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Question
1.   Every now and then we witness many technological changes that affect our day to day functioning and the production of goods and services. Discuss any such technological change and its impact on our day to day life.
2.   Discuss giving examples, the importance of generation, up gradation or improvement of technology.

3.   Explain different types of technology transfer and discuss how the impact of such transfers is assessed. Support your answer with relevant examples.

4.   How important is technology to:

•   Economic development
•   Progress of society
•   Improvement in the quality of life?
Illustrate giving relevant examples.

5.   Chose an organization of your choice. Identify the groups/agencies involved in managing the technology of that organization and analyze their roles and linkages.

Answer

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1. Every now and then we witness many technological changes that affect our day to day functioning and the production of goods and services. Discuss any such technological change and its impact on our day to day life.
There is no escape from technology.In most cases this is not a problem though.
Many people respect and admire technology because it is there to benefit them.Without the technological advances we have had over the years, the world would not be what it is today.
With the advancement in technology,human life is more comfortable like never before.There is almost no place that you can go where technology hasn’t been used.Technology affects our daily lives in everything that we do; it saves time(time is money-more so these days),creates a world of endless learning and makes travelling to halfway around the world effortless.
Technology has effected in almost every single respect one can think of, be it communication,entertainment,studies,industrialisation,food industry,social efforts,business,education,comfort,luxury,efficiency etc. are to name a few in good ways one thinks.
What people don’t understand is that technology can actually be a bad thing.
Technology has helped increase the speed of communication and decrease its cost.However,at the same time it has caused people to become more impersonal with each other.In earlier times the major form of communication was for people to visit each other and go to public meeting places.One of the next major advances was the telephone.Due to the telephone people no longer went to the public meeting places as often as they used to.As time goes on,new advances still allow people to contact and communicate with each other more easily.These advances such as facsimile,beepers and email,although seemingly making life easier,each help to decrease the earlier forms of communication.In some businesses email is the main way of communication because its quick,they have record of the conversation.
Technology is building bridges between people on opposite sides of the globe, but it is also building ever stronger walls between neighbours.
Some people are surrounding themselves with modern technology while paying little attention to the needs of others. Others use technology to better understand their fellow man to overcome physical distance,establishing relationships of solidarity and sympathy around the globe.
We could discover the effect of technology to our daily food.Fast food for instance,food can be known as the best companion for those students or working adult who are fighting for time.But the food which is processed through machines will bring a negative effect to our daily life.For example, obesity which causes mainly from the fast food or high calories consumptions in those processes food.
Whether driving a car, planting a bomb, sending a spam E-mail or signing a contract, technology extends our realm of influence. An unfortunate dynamic of modern technology is that it often works through competition;many technologies benefit early adopters at the expense of non-adopters.Ancient man must have been satisfied when he learnt how to kill mammoths by driving them over precipices.This seemed to offer great benefits - until everyone else adopted the technology, driving the mammoths to extinction. In society today, people are looking for more and more ways to be entertained, and all it is doing is causing problems.People are doing less and less thinking and more and more watching, listening, and playing, all because of technology. Forms of entertainment like the Internet, television and even video games seem harmless to people, but they are really not.When the Internet was first introduced, people never thought it would be as big as it is today.The Internet is an easy to use technology that can do just about anything.But what people don’t understand is that the Internet is not all good.Much of the information posted on sites on the Internet is merely opinions,not factual information.When people look at this information, it looks and seems like trustful information, but most of the time, it is not.
Although the Internet is a relatively new technology,television has been around for about fifty years.There are many problems with television though, mainly with the content of the shows. Many of the shows on television portray violence, drugs, sexual activity, and profanity. People who watch these shows see what the actors and actresses are doing and then feel it is all right for them to do the same things.
Instead of "Ready, Aim, Fire," people tend to, "Fire, Aim, Ready." In other words, people tend to implement the latest technology before they understand precisely what it is or what business need it serves.
Perhaps the biggest difference between the 20Th century and the 21st is how technology has changed the pace of our lives.We now expect to communicate with anyone on the planet in seconds,not days.We expect information at our fingertips; to be up and walking shortly after a surgery or an operation.Basically,we take a lot for granted.But this freaky pace has also altered how we conduct business and live our lives.To illustrate,we want to solve problems immediately and have no patience for long term solutions.Consequently,we tend to attack symptoms as opposed to addressing true problems and apply Band-Aids to pacify the moment as opposed to tourniquets which are actually needed.We are easily satisfied with solving small problems as opposed to conquering major challenges.We tend to live for today, as opposed to planning for tomorrow. This mindset is not what it should be.
What if someone pulled the plug on our technology?Would engineers still know how to draft products?Would we still know how to ship a product or process an order?Would our financial transactions come to a halt?Would business come to a standstill?
The answer, unfortunately, is Yes.This highlights the over dependency we have developed on our technology and is cause for alarm.We are being driven by technology as opposed to the other way around.By unplugging our technology, we are unplugging the human-being.
Because of the domination of technology, people have allowed their socialisation skills to slip. Small things, such as common courtesy, appearance, and our ability to network with others, have all deteriorated in the workplace. We may be effective in communicating electronically, but we are becoming complete failures in communicating socially.If we cannot communicate effectively in this capacity,no amount of technology will be able to alter the perceptions of our co-workers, our managers, our customers, our vendors, or our friends and family.
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The use of technology is increasing day by day, we all depend on technology  and we use various technologies to accomplish specific tasks in our lives. Today we have various emerging technologies which impact our lives in different ways. Technology is being implemented in almost every section of  our lives  and business structures.  It does not matter which industry you’re dealing in, technology will be of use in a certain manner.  So embracing it and learning how to use technology in what ever we do is very important and recommended.  As the world keeps on developing, technology will be changed, what is working today might not work not be efficient tomorrow. So it is better to stay up-to-date with new emerging technologies and  learn how to embrace and use them in your daily life.
Below are some of the uses of technology today:
1.   Use of Technology in Business: Today businesses can save money by using technology to perform certain tasks. When you compare the amount of money spent on hiring an individual to perform a certain task and to guarantee delivery on time, it is totally expensive. When it comes to technology a small business can scale out and deliver more with less human resource.
For example: If you operate a manufacturing business, instead of hiring so many people to work in certain section , you can replace that labor with a ”PLC” programmed production line which will automate the all process of manufacturing . The benefits of using a ”PLC” , is that productivity and accuracy will be better and first compared to using individuals.
Lets take another example: For retail inventories, they don’t have to employ more people to manage and keep track the number of inventories. All they have to do is to use database systems which can be accessed remotely. This will make inventory data more accessible to whoever needs it with in the company. This will cut off delays in delivery of this information and makes the work.
In conclusion businesses will need to use technology to speed up their services and cut down on costs. Though technology can’t do certain things, but it reduces on time and money.
2.  The Use of technology in communication:  Unlike in the past when communication was limited to letter writing and waiting for those postal services to deliver your message. Today technology has made the field of communications so easy.  Now you can draft a business message and email it or fax in a second without any delays, the recipient will get the message an they will reply you instantly.

