’t stop the INFORMAL . And we can’t outrun it. Word spreads like wildfire from person to person. And now blogs have become the “INFORMAL  on steroids.”
While formal communications are important and effective, informal channels should not be ignored. Understood and optimized, the INFORMAL  can be a powerful vehicle to align the company around important messages.
INFORMAL   COMMUNICATION  activity accelerates
• When there is a lack of formal communication.
• Anytime there is an ambiguous or uncertain situation
• When there are no sanctioned channels for venting
• When change is impending, and
• When there are heavy-handed efforts to shut it down.
There is a perception gap between senior and lower management. Lower managers are more likely to recognize the existence, the conditions under which the rumor mill accelerates, and the benefits of tapping into the  INFORMAL COMMUNICATION.
Managers can influence the  INFORMAL  by
• Understanding the conditions that increase INFORMAL   COMMUNICATION  activity
• Respecting employees’ desire to know
• Increasing participation and influence
• Sharing the bad news as well as the good,
• Monitoring the  INFORMAL   COMMUNICATION , and
• Acting promptly to correct mis-information.
The INFORMAL  may in fact be beneficial for an organization
• Some information that people can only get from the grapevine. “If you want to see what insurance coverage is offered, check the brochure or intranet. But if you want to know what it really takes to be successful around here, ask the grapevine.”
People can also . . .
• Spot problems and prepare. Compare reactions for appropriateness.
• Identify and seize opportunities early on.
• Build a reputation by positioning yourself as a “hub” in the grapevine network.
• Bond with co-workers. “Gossip greases the social wheel.”
• Weed out cheaters and liars. The  INFORMAL  exposes “free riders” – those individuals who don’t contribute, but benefit from the group’s efforts.
• Let off steam.
• Gain power and control. Those who are connected to the INFORMAL  know more about what’s going on their companies than people who don’t gossip.

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4. To make communication effective, what will you do?
FOR  EFFECTIVENESS, PLEASE
1) Clarity
Clarity of thought: communicator must be clear about these 3 pts.
• What is the objective of communication?
• What is to be communicated?
• Which medium will prove to be the most suitable for this purpose?
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Clarity of expression: Most of the messages are transmitted with the help of words, the transmitter should be careful about the meanings & organization of words for this.

* Use Simple words:

Example:
Avoid them use them
Demonstrate show
Utilize use
Visualize see.
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* Use single words for long phrases:
Avoid them use them
At all times always
At a later date later
Will you be kind enough please
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* Use verbs for nouns:
Difficult simple
Come to a Conclusion conclude
Make a decision decide
Make the announcement announce
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* Avoid double entry:
Double Entry simple
11 a.m. in the morning 11 a.m.
Previous Experience experience
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* Prefer active constructions for they are easier to understand
Passive active
Your efforts are appreciated all of use appreciate
By all of us. Your efforts.
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* Avoid ambiguity
“GO SLOW, WORK IN PROGRESS”
“GO, SLOW WORK IN PROGRESS”
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Completeness
- Incomplete communication irritates the reader
- If wrong actions follow an incomplete message they may also prove expensive

You should organize your message in such a way than the receiver has no doubts about anything contained in it

While answering a letter make it sure that you have answered all the questions.

Checking for the “five W” question: who, what, when & why & any other essential points like how also helps to make your message complete

Conciseness
Brevity (Shortness) in expression effectively wins the attention of the reader.
The 4 simple rules will help you to achieve shortness in your msg.

1) Include only relevant facts
2) Avoids repetition.
3) Avoids trite & wordy expression.
4) Organize your message. Well.

Consideration: In our letters we must show consideration for the reader. This can be done in following ways;
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* Adopt the you-attitude
Eg. : We (attitude) You (attitude)
I want to express my SINCERE thanks Thank you for your kind
for the good words…… word……

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* Avoids Gender bias :
-Use words free from gender bias: The chairperson handled the situation tactfully (& not chairman)
-Use a slash to include both the alternatives Dear Sir/Madam
-Use plural/forms inclusive of both the genders
Do: All the members cast their votes.
Don’t: Each member cast his vote.

It is often possible to use ‘the’ for his/her:
Do: The manger: talked to the customer
Don’t: The manger: talked to his customer.

