Management Consulting/MS-27

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Sir,  I need help in the question mentioned below:-
1.   What is alienation? Explain the Sociological and Psychological approach to alienation. Discuss how alienation can be dealt with an example.

Answer
1] What is alienation? Explain the Sociological and Psychological approach to alienation. Discuss how alienation can be dealt with an example.
The issue of employee alienation can refer to several different issues: alienation from the company as well as alienation from society as a whole. Companies and the way they are structured have an effect on both of these factors, and the corporate culture which permeates an organization can determine whether its employees enjoy a high level of morale, or whether they feel alienated from their surroundings and their employer.
Where employees only communicate with their managers when there is a problem, can create feelings of alienation because the employee's only contact with the manager is when there are negative circumstances involved.
- Managers who take the time to let employees know when they are doing a good job not only build a better personal relationship with the employee, but also build a situation where the employee feels valued by the organization. Again, this managerial approach requires active participation by the company as a whole, beginning with the upper echelons of management.
-Company structure itself (the organizational structure) can also be a factor in whether employees feel that they are part of the organization, or whether they feel alienated. Companies which have hierarchical organizations with many layers of management are likely to have artificial "walls" between workers. Companies which are structured in a more vertical manner, meaning that they have fewer layers of management, are more likely to have employees who feel that they are an important part of the organization and who are not alienated from the company. It is important for companies to develop cultures and organizations which foster employee
participation.

THERE  ARE  TWO  MAJOR  ALIENATION  FACTORS.
1.INDIVIDUAL  PERSONAL  FACTORS.
-personality
-values
-belief
-job satisfaction
-supervisor  impact
-ethics
-lack of  mentoring
etc  
2.ORGANIZATIONAL  FACTORS.
The relationship between two types of alienation--alienation from work and alienation from expressive relations--and
- two structural properties of organizations--centralization and formalization . Both alienation from work and alienation from expressive relations are found to be more prominent in highly centralized and highly formalized organizations
===================================================
ORGANIZATION   FACTORS  INFLUENCING  INDIVIDUAL  ALIENATION.

Hierarchy of Authority
1 Even small matters have to be referred to some one higher up for a final answer.
2 I have to check with the boss before I do almost anything.
3 A person who wants to make his own decisions would quickly become discouraged .
4 Everyone here has one superior to whom he regularly reports.
5 There can be little action until a MANAGER approves a decision.
6 Staff members  always get their orders from higher up.
7 I get approval for decision I make.
8 Only  MANAGERS  can decide how things are to be done.
9 Employees are expected to follow written orders without questioning them.
10 As if going through the proper channels is more important than doing our jobs right.
11 Whenever we have a problem, we are supposed to go to the same person for an answer.
12 Going through the proper channels is constantly stressed.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of  involvement,
-lack  of  empowerment
-lack  of responsibility
-lack  of   accountability
-no  role  in  decision  making
-limited  options]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
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Division of Labor

13 We are expected to do  all  types  of work.
14 Employment  involves a variety of tasks and responsibilities from day to day .
15 We do a lot of paper work, which could be done by  others.
16 We  do  not receive   adequate  training.
17 Assignment of  duties is made without regard for the  individual's experience or training
18 There is an overlap in the job responsibilities .
19 There is really no systematic procedure for promotion.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of   effective  delegation,
-lack  of   training
-lack  of  proper job  descriptions
-lack  of   effective  systems/ procedures
-limited  options]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
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Rules and Regulations

20 Smoking is permitted only in certain designated places.
21 People here make their own rules on the job .
22 Staff    cannot  take  leave  unless they have permission.
23 Staff members feel as though they are constantly being watched to see that they obey all the
rules.
24 Rules govern the style and type of clothing, which I wear to the  workplace.
25 I follow rules stating when I am to arrive and/or depart from the workplace.
26 I obey a lot of rules regarding my personal behavior in and around the workplace.
27 I follow workplace rules, which regulate my attendance.
28  Employees  are aware of rules regarding their behavior in and around the school.
29 We are to follow strict operating procedures at all times.
30 Employees follow clearly specified procedures for doing the job here.
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THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ -some  staff  dislike  strict  rules/ regulations.
-some  staff hate  strict   supervision.
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Procedural Specifications

31 Standard procedures are to be followed in almost all situations.
32 The organization stresses following the established procedures.
33 Whatever situation arises, we have procedures to follow in dealing with most matters.
34 The same procedure is used in different situations.
35 There is only one way to do the job- the boss's way.
36 The same procedures are to be followed in most situations.
37  Standardized  workplace methods and procedures are used by all staff-members.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ some  staff   dislike  strict  procedures.
-some  staff  dislike  standardized  methods/  procedures.  
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Formality in Relations