•   Also technology has made business meetings so simple, with the introduction of video conferencing; you no longer have to worry to be late for a business meeting. Now with this video conferencing technology, you can be in the meeting in a virtual form and engage with your partners directly.

•   Also technology has made it simple to get feed back from your clients on instant:  This has been aided by the introductions of online business to consumer portals like ’’Facebook Business Pages’’.  As a business, you will can get responses and suggestions from your customers via social network portals.  All you need is to create your business page and promote it, so your clients will always post what they want on your wall and suggest areas of improvement.  This will save you money on direct mail surveys and other means of getting information from your consumers.

3.  Use of technology in human relationships:  As the world develops, people are getting more carried away with their work and carries. Today a lot is demanded so every one is busy to have time to find a relationship. So technology has also filled this part. With technology you can connect and meet new people while at work using social network technology.  You can also use technology to find a new date without living your work.  Now days people use mobile phone apps to meet and connect with new and old friends. Social networks like Facebook.com , Tagged.com have played a big role in connecting both old and new relationships.
However, virtual relationships are not as strong as physical relationships, so I advice you to take off time and meet these people you network with virtually and get to know each other better.  On the other note, people who over participate in virtual relationships, end up with no friends in real life and they develop a diseases called cyber-sickness and loneliness.
4.  Use of technology in education: Today, technology has made a very big change in the education world. With the invention of technological gadgets and mobile apps which helps students learn easily.  Now days you can access a full library via a mobile app on any smart phone or ipad. Before inventing this technology, students had to go to physical libraries to get the information they need. some of these library Apps include
5.   Use of technology in purchasing:  Technology has also made the buying and selling of good so flexible. With the introduction e-payment systems like Paypal.com  and Square Wallet App , users can easily purchase any thing online without living the comfort of their homes.
For you to use paypal , you will have to sign up with the site for free, then connect your debit card details so that money is transferred from your physical bank account to your electronic PayPal account. So when you go to a store like Amazon.com , you can use your PayPal electronic credit to buy anything on AMAZON.COM . This has made purchasing of items so easy.