* Emphasize Positive pleasant facts:
Eg. N: - We regret to inform you that we will not be able to execute your order until………….
+Ve: - Thank you for your order. The goods will be sent to you as soon as …
Try to avoid these –ve words: fear, mistake, wrong, damage, disagree.
Please; thank; you; welcome; you are right.

Present days examples.
Instead of complaint dept. now a day’s customer service dept. is used
Cheap Economical

* Write only what you feel to be correct

COURTESY
Courtesy means politeness, decency.

* Answer the letters promptly

* Omit irritating expressions : like ‘you forgot’, ‘you failed’, ‘your irresponsible approach’ are bound to irrigate or HURT the reader.

* Apologies sincerely for an omission/thank generously for a favor
Generously for a favour
* Courtesy in various types of communication
-Horizontal communication (Neutral level of communication)
-Up word communication (to your superiors)
-Downward communication (to your subordinate)


CORRECTNESS
1) Give correct facts
2) Send your message at the correct time.
3) Send your message in he correct style


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5. What are the elements of group behaviour?
ELEMENTS  ARE
Significance
Groups, or work teams, can accomplish great things in small and large businesses alike. A group's overall effectiveness, however, hinges to a great extent on the effectiveness of the participants' communication abilities. Without positive flows of communication, misunderstandings can occur between groups, creating a fractious work environment. Without clear communication between group leaders and workers, productivity can slow as workers struggle to understand their specific job functions. Communication styles can vary according to group dynamics. Geographically dispersed groups connected via the Internet, for example, are likely to communicate much differently than individuals who work in the same room with each other every day. Whatever the setting, the way groups communicate in your company can directly influence the success of your strategic goals.
Company Culture
Instilling a culture of openness, honesty and trust among co-workers is vital to effective group communication. All group participants must feel that they are free to contribute to the best of their ability without the fear of rejection, insult or political repercussions. Groups must be able to pool their intellectual resources to reach their full effectiveness, and that can only be accomplished when all members are ready and able to tackle new challenges in innovative ways.
Respect for Individuals
Individual respect is key to effective group communication. Clear hierarchical boundaries in meetings can stifle ideas and insights from lower-ranking employees. Every individual must truly believe that their input will be valued and considered, without undue clout given to the input of managers and executives. This kind of respect for group members' individuality cannot come to fruition through formal policies; executives and managers must lead by example in this area by first encouraging employees to contribute in meetings, then recognizing and considering input from all participants.
Business Etiquette
Adhering to a common code of etiquette in workplace groups can help communication processes to remain productive and collaborative by reducing distractions and feelings of resentment. If all group members dress professionally, speak courteously, avoid divisive, irrelevant topics of conversation and generally avoid causing offense to other group members, a team can find it easier to mesh and form a cohesive unit. A lack of attention to etiquette, on the other hand, can create divisions while encouraging gossip and feelings of resentment, all of which can present serious impediments to effective communication.
Theories
A number of theories attempt to analyze and explain the dynamics of group communication and the elements that determine its effectiveness. One such theory is the Decision Emergence Theory set forth by Aubrey Fisher. Decision Emergence asserts that new groups progress through four stages that lead the group from a diverse collection of individuals to a productive unit with shared experiences, decision methods, work ethic and values. The Structuration Theory suggests that individuals in new groups act according to a pre-acknowledged set of rules, then alter those rules over time based on the group's unique experiences.
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8 . What is meant by report writing?
Report writing is widespread in many fields, such as business, medicine, science, criminology. Besides, implementation of any project implies writing progress reports. In some fields, there are even several report types. For example, business report writing includes the following types of reports:
Whatever a field of writing a report is, its purpose is to summarize results of past work and consequences of past events so that this information can be used in the present and in the future for decision making. Let us give you a notion about peculiarities of writing a report in different professional fields.
Writing a Report: Structure
Report structure may somewhat differ depending on the field, purpose and content. However, it is possible to outline a general structure often taking place in report writing:
1.   Cover Sheet
2.   Title Page
3.   Letter of Transmittal (Acknowledgements)
4.   Table of Contents
5.   Summary
6.   Main Body
•   Introduction
•   Discussion
•   Conclusion
•   Recommendations (Proposal)
7.   Bibliography
8.   Appendices
When writing a report, you may divide body text by means of subheadings so that it is more convenient for a reader to understand your information.
Writing a Report: Language
Writing a report requires using a language which somewhat differs from that used in academic writing. Report writing implies using plain language and constructing sentences which are not too long. However, may principles kept in academic writing also take place: formal style, no colloquialisms et al.


