Management Consulting/MBA


MS-91 - Advanced Strategic Management
Q1.      What is the role of strategists in Corporate Management? Discuss with the help of some real life examples.
Q2.      Collect the material related to Starbucks. Analyze its strategies for global markets.
Q3.      Discuss the recent development with respect to the code and laws of Corporate Governance in markets other than India.
Q4.      Enlist the steps involved in developing R&D strategy and explain each one of them with the help of examples.
Q5.      ‘The new Companies Act 2013 urges the organizations to actively take up social causes, by making corporate social responsibility (CSR) statutory’. Elucidate the statement and its implications on the business integrated view of CSR.

MS – 93 - Management of New and Small Enterprises   
1.   How is the Industrial Policy Statement of 1991 different from IPR 1980? Discuss.

2.         Differentiate between selling and marketing orientation using illustrations.

3.       What are the types of loans required by small scale units? Explain the sources of working capital finance and describe the consequences of inadequate working capital.

4.         Why are small business owners not able to handle employee relations? Discuss. What are the measures used for handling employee grievances?
5.   Describe the positive and negative side of family business. Does family business seem to be a useful system to achieve pace in industrial development?

6.   Write Short Notes on the following:
(a)   Conducive Environment for Small Scale Enterprises
(b)   Hen or Egg Controversy
(c)   Commercial Banks         

MS-95 - Research Methodology for Management Decisions

1.   Make a comparison of Completely Randomized Design (CRD), Randomized complete Block Design (RBD) and Latin Square Design (LSD) in terms of role, the model and the assumptions embodied in the model.

2.   You are given a sample of 100 people and are asked to do an image study of three neighbourhood multiplexes. Assume any average ratings based on people's attitude and construct a Semantic Differential Scale by defining appropriate adjectives.

3.   What is multiple regression? In what ways can multiple regression be used to forecast some industry’s sales?

4.   Describe, in brief, the importance of editing, coding, classification, tabulation & presentation of data in the context of research study.

5.   The values below are the scores (maximum 20) obtained in an aptitude test by a random sample of 11 graduates.  It is known that for the non-graduate population the median score is 12. Is there evidence, at the 10% significance level, that graduates achieve a higher median score than the non-graduate population?

14   15   9   10   10   13   14   19   12   16   13

I  will send  the balance  asap.

Q4.   Enlist the steps involved in developing R&D strategy and explain each one of them with the help of examples.
Perhaps no single issue today is higher on the agenda of senior management than improving
innovation performance. Whether you operate in a technology intensive business like
pharmaceuticals or electronics, or a more traditional manufacturing sector like automobiles,company growth in a highly competitive world hinges on superior R&D performance. And yet, no
other endeavor frustrates management more than attempts to improve R&D performance. Many R&D organizations have endured repeated restructuring, oscillations between centralized to
decentralized models, endless process re-engineering, a barrage of team concepts, and a host of
other management interventions with little to show for it. It is no wonder that new attempts to
“revolutionize” the R&D process are often meet with jaded skepticism.
The failure of many organizations to improve R&D performance is not due to lack of effort or
commitment by the management or people involved. It is due to a misconception about the drivers of R&D performance. Too often, R&D performance is boiled down to a few simple universal practices. Unfortunately, there is no one best model for R&D that is universally superior. There is no “magic bullet.” R&D performance results from the interaction of many different decisions and choices, including the size and location of R&D facilities, the division of
labor between various groups, the choice of technologies used inside the R&D organization, the selection of personnel, the allocation of  resources, the design of processes for managing
projects, and other factors. An R&D organization is like any other system: performance hinges on
the coherence between the components. And, like any other system, R&D organizations cannot
be designed to do all things equally well. They face trade-offs. Every approach to R&D has
strengths and weaknesses. It is because of the need for coherence and the need to manage
trade-offs that R&D strategy is an essential ingredient for achieving superior R&D performance.