6.  The Use of technology in agriculture: With the invention of Mobile App for farmers, they can use an App like ”FamGraze” to work faster and be more accurate while in the field and off the field. For example, ”FamGraze” app will help a farmer manage their grass more effectively by suggesting the cheapest feed for their livestock. This app will calculate the amount of grass your animals have in the field. You will need no paper or any spreadsheets to do all this. Saving you more time while in the field.
Then we also have the ” Horse Ration App ” , with this app the farmer accurately calculates the amount of feed t give their horse and avoid the obesity in their animals and health problems which can be cause by less or over feeding.
Then comes the use of technology in manufacturing fertilizers and tools for farmers, all this cuts down on the time and increases productivity.
•   Also technology has changed the agricultural industry by replacing human labor with machines that are operated or controlled by people or other machines.  In the agricultural industry , productivity is a key factor. If production is high the farmer will make more profits so technology has helped farmers replace the old ways of farming with machines that can do the job in time right from the day of planting to the day of harvesting.  Lets take a simple example.  An animal-drawn plow replaced the dig-ging stick. Then later , that plow was replaced by the horse drawn moldboard plow. Currently, we have the large tractors that pull complex tilling machines. But, even these machines are being replaced by no-till or minimum-till farming practices, which reduce the amount of work it takes to prepare the soil for planting.
7.  Use of technology in banking: Now electronic banking moving money has become so simple. The invention of VISA ELECTRON  has made  it simple to move with more money with out having any fears of getting robbed on the way. You can buy any thing with a Visa Electron card, so in this case you don’t have to move with cash.
Banks use the Visa neutral network software to spot fraud and determine which of their customers might default or go bankrupt. This neutral network is very good at spotting patterns, so if your profile looks like that of people who have defaulted, the bank will take action and save you from getting robbed.

8. Use of technology to control and harness natural forces:   Natural forces affect and disrupt human life and daily economic activates.  For example; Floods wash away farmland and homes, they carry out fertile top soil and disrupt the growth of crops. Also fires burn buildings, crops and forests which affect human life. However, technology has enabled humans build large dams which can harbor excess water and use that water to generate power.  Also fire is tamed to heat our homes and process industrial materials. Wind is being used to generate electricity.  We have converted solar energy to power which is being used in homes and businesses.  All this is a result of using technology to control natural forces.
9: Use of technology in transportation:  Transportation is one of the basic areas of technological activity. Both businesses and individuals have benefited from the new technologies in the travel industry. Time is money , so we must have first and efficient means of transport.   Try to imagine life without well developed transportation systems.  I think of transportation in the same light as food, clothing and shelter. It has become a basic need , because we use advanced transport means like cars , trains , airplanes to go to work , to transport goods , to go shopping, to visit friends and families and so much more.   However, the transportation technology has been changing since 1800 to the recent years.
In our everyday life we have to monitor our diet and what we eat, it is very essential to keep track of what you put inside your body. This HAPIfork is a smart fork that tracks what you’re eating habits. For those who want to lose weight, this smart fork technology will help you eat healthier and it will also determine the speed at which you eat. If you monitor the speed at which you’re eating , you will improve your digestion system and also reduce on your weight.
So how does this HAPIfork improve your eating habits and health?
- HAPIfork will monitor and reduce the speed at which you eat your meals. This process will teach you to maintain healthier and smarter eating habits.
Communication technology is advancing on a daily basis. In our daily lives we need to communicate and stay updated in real-time. This smartwatch will derive all important notification from your smartphone to your wrist.This smart watch has almost every essential feature you will need to stay updated , so why bother carrying the wide screen uncomfortable smartphone when this simple wearable Smartwatch will bring you all calls, SMS, e-mails, and more notifications directly to your wrist. This is a cool technology for busy people who always want to stay updated. The price of this Smartwatch has been reduced to $299, which is quite affordable. With this new technology , you can leave your smartphone in your pocket or purse, and get all updates via this smart watch.





Technology is changing at a rapid pace. With in a short span of time, we have witnessed a vast change in the technological sector, and its impact on our daily lives can be felt. With the rate at which the technology is evolving, it is hard to predict what will happen in the near future. What is today everyone’s handy gadget may not be so tomorrow. With the passage of time and the evolution of technology, new products will appear in the market but only a few will reign, the rest will disappear. However the change they introduce into our lives will remain, or in other words, the changes in the technology will change our lives. Of that we can be sure as we have already experienced them.