The main aim of writing a business report is to provide information that can help in making business decisions.  Writing a business report is successful only if it motivates the reader to take important business decisions.
Writing a business report: Steps to be followed
Students must follow the below steps when writing a business report in order to make it a proper report.
•   The primary step is to prepare for the business report.
•   The next step is to determine the scope of the report.
•   The third step is to recognize the audience.
•   The fourth step is to make a thorough research in order to gather the required information
•   The final step is to format and organize the report.
Writing a business report: Useful advices
When writing business reports, students must consider the following useful advices. The following tips help students for writing a business report effectively and successfully.
•   Define and elucidate the intention of the report.
•   Organize and arrange the relevant information in a logical fashion based on the purpose of the business report, with the audience in mind.
•   Write the business report to the audience in such a way to motivate the audience.
•   Write the business report using powerful and well-built words as well as effective and well-arranged sentences.
•   It is recommended to write business report in the commonly acknowledged format.
•   Proof-read and revise the business report before submission.

HENCE, YOU  WILL  SEE  THAT  THE  REPORT  WRITING  SKILL  IS  LEARNED  BY PRACTICE—PRACTICE—PRACTICE.  


importance of reports

A very precise and well written report can prove to be very helpful to a person
as it gives all the relevant information related to the subject .
-it  provides  vital  information.
-it  provides  a  vehicle  for  feedback.

Reports are like another form to communicate effectively. They are also a way to analyze ones knowledge and skills. Once information is in hand the main thing is how one manages to organize   and presents the information. The presentation of information in the reports should be in a manner that they are logical and concise. The proper formatted reports are one of the most essentials tools  used for business proposals and by a number of organizations. These reports when are read by the targeted person will provide useful information in such a good manner that will increase your credibility as a person and as an organization as well.
In writing, a report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, which is tailored to the context of a given situation and audience. The purpose of reports is usually to inform. However, reports may include persuasive elements, such as recommendations, suggestions, or other motivating conclusions that indicate possible future actions the report reader might take. Reports can be public or private, and often address questions posed by individuals in government, business, education, and science.Reports often take the structure of scientific investigation: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. They may sometimes follow a problem-solution structure based on the audience's questions or concerns. As for format, reports range from a simpler format with headings to indicate topics, to more complex formats including charts, tables, figures, pictures, tables of contents, abstracts, summaries, appendices, footnotes, hyperlinks, and references.

The purpose of a report is to show information collected to the reader about certain topics, usually to set targets or to show a general view on the subject in hand. Another purpose is to discuss and analyze ideas and thoughts on any problems or improvements to be made and to inform the audience. They can either persuade, suggest or to motivate conclusions.

A report is an extended formal document with lots of pages that shows different types of information with details of the findings like e.g. Methodology, findings and added Appendices. The document structure is easily navigated by using a table of contents, so the audience can easily find specific information by clear headings and a set structure of text and images.

Types of reports include:

scientific reports, recommendation reports, white papers, annual reports, auditor's reports, workplace reports, census reports, trip reports, progress reports, investigative reports, budget reports, policy reports, demographic reports, credit reports, appraisal reports, inspection reports, military reports, bound reports, minority report, final report, majority report, environmental resources reports, error and other reports from software systems, etc.
With the dramatic expansion of information technology, and the desire for increased competitiveness in corporations, there has been an increase in the use of computing power to produce unified reports which join different views of the enterprise in one place. Termed Enterprise Reporting, this process involves querying data sources with different logical models to produce a human readable report. A computer user has to query the Human Resources databases and the Capital Improvements databases to show how efficiently space is being used across an entire corporation.

Enterprise Reporting is a fundamental part of the larger movement towards improved Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management. Often implementation involves Extract, Transform and Load  procedures into a reporting data warehouse and then use of one or more reporting tools. While reports can be distributed in print form or via email, they are typically accessed via a corporate intranet.