The Concept of Strategy
A strategy is nothing more than a commitment to a pattern of behavior intended to help win a competition. “Hit to Joe’s backhand” is a strategy you might deploy for your Saturday morning
tennis game against your friend. It does not mean you will hit every shot to Joe’s backhand
(presumably, his weaker stroke), but you will try to emphasize shots to that side. Company
strategies have the same flavor. Apple’s strategy, for instance, is to develop easy-to-use, aesthetically-pleasing products that integrate seamlessly with a broader system of devices in the
consumer’s digital world. This strategy provides a guiding orientation for a broad range of Apple’s
business decisions such as the selection of new R&D projects, the design of products, the
composition of project teams, the choice of suppliers, the focus of marketing campaigns, the layout
of Apple’s retail stores, and even hiring of people. The strategy implies a pattern of behavior
with respect to all of these decisions.

There are three essential purposes (and requirements) of a good strategy. A good strategy provides consistency, coherence, and alignment.
1. Consistency: Advantage is not the result of a single decision, but rather the
cumulative outcome of a series of decisions, actions, and behaviors over time. A
good strategy provides a framework for making consistent decisions over time
that build cumulatively toward a desired objective.
2. Coherence: In a complex organization, many decisions are made each day that
can shape competitive capabilities (who gets hired and promoted, which projects
get funded, which pieces of equipment are bought, which partners are engaged
for collaboration, etc.). They are often made in far-flung corners of the
organization (and, today, in different parts of the globe). Strategy provides an
integrating mechanism to ensure these tactical decisions are coherent. Without
a strategy, it is impossible to achieve coherence. Organizations sometimes try to
compensate for poor strategy by creating committees and others communication
mechanisms to ensure decisions are integrated. But such devices are a poor and
inefficient substitute for good, clear strategy.
3. Alignment: Organizations thrive when their strategies are aligned to the realities
of the environment or the broader organizational context in which they operate.
An R&D organization needs to have a strategy that is aligned with the broader
business strategy of the organization in which it operates. A strategy should help
drive alignment.

All strategies—whether for a game, a whole business, or a function like R&D—come down to certain “core hypotheses” about what it takes to win. For instance, in our simple example at the
outset, the strategy “hit to Joe’s backhand” is predicated on the assumption that Joe’s backhand is his weaker stroke. Apple’s strategy of providing easy to use, aesthetically pleasing, integrated
system is predicated on a core hypothesis that customers will be willing to pay a significantly higher price for products with these attributes. Underlying many R&D strategies are hypotheses
or assumptions about technical or scientific approaches that are likely to be most fruitful. Apple
has made a “bet” around the virtues of integrated hardware and software systems. Boeing is
making a “bet” that new composite materials will offer superior flight performance in airframes.
Different automobile companies are making different technical “bets” on different engine systems
to achieve higher environmental performance (hybrids, fuel cells, all electric, diesel, etc.). Some
pharmaceutical companies are “betting” heavily that genomics will lead to personalized medicine.
There is often no way to “test” these hypotheses in advance. Thus, at some level, all strategies
are “bets”. Experience executing a strategy provides “data” that may cause you to revise your
core hypotheses.

Elements of an R&D Strategy
R&D strategies, like all strategies, must start with the devilishly simply question: “how do we intend to win?” The “game plan” for an R&D organization can be broken down into 4 strategic levers:
3.people, and

Together, decisions made in each of these
categories constitute the R&D strategy

1. Architecture refers to the set of decisions around how R&D is structured both
organizationally and geographically. This category includes decisions such as centralization
vs. decentralization of R&D; the size, location, and focus of R&D units (e.g. focus by market?
focus by technology?); whether R&D units report to business units or are autonomous;
whether research is organizationally separated from development; and the degree to which
R&D utilizes external resources and partnerships. There is no single best architecture for an
R&D organization. For instance, a highly centralized R&D organization facilitates
communication and integration across different functional groups; at the same time,
centralization forfeits the benefits of having a geographically diversified “footprint” of R&D
facilities located close to different global technology hotspots. The better approach depends
on the organization’s “core hypotheses” about what it takes to win. If it is betting on
integration, then the centralized model is better. If it thinks tapping geographically diverse
knowledge bases is the key to winning, then the decentralized model is a better route.