Technology has changed the life of all those who have come in contact with it. Some changes are more direct than others and their effect more permanent. Such to the extent that it changes the way we perceive things and in fact it determines how we get along in life. What these technologies are that actually cause such major changes in the life of a person can’t be exactly pointed out as every one of us are influenced by different technologies and other non-technological things.

But nevertheless we are very much affected by the technological changes that assist us in our daily lives. Our lives have been influenced to a point of no return by these advances in devices and services. What are the technological advances or inventions that have changed our lives? Here are some 10 revolutionizing items we came up with and are listed  in no particular order.

Computer: the father of laptops, computer must be the greatest invention till date.
Internet: Resized the world in terms of information accessibility.
Cell Phones: Redefined “staying in touch”.
iPod: Changed the way you walk down the street.
The washing machine: No doubt played a role in the women’s Liberation!
Debit Cards: Who needs cash when you’ve got a debit card?
Digital Cameras: Revolutionized the way we view pictures, or more precisely take pictures.
Contact lens: Took a load off the nose and ears!
Satellite TV: Redefined home entertainment and turned the idiot tube into a dumb blonde!
Wireless charging
Unlike wearable technology, wireless or induction charging is already widely supported by a number of technology firms and already has a number of proven uses, chief among which is not keeping a smartphone's battery topped up, but cutting the cords on electrical appliances in general. Adapting kitchen counters, coffee tables and TV stands to support wireless charging plates means that any supported electronic device can be placed on the surface and work, without the need for a nearby power socket. While away from the home, the technology is already being used to charge electric vehicles. Wireless charging plates built into the road at bus stops and terminals enable electric buses in Turin, Italy to run all day without having to be recharged. A brief connection while passengers get on or off the bus at a stop is enough to charge the battery by as much as 15 percent. Embedding the same chargers at busy junctions, traffic lights and in parking spaces could do the same for consumer electric cars worldwide.
Cloud computing
At the moment, most consumers use the cloud for email or storage, but cloud computing offers many other possibilities. For example Dell is currently developing something called Project Ophelia which is essentially a virtual computer that can be accessed anywhere. At the moment, a consumer can use any computer to check a web email account or update their Facebook status, but Dell's project would allow a user to access their own computer and its applications on any connected device -- turning a kind stranger's television into your Apple notebook when a USB drive is attached. As cloud services become more powerful there will no longer be a need for huge amounts of RAM and multi-core processors in computing devices and everything from smartphones to desktop computers will become much cheaper. This is already happening with Google's Chromebooks. They use the internet and web-based applications so the computer itself only needs enough power for simple computing tasks.
Contextual search and applications
Expect Labs's MindMeld grabbed headlines when the technology was first demonstrated in 2012. It follows voice and video conversations in real time and provides information and performs web searches based on what is being said. Google Now, a feature built into the latest version of its Android operating system, uses geographical location, appointments and the handset owner's preferences to display information it thinks is important in that particular moment -- whether it be traffic updates or the special offers at the Italian restaurant around the next corner. Meanwhile, Apple's Siri can interpret natural speech in order to perform tasks and has already proven a huge hit with iPhone users since its introduction on the iPhone 4, while at the University of Texas, a new type of search engine called Gander is being developed that will tell users things that Googling can't, such as how long the queue is at a restaurant, or how long it will take for the next bus to arrive. Each of these technologies work on the same principle of being able to understand context and perform searches based on that context. The technology will continue to improve and increasingly become part of daily life.