Reports are designed to convey and record information that will be of practical use to the
reader. It is organized into discrete units of specific and highly visible information
Types of Reports:
Informational
•Inform or instruct – present information
•Reader sees the details of events, activities or conditions.
•No analysis of the situation, no conclusion, no recommendations.
Analytical
•Written to solve problems
•Information is analyzed.
•Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made
Persuasive
•An extension of analytical reports: main focus is to sell an idea, a service, or
product.
•Proposals are the most common type.
Difference between Reports and Correspondence
•Reports usually have a more diverse audience, more than one purpose and more
detailed information.
Typical Business Reports
Report_ Purpose_
Periodic Operating Reports_ To monitor and control production, sales, shipping, service, etc._
Situational Report_ To describe one-time events, such as trips,
conferences, and seminars._
Investigative/Informational_ To examine problems and supply facts – with little analysis._
Compliance_ To respond to government agencies and laws._
Justification/Recommendation_ To make recommendations to management and become tools to solve problems and make decisions._
Yardstick_ To establish criteria and evaluate alternatives by
measuring against the “yardstick” criteria. _
Feasibility_ To analyze problems and predict whether alternatives will be practical or advisable._
Research Studies_ To study problems scientifically by analyzing a problem, developing hypotheses, collecting data,
analyzing data, and drawing conclusions._
Proposals_ To offer to solve problems, investigate ideas, or sell
products and services._
The following are the two bases of classifying the reports-
•   According to function, and
•   According to formality.
According to functions the reports may be divided into three parts:
•   Informational reports.
•   Analytical reports
•   Research reports.
According to formality the reports may be divided into two parts:
•   Statutory reports
•   Non statutory or voluntary reports.
The above two may further be divided into two parts again, i.e. (i) routine reports and (ii) special reports.

Informational reports. These reports present facts about certain given activity in detail without any note or suggestions. Whatever is gathered is reported without giving any thing by way of either explanation or any suggestion. A vice-chancellor asking about the number of candidates appearing at a particular examination naturally seeks only information of the fact (candidates taking up the examination) of course without any comment. Generally such reports are of routine nature. Sometimes they may fall under statutory routine category. A company registrar asking for allotment return within the stipulate period is nothing but informational routine, falling under statutory but routine report.
Analytical reports. These reports contain facts along with analytical explanations offered by the reporter himself or may be asked for by the one who is seeking the report. Such reports contain the narration of facts, collected data and information, classified and tabulated data and also explanatory note followed by the conclusions arrived at or interpretations. A company chairman may ask for a report on falling trends in sale in a particular area. He will in this case be naturally interested in knowing all the details including that of opinion of any of the investigator.
Research reports. These reports are based on some research work conducted by either an individual or a group of individuals on a given problem. Indian oil company might have asked its research division to find some substitute for petrol, and if such a study is conducted then a report shall be submitted by the research division detailing its findings and then offering their own suggestions, including the conclusions at which the division has arrived at as to whether such a substitute is these and if it is there can the same be put to use with advantage and effectively. All details shall naturally be asked and has to be given. In fact such a report is the result of a research.
Statutory reports. These reports are to be presented according to the requirements of a particular law or a rule or a custom now has become a rule. The auditor reports to company registrar has to be submitted as per the requirements of country legal requirement. A return on compensation paid to factory workers during a period by a factory has to be submitted to competent authorities periodically. These reports are generally prepared in the prescribed form as the rules have prescribed.