2. Processes are the formal and informal ways that R&D is carried out. This category includes choices about project management systems, the governance of projects (including the nature

Elements of R&D Strategy
Centralization vs. Decentralization
Size and Focus of Units
Outsourcing vs. Internal

Characteristics of ideal projects
Mix and balance
Criteria for selection/termination

Development processes
Decision making process

“Draft Strategy”
Specialist vs. Generalist
Ideal characteristics
How do we intend to win?
of senior management reviews), the sequence and flow of critical project tasks, the timing of
reviews, and the metrics and indicators used to track projects. Too often, certain kinds of
development processes are pitched as “best practice” when, in fact, process design is very
contingent on the overall R&D strategy. Consider the choice between a highly “structured”
R&D process (with tightly specified procedures, review points, etc.) and a more “flexible”
process. Which is better? Again, it depends on broader R&D goals and other choices. An
R&D organization working on highly novel (and highly uncertain) technologies may need
much more process flexibility so that it can have the latitude to explore and iterate. In
contrast, where R&D must be tightly coordinated with other functions (like manufacturing), a
more tightly specified process may be necessary to “keep everyone on the same page.”

3. People are obviously an enormously important aspect of an R&D system. Despite the
growing use of sophisticated instrumentation, computer simulation, and laboratory
automation, R&D is still a labor intensive process. Thus, choices about human resources--
such as the mix of generalists vs. specialists, technical backgrounds and training, work
styles, career paths, lay off policies, etc.—have a significant impact on R&D performance.
Again, there is no one best human resource strategy for R&D. Take for instance lay-off
policies and career paths. Some companies implicitly promise their R&D workforce that they
will have relatively steady employment and seek to attract people who will tend to stay at the
company. Other companies are comfortable with a degree of “churn.” They do not expect
people to stay along, but neither do they promise much job security. Which approach is
better? That depends on the location of the R&D laboratories (an architectural choice). If one
is located in a technology hot-spot (like say Silicon Valley or Boston), a high “churn” model
may be perfectly reasonable (and, unavoidable). But, if the R&D labs are more
geographically isolated, then it is much more important to promise some degree of job
security to attract talent.