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2. Discuss giving examples, the importance of generation, up gradation or improvement of technology.
Science & Technology Application for Rural Development
Core Support Programme
This programme has provided unique opportunity of pursuing action oriented research and development work by interested scientists, specially from the younger generation, committed to work in the field of rural development. It has also helped in local networking and coordination amongst various science and technology based voluntary organizations and developmental agencies. Core grant was continued to 18 field groups during the year. Two new groups have been selected for core support this year. These core supported organizations are working in different geographical locations at the grassroots level focusing on cost effective technological interventions on location specific problems covering sectors such as sustainable agriculture and agro-processing; micro-watershed management; rural housing & sanitation; renewable energy; artisanal technology and rural industries covering rural engineering aspect as well.
A few distinct areas wherein location specific and need based technological interventions for rural application have been made by these S & T based field groups are mentioned below:
o   Rural natural resource management through micro-watershed development.
o   Quick and fast regeneration of bamboo through bamboo nodes; development of micro concrete floor tiles and cement plastered bamboo (termite resistant) roofing for low cost housing.
o   Eco-friendly jute retting method for production of high quality fibre through controlled biotechnological application.
o   Utilization of non-conventional fruits and vegetables; NTFP for value added quality products.
o   Low cost bio -fertilizers production.
o   Extraction and purification of natural food color and dyes under controlled conditions.
o   Organic cultivation and processing of medicinal and aromatic plants.
o   Dissemination of solar photovoltaic systems and training in operation and maintenance.
o   Development of solar powered refrigerator for use in rural areas.
o   Development of portable gasifier cook stove suitable for community cooking facilitating on line biomass feeding and proper regulation of gas generation and its burning.
o   Development of cost effective defibring machine; dryer for drying rubber sheets.
o   Development of low cost double-jacketed honey processing equipment with effective filter suited to rural mass application.
o   Development of village information network through computerized support system and database for use by local communities in effective planning and access to technology in the areas of health, sanitation, sustainable agriculture, education, watershed management, etc.
o   Rural electronics and IT. entrepreneurship development by establishing multipurpose service cum training centers/IT vans for repair, maintenance, demonstration and training in rural areas.
New Projects Supported
During the year, a large number of innovative projects were supported in various parts of the country covering wide range of sectors focusing on technology development/modulation, transfer and adoption of appropriate technologies at field level using local resources and material. Some of these projects are as under:
o   Water area development along with horticulture planning through appropriate technology.
o   Development of Pen Cage Culture for the rearing and propagation of fish.
o   Alternate soil fertility management strategy in irrigated crop systems.
o   Designing an optimal system of soil fertility management for sustainable agriculture.
o   Generation of data for design of Solar Dryers through laboratory experiment.
o   Low Cost energy saving local renewable technology for water systems development.
o   Coir fibre manufacturing from coconut shells, and coirmat production.
o   Sustainable fibre resource base.
o   Establishment of Rural Technology Park in Meghalaya.
Replicable Projects
Some of the individual projects completed successfully this year are as under having potential for large-scale technology dissemination in rural areas:
o   In a project implemented by SRI, Ranchi for micro-watershed development for Tati Panchayat in Angara Block, Ranchi, Jharkhand, technologies based on land and water activities have been promoted. Size of this watershed is 780ha having 30% forest area with a population of 850 families. It has ensured full-scale production of biomass in degraded land, reducing surface run off by 75% and increasing moisture conservation by 25 per cent. Planning and construction of biophysical structures, water harvesting and moisture conservation features have been designed and implemented in cost-effective manner. After establishing these natural resources utilization facilities, efforts have been made for sustainable use of such resources for value addition through training of local people in biodynamic gardening, cultivation of cash crops, food processing, poultry management, erosion control, micro irrigation and biomass based gasifier technology. This has led to creation of positive environment in the project area and people's participation in adopting such need based technologies resulting in increase in crop and vegetable yield leading to generation of additional income. Such an intervention to make science and technology visible and accessible to rural population through watershed development approach has resulted in actual technological empowerment and skill upgradation of the people, convergence of income generating activities and creation of sustainable livelihood. The operational structure is easily managed by people's group.
o   A scientific technique has been developed and optimized by CSV, Wardha for extracting edible and medicinal gum from Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Anogeisus latifolia and Boswellia serrata etc. found abundantly in forest area of Vidharba region in Maharashtra. The technique consist of making an oblique bore on the tree bole with the help of chisel and hammer and administering in it 2-4 ml of ethephon resulting in copius exudation of gum. It has been reported that this method resulted in increase in gum yield by 3-5 times as compared to traditional method. Local tribal people have been trained in the state of Maharashtra, MP and Gujarat to use this scientific method of gum tapping with less injury to the plant. Tribals have also been trained to process gum for preservation, product diversification and value addition.