Non statutory reports. These reports are not in the nature of legal requirements or rules wants, therefore, the reports are to be prepared and submitted. These reports are required to be prepared and submitted: (i) for the administrative and other conveniences,(ii) for taking decision in a matter (iii) for policy formulations, (iv) for projecting the future or (v) any thing alike so that efficient and smooth functioning maybe assured and proper and necessary decision may be taken with a view to see that every thing goes well and the objectives of the organization are achieved with assured success.
Routine reports. These reports are required to be prepared and submitted periodically on matters required by the organization so as to help the management of the organization to take decisions in the matters relating to day to day affairs. The main objectives of routine reports are to let the management know as to what is happening in the organization, what is its progress where the deviation is, what measures have been taken in solving the problems and what to do so that the organization may run smoothly and efficiently. Routine reports are generally brief. They only give the facts. No comments or explanations are usually offered in such reports. Generally forms are prescribed for preparation and submission of such reports.
Special reports. Such a type of report is specially required to be prepared and submitted on matters of special nature. Due to an accident a death of the foreman has occurred in a factory. The factory manager may ask for a detail report from the head foreman. Such a report is classified as special reports. These reports contain not only facts and details but they may contain suggestion, comments and explanations as well.
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6. Define interpersonal conflict.
A situation in which an individual or group frustrates, or tries to frustrate, the goal attainment efforts of the other.
Nature of Conflict
What is interpersonal conflict?
•   Interpersonal conflict is a disagreement between connected individuals who each want something that is incompatible with what the other wants.
•   Interpersonal conflict is neither good nor bad, but depending on how the disagreements are resolved, the conflict can strengthen or weaken a relationship.
•   Conflict can center on matters external to the relationship and on relationship issues such as who's the boss.
•   Conflict and the strategies used to resolve it are heavily influenced by culture.
•   Before the conflict: Try to fight in private, fight when you're ready, know what you're fighting about, and fight about problems that can be solved.
•   After the conflict: Learn something from the conflict, keep the conflict in perspective, attack your negative feelings, and increase the exchange of rewards.
Conflict Resolution Stages
How do you go about resolving a conflict or solving a problem?
•   Define the conflict: Define the content and relationship issues in specific terms, avoiding gunnysacking and mindreading, and try to empathize with the other person.
•   Examine the possible solutions: Try to identify as many solutions as possible, look for win-win solutions, and carefully weigh the costs and rewards of each solution.
•   Test the solution mentally and in practice to see if it works.
•   Evaluate the tested solution from a variety of perspectives.
•   Accept the solution and integrate it into your behavior. Or reject the solution and begin again, for example, defining the problem differently or looking in other directions for possible solutions.
Conflict Management Strategies
What are some of the strategies that people use that may help or hinder resolving the conflict?
•   Become an active participant in the conflict; don't avoid the issues or the arguments of the other person.
•   Use talk to discuss the issues rather than trying to force the other person to accept your position.
•   Try to enhance the self-esteem, the face, of the person you're arguing with; avoid strategies that may cause the other person to lose face.
•   Argue the issues, focusing as objectively as possible on the points of disagreement; avoid being verbally aggressive or attacking the other person.
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Interpersonal conflict occurs when people:
•   are interdependent (meaning they are connected, and what one person does impacts the other)
•   are mutually aware that their goals are incompatible (one person will achieve while the other will not)
•   perceive each other as interfering with the attainment of their own goals.
For example: You are out with a close friend, and you both want to do a different activity; however, you have a very limited amount of time. There's not enough time to do both activities, so you must decide which activity to do. Obviously one person will get what they want while the other does not.