38 The management  here sticks pretty much to themselves.
39 No one here calls his superior by his first name.
40 The relationship in this organization is really very impersonal.
41 People who have been  warned,   are instructed in roper procedures for talking with
them.
42 The  management  does not like staff get-togethers if it is not for official matters.
43  My relations with other staff  are formal and impersonal.
44 Staff meetings proceed in a formal manner.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of   informality,
-lack  of   flexibility
-lack  of  understanding  of  others]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
Promotions Based on Technical Competence

45 People are not promoted simply because they have "pull."
46 Promotions are based on merit in this organization.
47 (People here are given raises according to how well they are liked rather than how well they do
their job .
48 There is little chance for promotion unless you are "in" with the boss .
49 In order to get a promotion, you have to "know somebody" .
50 Past   experience plays a large part in the assignment to this organization.
51If you do not support  management, how well you do your job is not important .
52 The functions  are highly  departmentalized.

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of    credit  to  merit,
-lack  of   transparency
-lack  of  credit  to  talent
-lack  of   recognition ]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
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LACK  OF  Friendly Climate

53 A person gets  no chance to develop good friends here.
54 A very friendly atmosphere is not evident to everyone who works here.
55 The management  never   sponsoring employee get-togethers.
THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of   friendliness,
-lack  of   management  support
-lack  of  warmth  in  the  working  climate
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
------------------------------------------------------------------
SENSE OF POWER SCALE


1. I do things at this  workplace  that I would not do if it were up to me.
2. When things get rough in my workplace l, I just have to take it the way it is .
3.  managers  are not open to my ideas on workplace  matters.
4. I have not  been given enough authority to do my job well.
5.There are lots of things I can't do although I know they are right .
6.If only I could do my job more independently .
7. I am not given chance to contribute to important decisions made about the workplace.
8. I have little to say over what  will work with me on my job .
9. If I really want, I cannot  force the changes in rules.
10.I feel that I do not know what is going on in the upper levels of administration .

THIS  ABOVE  REMARKS  SHOWS
[ lack  of  involvement,
-lack  of  empowerment
-lack  of responsibility
-lack  of   accountability
-no  role  in  decision  making
-limited  options]
WHICH   CREATES   ALIENATIONS  OF  INDIVIDUALS.
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HOW  CAN  WE  REDUCE  OR  REMOVE  ALIENATION  
AT  THE  WORKPLACE.
-by  reviewing  organizational structure (size, formalization, centralization),
-by  removing  job-related tensions,
-by  improving leadership,
-by  working  on  supervisory behavior,
-by improving  morale  by   lifting  thru  motivation  program
-by creating    job satisfaction,
-by  supporting  change / innovation,
-by improving  work  climate,
-by  improving  employee communication,
-by  introducing  conflict management  resolutions,
-by  changing   work- culture,
-by  introducing  systems  for  decision making / problem solving,
-by  introducing   work  ethics,
-by  creating  an   atmosphere  for  honesty / trust,
-by  improving  interpersonal relations  thru  programs,
-by  providing  for  job commitment,
-by  givivng  importance  to   job involvement,
-by creating  a climate  for  job satisfaction,
-by  providing  support  for   mentoring,
-by conducting   organizational assessment / effectiveness  program,
-by  reviewing   power / authority / control,
-by  providing autonomy,
-by  respecting  self  esteem.
-by  introducing   performance  management  sustem  ,
which  include generalized work activity, work context: taxonomy and measurement of the work environment, organizational context, abilities, occupational interests and values, work styles, occupation-specific descriptors, occupational descriptor covariates, cross-domain analysis, occupational classification: using skills and generalized work activity to create job families.
-by  organizational   audit   which  includes  
measures of organizational communication, including communication satisfaction, organizational communications scales and audits, conflict management, team building, group communication, mentoring, communication competence, communication load, communication style, leadership, and organizational commitment. Also includes measures of instructional communication, interpersonal communication and mass communication.
-introduction to organizational assessment, a process for assessing organizations, methodology in constructing and evaluating OAI (organizational assessment instruments), overall organizational context and structure, the context and design of organizational units, the context and design of jobs, external unit relationships, the inter-organizational field, the revised organizational assessment framework and instruments, glossary for the revised organization assessment instruments, OAI unit supervisor questionnaire, OAI unit member questionnaire, OAI focal unit questionnaire, OAI other unit questionnaire, computing structural indices of inter-unit networks.
-INTRODUCING   DEMOCRATIC  CULTURE  AT  THE  WORKPLACE.
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