In another project this group has been able to optimize and demonstrate that the productivity of the degraded land can be increased 2- 2.5 times by introducing wild tubers as an understory of the tree canopy. In Maharashtra and MP this group has identified several domestically and economically important tubers. The local farmers have been trained to grow tubers like Asparagus resimosus, Chlorophytum tuberosum, Dioscorea bulbifera, Pueraria tuberosa leading to increase in annual income to the tune of Rs. 20-25 thousand per acre.
o   A group of scientists from HESCO, Chamoli, Uttaranchal working on a project technology upgradation for fuel/fodder needs of women in Garhwal hills has been able to train hill women from three selected villages in appropriate techniques for cultivation of forage crops/grasses, silage making, stall feeding and efficient use of non woody fuel in monsoon season to mitigate the problem of fodder/fuel scarcity. HESCO has also developed new carrying devices using Agave fibre, upgraded harvesting tools and stove which are more efficient in use and helping in time saving to hill women who are overburdened by daily chores. Training in construction and management of silo pits for silage making and appropriate storage and preservation of grass/fodder techniques has helped a lot to avoid the hardship faced by women in hills during monsoon season and lean periods.
o   In another project, SEED, Hyderabad has developed, designed and fabricated solar powered commercial air drier of 50 kgs (5sq.m drying area capacity) to make products such as mango-guava bars of high quality in physio-chemical properties and good taste and texture. Solar water system and heat exchanger with necessary plumbing was developed and interfaced with large dryer to store solar energy and reduce thermal loss to continue the drying process by day and night. The integration of solar thermal radiation and solar photovoltaic to generate thermal energy and electrical power in a cabinet dryer is the unique feature of this innovative technology. This technology of dryers with non-exhaustible, non-polluting energy sources requiring less time in processing as compared to traditional technology has shown potential for replication in rural areas. The drying time is reported to be 16-20 hours depending on climatic conditions.
o   In an innovative project, ARTI, Pune has been able to design and develop low cost water storage tanks made from bamboo. The bamboo tank consists of a sidewall made from galvanized iron sheet fitted snugly within chemically treated bamboo palisade placed on a concrete plinth. Such tanks cost Rs. 0.50 to Rs. 0.75 per litre of storage capacity as compared to conventional water tanks requiring Rs. 3.5 to Rs. 5.0 per litre. Through experimentation with number of prototype tanks, technology was perfected to use chemically treated bamboo to avoid biodegradation; having sidewalls of galvanized iron sheet with a policy of not constructing tank taller than 1.20m to withstand the pressure of water leading to long term durability of the tank. Such an innovation has helped to provide additional income to traditional bamboo artisans of the region to make such tanks, as welll as a source of irrigation for agriculture and raising plant nursery, pisciculture and household works to potential users at the village level.
This group has also designed human powered bamboo carts (pushcart and bicycle drawn trailor with two wheels each and wheelbarrow with single wheel) to carry loads suited to rural needs/conditions thus reducing the load/strain on the heads and backs of farm labourers. The prototype were designed and field tested taking into consideration need for reducing degree of biodegradability of bamboo, geometrical structural strength, loosening of joints, reducing friction and alignment needs. These push/hand carts made from bamboo impregnated with biocide, using platform of galvanized iron sheet has been reported to have long life and durability. Thus, getting popular amongst users as they can carry 4-5 times as much load as that carried by a single person, besides providing new opportunities for traditional bamboo artisans to fabricate such field tested models as source of income.