There are some common myths about conflict that should be corrected:
1.   Conflict is best avoided.
2.   Conflict means a relationship is in trouble.
3.   Conflict damages an interpersonal relationship.
4.   Conflict is destructive because it reveals our negative selves.
5.   Conflict always has a winner or loser.
It's not so much the conflict that creates the problem as it is the way you approach and deal with the conflict. In addition, one person doesn't have to lose. It is possible to both win.

Many issues that start conflicts within romantic relationships include: intimacy issues, power issues, personal flaws, personal distance issues, social issues, and distrust issues. One study found that the first fights were centered around uncertainty over commitment, jealousy, violation of expectations, and/or personality differences.

In workplace relationships, conflicts were around executive responsibility and coordination, as well as on organizational objectives, resources, and management style.

Friendship conflicts revolve around shared living spaces, violation of rules, sharing of activities and disagreements of ideas.

Principles of interpersonal conflict:

There are five principles of interpersonal conflict.
1.   Conflict is inevitable--It is a part of every interpersonal relationship. One study found that on average couples have 182 conflicts per year, which is approximately 3.5 conflicts a week, with each lasting approximately 25 minutes long, and another 30 minutes to sulk. Just because you have conflict doesn't mean your relationship is in jeopardy either. It just means that you have a relationship.
2.   Conflict can have negative and positive effects--It's all about the way you deal with conflict.
1.   Negative effects:
1.   Often leads to increased negative regard for the opponent.
2.   May deplete energy better spent elsewhere.
3.   May lead you to hide feelings or close yourself off from a more intimate relationship.
4.   Rewards may become more difficult to exchange leading to dissolution.
2.   Positive effects:
1.   Forces you to examine a problem and work toward a solution.
2.   May emerge with a stronger relationship.
3.   Enables you to state your needs.
4.   Often prevents hostilities from festering.
5.   Emphasizes the relationship is worth the effort.
3.   Conflict can focus on content and/or relationship issues--Content conflict focuses on objects, events, and persons usually external to the people involved in the conflict. Relationship conflict focuses on a concern with relationship issues such as who is in charge. These issues are often hidden or disguised as content conflicts.
4.   Conflict styles have consequences--There are five basic styles of engaging in conflict. When you compete, the person who loses concludes the conflict hasn't been resolved, just concluded for now. When you avoid, the conflict festers and probably grows, which will likely resurface later on. Accommodating means that you sacrifice your own needs to maintain harmony, but your needs are not likely going to go away. Compromising maintains the peace, but there will still be dissatisfaction over the losses endured. Collaborating is the ideal style



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7. Differentiate between encoding and decoding.

Encoding is the process of transforming data in to a different format using a method that is publicly available. The purpose of this transformation is to increase the usability of data especially in different systems. It is also used for reducing the storage space required to store data and for transferring data across different channels. Decoding is the reverse process of encoding, which converts encoded information back in to the original format.
What is Encoding?
Transforming data in to more usable formats for different systems, using a method publicly available is called encoding. Encoded data can be easily reversed. Most of the time, the converted format is a standard format that is widely used. For example, in ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) characters are encoded using numbers. ‘A’ is represented using number 65, ‘B’ by number 66, etc. These numbers are referred to as ‘code’. Similarly, encoding systems such as DBCS, EBCDIC, Unicode, etc. are also used to encode characters. Compressing data can also be seen as an encoding process. Encoding techniques are also used when transporting data. For example, Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) encoding system uses four bits to represent a decimal number and Manchester Phase Encoding (MPE) is used by Ethernet to encode bits. The term encoding is also used for analog to digital conversion.
What is Decoding?
Decoding is the reverse process of encoding, which converts encoded information back in to its original format. Encoded data can be easily decoded using standard methods. For example, decoding Binary Coded Decimal requires some simple calculations in base-2 arithmetic. Decoding ASCII values is a straightforward process since there is a one to one mapping between characters and numbers. The term decoding is also used for digital to analog conversion. In the filed of communication, decoding is the process of converting received messages in to a message written using a specific language. This process is not straight forward as the previously mentioned decoding schemes, since the message could be tampered due to the noise in the channels used for communication. Decoding methods such as Ideal observer decoding, maximum likelihood decoding, minimum distance decoding, etc are used for decoding messages sent via noisy channels.
What is the difference between Encoding and Decoding?
Encoding and decoding are two opposite processes. Encoding is done with the intension of increasing the usability of data in different systems and to reduce the space required for storage, while decoding converts encoded information back in to its original format. Encoding is done using publicly available methods and it can be easily reversed (decoded). For example, ASCII encoding is just a mapping between characters and numbers. So decoding it is straight forward. But decoding messages sent via a noisy channels will not be straight forward, because the message could be tampered with noise. In such instances decoding involves complex methods that are used to filter out the effect of noise in the message.



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8. What is report writing?
Report writing is widespread in many fields, such as business, medicine, science, criminology. Besides, implementation of any project implies writing progress reports. In some fields, there are even several report types. For example, business report writing includes the following types of reports:
Whatever a field of writing a report is, its purpose is to summarize results of past work and consequences of past events so that this information can be used in the present and in the future for decision making. Let us give you a notion about peculiarities of writing a report in different professional fields.
Writing a Report: Structure
Report structure may somewhat differ depending on the field, purpose and content. However, it is possible to outline a general structure often taking place in report writing:
7.   Cover Sheet
8.   Title Page
9.   Letter of Transmittal (Acknowledgements)
10.   Table of Contents
11.   Summary
12.   Main Body
•   Introduction
•   Discussion
•   Conclusion
•   Recommendations (Proposal)
9.   Bibliography
10.   Appendices
When writing a report, you may divide body text by means of subheadings so that it is more convenient for a reader to understand your information.
Writing a Report: Language
Writing a report requires using a language which somewhat differs from that used in academic writing. Report writing implies using plain language and constructing sentences which are not too long. However, may principles kept in academic writing also take place: formal style, no colloquialisms et al.