Science & Technology for Weaker Section
The scheme is aimed at the development of economically weaker sections of the society in rural and urban areas. It focuses attention of specific S&T inputs for improvement of rural artisans, landless labourers, etc. Emphasis is placed on multi-sectoral approach incorporating original ideas based on locally available resources and involving the direct beneficiary groups in decision-making process. The objective includes promotion of research, development and adaptation of Science and Technology for improving quality of life of weaker sections and to motivate scientists for applying their knowledge and expertise to the problems of weaker community. Co-coordinated programmes and individual projects are implemented under the scheme.
Individual Projects
14 new projects including 4 for integrated model village development were approved for implementation. Highlights of some of the projects are given below: -
o   Development of an Ultraviolet B light monitor and use with a pollution meter to assess the impact of pollution related haze on Vitamin D metabolities in socially disadvantaged children.
Ultraviolet B light monitor has been developed with the help of Dr. Pramod Upadhaya and the Centre for Science, Education and Communication. It is an inexpensive indigenous UV B light monitor. The aim of this monitor is to use it in high pollution areas to find out the levels of UV B reaching the earth. In case the UV B light in a particular high-polluted area is low, Vitamin D can be supplemented to the children in that area. It is found as a result of the investigation that pollution does not lead to a reduction in Vitamin D metabolities, oral supplementation of Vitamin D may be recommended and result in savings by way of reduced morbidity on account of childhood rickets and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults.
o   Transfer of technology for income generation of weaker section, income generation of saltpan workers by integrating shrimp and Artremia culture in the artisanal coastal salines of Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli and Tuticorin district.
Integrated shrimp, artemia culture in the salt farm is an innovative technology, which enhances the income of salt farmers. Shrimps owing to their high nutritive value and delicacy, command good price in the market. To meet the increasing demand in the world market shrimp-farming project was undertaken by Society for Social Development, Nagercoil, Tamil Nadu. Good survival of shrimps especially in larval stages depends largely upon the availability of high quality feed. Solar saltpans have primary reservoirs, evaporation ponds but not suitable for shrimp and artemia production. To enhance the rate of evaporation the ponds are kept shallow. These ponds were made to 100 cm depth to keep the temperature below the lethal level. The saltpan was designed in such a way that it is suitable for shrimp + artemia + salt production. The depth of pond was increased to 1.2 m for shrimp culture and for artemia culture the depth was increased to 1.00 m. The pond bund were strengthened, dried and exposed to sun for a period of ten days. Soil pH was tested and fertilized with inorganic fertilizer. Training of salt farmers in the integrated approach by well-experienced experts were completed. One integrated pond each was done at Kanyakumari district and Tuticorin and one crop was harvested. The salt farmers of Kanyakumari district and Tuticorin were invited to attend orientation camp on the benefit of Integrated Technology.
o   Design and development of tapioca chipping machine for midland small and marginal farmers in Kerala.
Society for S&T application in rural shelters (STARS) has developed a design for a machine, which can be operated either by electricity or hand for chipping operation of tapioca tubers with minimum time and labour. This also helps in increasing the output as well as the operational convenience. The system developed consists of (i) driving mechanism (ii) blade assembly (iii) feeder assembly and supporting assembly. Development and introduction of this new technology reduces the drudgery and cost. The chipping operation makes the bulky tuber more manageable and also reduces the sediment traces of hydrogen cyanide present in certain variety of tuber.
o   Desktop publishing and computer training for the educated disabled and disadvantaged youth.
Ability Aids India International has developed a software for office management to provide training the for the educated disabled and disadvantaged youth. Appropriate training and exposure to the students in DTP computerised typesetting using softwares, scanners and printers was provided to the disabled students. DTP is as fast finding applications for preparing newsletters, journals, brochures, advertisements, technical reports, documents in different languages with scanned photographs and animated pictures. This has developed self-confidence among students to come into mainstream of society with the significant social change.
o   Design, develop and field testing of manually operated system of MCR tile making device.
Integrated Sustainable Development has focused on upgradation and improvement of technology through modification and development of manual operated MCR machine with reduced dependence on electricity and give new opportunity to entrepreneurs to start tile manufacturing in rural area. This will create additional employment for youth and also reduce the cost of the tile. This is a sustainable enterprise and will help in dissemination of MCR technology in rural areas with great potential for employment.
o   Developing silk weaving and sericulture for sustainable development of weaker section in Pilibhit district, Uttar Pradesh
Haryali Centre for Rural Development has set up silk weaving units for income generation and sustainable development among weaker section, promoting sericulture activities e.g. mulberry nursery, mulberry plantation, silkworm rearing, weaving. Three villages namely Udaipur, Tirukunia and Bara from Amaria block have been covered in silk weaving activities. Mulberry plantations have been done in 0.5 acres in each village. The salient point of this entire project is that the weavers utilized both traditional as well as modern looms. The improved TARA loom is being used in weaving sector for enhanced production and energy efficient means, using different types of yarn like silk, polyester, nylon, cotton, khadi, etc. The major achievement of the organisation was that the trainees have formed a self-help group and established their own silk weaving units.
   
Science & Technology for Women
The scheme S&T for women supports projects relating to identifying technological needs of women, development, adaptation of technology and transferring available technology models for the benefit of women. A salient feature of this scheme is its unconventional approach, women centered policies and involvement of women at all the stages of the programme from problem identification to dissemination of technology. During the course of the year, forty five projects were approved in the priority sectors such as Land-based activities viz. cultivation of mushroom, medicinal plants and dye plants, nursery techniques, tissue culture, fibre utilization, processing of NTFP, aquaculture, sericulture; and like non-farm activities including drudgery removal, women's health, new techniques in spinning and weaving.
Some of the technologies developed through DST support are now being replicated on a larger scale jointly through UN agencies and SWA-SHAKTI (A World Bank & IFAD assisted project) under the Ministry of Human Resource development.
To celebrate the Women Empowerment year, National Assessments on technologies relevant to women were organized at NIRD Hyderabad and Faridabad with support from the Department of Women and Child Development. These programmes were attended by Scientists from R&D Institutions, National Laboratories, NGO's working with women and functionaries from government departments. Technology packages on low cost processing and preservation of horticultural produce, animal husbandry and manufacture of low cost health and hygiene products were chosen by SWA-SHAKTI for replication on a larger scale.
Some Individual projects sanctioned during this year include
o   Eri silkworm rearing in rural castor belts of Gujarat.
o   Ergonomic studies of women employed in the export sector sector.
o   Polygreen houses in the hill areas.
o   Skill upgradation of women engaged in glazed and decorative terracotta products
o   Animal husbandry.
o   Vanilla cultivation
o   Culture of Marine bivalves
o   Natural dyes in Mithila Paintings.
o   Fabrication of Deccani wool opener.
o   Watershed based soil and water conservation techniques.
Completed Projects
During the year, 28 projects were completed successfully. Some of the achievements are as follows:
o   Design of load handling devices and other protective gears for women in construction industry.
o   Setting up of a small-scale unit for oyster mushroom production.
o   Development of standardization of procedures for making mixed spice paste technology with minimum loss of flavor. Use of optimum of hydrocolloids and bi valent ions.
o   Development of natural products as bio-pesticides.
o   Eco-friendly paper processing unit.
o   Japanese Quail production Unit.
Some of the successful individual projects being replicated as coordinated programmes are:
o   Low Cost processing & preservation of horticultural produce.
This programme is being implemented in selected locations in the Northeastern states. Under this programme Units for processing and preserving surplus horticultural produce have been set up. Installation of Machinery has been completed and trial production has commenced. The process of obtaining FPO licenses for each unit has been initiated.
o   Cultivation, processing and marketing of high value Medicinal Plants.
This programme is underway in thirteen locations representing various agro climatic zones of the country. Good quality planting material is being supplied to women for cultivation. Women groups are also being trained in low cost agro technologies for cultivation, semi processing, storage and marketing of medicinal plants. A laboratory for standardization and certification of medicinal plants for use of small growers has been set up. This certification will provide small growers value addition in marketing their produce. NBRI, Lucknow is coordinating this programme
o   Owning and Sustaining Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programmes through Rural Women in Selected Villages of India.
Under this programme, ten projects are being implemented at different agro-climatic Zones of the country. This programme aims at identifying cost effective appropriate technologies to solve specific problems, measure the effectiveness of water conservation techniques, field test some technological options and mobilize women for owning and sustaining drinking water and sanitation programmes.
Rural Women's Technology Park
As a model, Technology Parks exclusively for rural women have been facilitated at three locations. The parks will show case location specific technologies relevant to women, provide training and also provide backward and forward linkages so that women would optimally be able to use these technologies to improve their living conditions. Some of the technology packages being delivered to women through these Women Technology Parks are - mushroom cultivation, floriculture, animal husbandry, natural dyes, vanilla bean cultivation, medicinal plant cultivation, nursery raising, aquaculture, fibre utilization, sustainable fodder management, post harvest technology, solar energy utilization, processing and weaving of local wool, women's health and information technology.
Programme on Women's Health
A conscious effort has been made to evolve strategies to identify specific health problems of women and to develop an intervention strategy.
o   Three low cost diagnostic kits for detection of urinary tract infection, anemia, blood glucose have been developed. Training of health volunteers in use of these kits is being taken up.
o   IIT, Mumbai has developed a low cost load handling device for use of women in the construction industry. A patent has been applied for this design.
o   Shriram Institute for Industrial Research has developed a technology for manufacture of low cost Health and Hygiene products for women. A patent has been applied for.
o   Programme of intervention for non-communicable diseases of women in the postmenopausal & the reproductive age is being implemented by AIIMS in selected slums of Delhi.
o   Intervention strategy is being designed for women rag pickers handling hospital waste.
Future Programmes
Some of the areas that will be focused in future programmes are:
Women Technology Park for the east, coastal region and central India, fuel and energy, skill upgradation in pottery and ceramics, Ergonomically designed and user friendly tools and implements for women, horticulture, post harvest technology, drinking water management, and IT software.
National Award for women's development through the application of Science and Technology
This award was given away by the Hon'ble Minister for science and Technology on 8th March in a function to commemorate International Women's Day held at Vigyan Bhavan. The recipients of this years award were Dr. Krisna Srinath, Central Institute of Fisheries technology and Ms. Viji Srinivasan, ADITI, Patna, for their outstanding contribution in technology transfer that have made sustainable changes in the lives of rural women.


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