The main aim of writing a business report is to provide information that can help in making business decisions.  Writing a business report is successful only if it motivates the reader to take important business decisions.
Writing a business report: Steps to be followed
Students must follow the below steps when writing a business report in order to make it a proper report.
•   The primary step is to prepare for the business report.
•   The next step is to determine the scope of the report.
•   The third step is to recognize the audience.
•   The fourth step is to make a thorough research in order to gather the required information
•   The final step is to format and organize the report.
Writing a business report: Useful advices
When writing business reports, students must consider the following useful advices. The following tips help students for writing a business report effectively and successfully.
•   Define and elucidate the intention of the report.
•   Organize and arrange the relevant information in a logical fashion based on the purpose of the business report, with the audience in mind.
•   Write the business report to the audience in such a way to motivate the audience.
•   Write the business report using powerful and well-built words as well as effective and well-arranged sentences.
•   It is recommended to write business report in the commonly acknowledged format.
•   Proof-read and revise the business report before submission.

HENCE, YOU  WILL  SEE  THAT  THE  REPORT  WRITING  SKILL  IS  LEARNED  BY PRACTICE—PRACTICE—PRACTICE.  


importance of reports

A very precise and well written report can prove to be very helpful to a person
as it gives all the relevant information related to the subject .
-it  provides  vital  information.
-it  provides  a  vehicle  for  feedback.

Reports are like another form to communicate effectively. They are also a way to analyze ones knowledge and skills. Once information is in hand the main thing is how one manages to organize   and presents the information. The presentation of information in the reports should be in a manner that they are logical and concise. The proper formatted reports are one of the most essentials tools  used for business proposals and by a number of organizations. These reports when are read by the targeted person will provide useful information in such a good manner that will increase your credibility as a person and as an organization as well.
In writing, a report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, which is tailored to the context of a given situation and audience. The purpose of reports is usually to inform. However, reports may include persuasive elements, such as recommendations, suggestions, or other motivating conclusions that indicate possible future actions the report reader might take. Reports can be public or private, and often address questions posed by individuals in government, business, education, and science.Reports often take the structure of scientific investigation: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. They may sometimes follow a problem-solution structure based on the audience's questions or concerns. As for format, reports range from a simpler format with headings to indicate topics, to more complex formats including charts, tables, figures, pictures, tables of contents, abstracts, summaries, appendices, footnotes, hyperlinks, and references.

The purpose of a report is to show information collected to the reader about certain topics, usually to set targets or to show a general view on the subject in hand. Another purpose is to discuss and analyze ideas and thoughts on any problems or improvements to be made and to inform the audience. They can either persuade, suggest or to motivate conclusions.

A report is an extended formal document with lots of pages that shows different types of information with details of the findings like e.g. Methodology, findings and added Appendices. The document structure is easily navigated by using a table of contents, so the audience can easily find specific information by clear headings and a set structure of text and images.

Types of reports include:

scientific reports, recommendation reports, white papers, annual reports, auditor's reports, workplace reports, census reports, trip reports, progress reports, investigative reports, budget reports, policy reports, demographic reports, credit reports, appraisal reports, inspection reports, military reports, bound reports, minority report, final report, majority report, environmental resources reports, error and other reports from software systems, etc.
With the dramatic expansion of information technology, and the desire for increased competitiveness in corporations, there has been an increase in the use of computing power to produce unified reports which join different views of the enterprise in one place. Termed Enterprise Reporting, this process involves querying data sources with different logical models to produce a human readable report. A computer user has to query the Human Resources databases and the Capital Improvements databases to show how efficiently space is being used across an entire corporation.

Enterprise Reporting is a fundamental part of the larger movement towards improved Business Intelligence and Knowledge Management. Often implementation involves Extract, Transform and Load  procedures into a reporting data warehouse and then use of one or more reporting tools. While reports can be distributed in print form or via email, they are typically accessed via a corporate intranet.







Reports are designed to convey and record information that will be of practical use to the
reader. It is organized into discrete units of specific and highly visible information
Types of Reports:
Informational
•Inform or instruct – present information
•Reader sees the details of events, activities or conditions.
•No analysis of the situation, no conclusion, no recommendations.
Analytical
•Written to solve problems
•Information is analyzed.
•Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made
Persuasive
•An extension of analytical reports: main focus is to sell an idea, a service, or
product.
•Proposals are the most common type.
Difference between Reports and Correspondence
•Reports usually have a more diverse audience, more than one purpose and more
detailed information.
Typical Business Reports
Report_ Purpose_
Periodic Operating Reports_ To monitor and control production, sales, shipping, service, etc._
Situational Report_ To describe one-time events, such as trips,
conferences, and seminars._
Investigative/Informational_ To examine problems and supply facts – with little analysis._
Compliance_ To respond to government agencies and laws._
Justification/Recommendation_ To make recommendations to management and become tools to solve problems and make decisions._
Yardstick_ To establish criteria and evaluate alternatives by
measuring against the “yardstick” criteria. _
Feasibility_ To analyze problems and predict whether alternatives will be practical or advisable._
Research Studies_ To study problems scientifically by analyzing a problem, developing hypotheses, collecting data,
analyzing data, and drawing conclusions._
Proposals_ To offer to solve problems, investigate ideas, or sell
products and services._
The following are the two bases of classifying the reports-
•   According to function, and
•   According to formality.
According to functions the reports may be divided into three parts:
•   Informational reports.
•   Analytical reports
•   Research reports.
According to formality the reports may be divided into two parts:
•   Statutory reports
•   Non statutory or voluntary reports.
The above two may further be divided into two parts again, i.e. (i) routine reports and (ii) special reports.

Informational reports. These reports present facts about certain given activity in detail without any note or suggestions. Whatever is gathered is reported without giving any thing by way of either explanation or any suggestion. A vice-chancellor asking about the number of candidates appearing at a particular examination naturally seeks only information of the fact (candidates taking up the examination) of course without any comment. Generally such reports are of routine nature. Sometimes they may fall under statutory routine category. A company registrar asking for allotment return within the stipulate period is nothing but informational routine, falling under statutory but routine report.
Analytical reports. These reports contain facts along with analytical explanations offered by the reporter himself or may be asked for by the one who is seeking the report. Such reports contain the narration of facts, collected data and information, classified and tabulated data and also explanatory note followed by the conclusions arrived at or interpretations. A company chairman may ask for a report on falling trends in sale in a particular area. He will in this case be naturally interested in knowing all the details including that of opinion of any of the investigator.
Research reports. These reports are based on some research work conducted by either an individual or a group of individuals on a given problem. Indian oil company might have asked its research division to find some substitute for petrol, and if such a study is conducted then a report shall be submitted by the research division detailing its findings and then offering their own suggestions, including the conclusions at which the division has arrived at as to whether such a substitute is these and if it is there can the same be put to use with advantage and effectively. All details shall naturally be asked and has to be given. In fact such a report is the result of a research.
Statutory reports. These reports are to be presented according to the requirements of a particular law or a rule or a custom now has become a rule. The auditor reports to company registrar has to be submitted as per the requirements of country legal requirement. A return on compensation paid to factory workers during a period by a factory has to be submitted to competent authorities periodically. These reports are generally prepared in the prescribed form as the rules have prescribed.
Non statutory reports. These reports are not in the nature of legal requirements or rules wants, therefore, the reports are to be prepared and submitted. These reports are required to be prepared and submitted: (i) for the administrative and other conveniences,(ii) for taking decision in a matter (iii) for policy formulations, (iv) for projecting the future or (v) any thing alike so that efficient and smooth functioning maybe assured and proper and necessary decision may be taken with a view to see that every thing goes well and the objectives of the organization are achieved with assured success.
Routine reports. These reports are required to be prepared and submitted periodically on matters required by the organization so as to help the management of the organization to take decisions in the matters relating to day to day affairs. The main objectives of routine reports are to let the management know as to what is happening in the organization, what is its progress where the deviation is, what measures have been taken in solving the problems and what to do so that the organization may run smoothly and efficiently. Routine reports are generally brief. They only give the facts. No comments or explanations are usually offered in such reports. Generally forms are prescribed for preparation and submission of such reports.
Special reports. Such a type of report is specially required to be prepared and submitted on matters of special nature. Due to an accident a death of the foreman has occurred in a factory. The factory manager may ask for a detail report from the head foreman. Such a report is classified as special reports. These reports contain not only facts and details but they may contain suggestion, comments and explanations as well.
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management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc

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18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc

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