4. Portfolio refers to the desired resource allocation across different types of R&D projects and
the criteria used to sort, prioritize, and select projects. The R&D portfolio should reflect the
priorities of the R&D strategy. For instance, a pharmaceutical company that “intends to win”
by discovering its own first-in-class drugs should have a very different portfolio allocation than
a company that is trying to win by developing follow-on drugs in already established drug
In evaluating an R&D strategy, it is important to ask a few basic questions. First, have we been
absolutely clear about how we intend to win? Everyone should understand what the priorities are
and what they mean for them. Second, are the choices we are making about architecture,
processes, people, and portfolio coherent? Are there any major conflicts between our policies?
Third, do all our choices form an integrated “system” focused on the key priorities (how we intend
to win)? Finally, because a strategy is a “hypothesis”, we need to evaluate our R&D strategy
against performance data, and recognize when the time has come to reject our initial hypothesis,
and change strategies.
Application Example: The Case of Pharmaceuticals
Facing intensifying competition, more demanding (and price sensitive) payers, patent expirations,
and higher regulatory burdens, pharmaceutical companies have been in search of new R&D
strategies to increase R&D productivity. Because of the high levels of uncertainty in
pharmaceutical R&D, attrition rates and the timing of attrition dominate the effect of direct project
costs in pharmaceutical R&D productivity. While managing projects effectively and efficiently is
certainly important, better selection of projects and better decisions about which projects to
advance have a much bigger impact on overall R&D costs (this is due to the fact that
development costs escalate as projects progress). It is no wonder, then, that most efforts to
improve R&D productivity have focused on the attrition problem. As shown in the examples
below, there are multiple potential strategies for dealing with the attrition problem. The purpose of
the examples below is not to highlight effective models for improving attrition management. Each
of these models has strength and weaknesses (trade-offs), and some have serious flaws. The
purpose is to illustrate how core hypotheses about the underlying root causes of problems can
have a profound influence on strategic choices. The examples also illustrate how organizations
can be biased toward different strategic levers (architecture, process, people) in their R&D
GlaxoSmithKline: Breaking R&D Up into Smaller Unit1
In January 2000, after the merger of Glaxo and Smithkline Beecham, the newly formed
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) restructured R&D around organizational focused therapeutic area units
(cancer, neurology, etc.). These were initially called Centers of Excellence in Drug Discovery
(CEDD). Each CEDD was responsible for the development of molecules in its designated
therapeutic realm, from discovery through proof of concept. GSK continued to centralize early
discovery (target identification and molecule discovery) and late stage development (Phase III
clinical trials, registration, etc.). Each CEDD had its own leader and management team, and
possessed most of the functions required to move a molecule from discovery to proof of concept.
CEDDs were given complete autonomy over the management of their portfolios up through proof
of concept. They could select projects, make in-licensing decisions, determine project level
funding and strategy, and decide which projects to advance and terminate. After proof of concept,
the CEDD would present programs to a centralized governance committee (composed of senior
management from R&D, business units, and corporate headquarters) for a “go/no-go” decision for
full development. CEDD-heads were fully accountable for the performance of their therapeutic
area portfolios. CEDDs were to be rewarded based on proof of concept successes advanced into
full development.
The CEDDs model was predicated on the assumption that smaller, focused, autonomous, and
more accountable units would make more efficient decisions regarding portfolio advancement. In
essence, it was an attempt to create “biotech-like” organizations inside the larger corporate
framework. The CEEDs model sees the core problem of R&D productivity as one of misaligned
incentives, poor governance, and lack of focus. It is based on the principle of moving decisionmaking
and control of projects closer to the organizational locus of the relevant information. The
CEDDs model later evolved into what GSK called into Discovery Process Units (DPUs) that were
smaller, and even more focused therapeutically than the original CEDDs. Using our framework
above, the CEDDs/DPU model can be seen as a largely architectural intervention in the R&D
Wyeth: A Metrics Based Approach2
In 2001, just about the same time GSK initiated its change effort, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals was
taking a very different approach to the R&D productivity/attrition problem. Like their counterparts
at GSK, Wyeth senior management saw poor productivity as rooted in poor decision-making and
misaligned incentives. However, instead of restructuring R&D around focused units, Wyeth chose
to attack the problem through standardized development processes, metrics and performance
targets, and incentive schemes aligned with those objectives. R&D remained centralized. Under
the Wyeth strategy, the R&D organization received specific target objectives for molecules at
each phase of the development cycle (e.g. 12 new clinical candidates per year). If this level of
performance was achieved, the entire R&D organization was eligible for a financial bonus. If the
target was not hit, no one got a bonus. Prior to the start of the initiative, Wyeth had been
advancing an average of 3 molecules into clinical trials per year. The target objective for new
clinical candidates was initially set at 12 per year. In addition to precise numerical targets (and
tying financial rewards to them), the company deployed a structured development process with
tightly specified milestones and reviews for every program. All projects would follow the same
The Wyeth model was predicated on an assumption that it would be possible to make the drug
R&D process more predictable by using a more “repeatable” process, by setting clear
performance objectives, and by clarifying decision-making. Decisions regarding project
advancement were governed centrally (unlike the CEDDs/DPU model). Performance bonuses
were R&D wide, rather than tied to the performance of any given therapeutic area’s performance.
Whereas the GSK CEDDs/DPU model was oriented around architecture, the Wyeth model was
focused on process.
Novartis: Betting on Science3
In the early 2002, Novartis embarked on a major change in its R&D strategy. It opened a
research laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This was not an unusual move. Other large
pharmaceutical companies, including Merck and Pfizer, had opened research laboratories in the
Cambridge area to be close to a thriving ecosystem of biotechnology companies and leading
academic institutes. What was unusual is that the Swiss-based company decided to move its
research headquarters from its home in Basel to Cambridge. This move was part of a broader
strategy to make drug discovery at Novartis based on deep scientific understanding of underlying
pathways and mechanisms of action. Being geographically close to biotechnology companies
and institutions like the Broad, Harvard University, MIT, and the academic medical centers like
Massachusetts General Hospital was viewed as essential to accessing and absorbing the
relevant science. At the same time, the company recruited heavily from the Boston area
academic science community (for instance, it hired Mark Fishman, a professor at Harvard
Medical School and Mass General Hospital to head research). It hired over 1000 scientists to
staff its Cambridge research laboratories.
Novartis pursued a decentralized research model. Discovery research was organized under the
auspices of the Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research (NIBR), headquartered in Boston, and
under the leadership of Fishman. NIBR was not part of Novartis’s Pharmaceutical Division.
Instead, it was an autonomous organization reporting directly to the Novartis CEO. Focal areas
for research were determined by NIBR, and based on two basic criteria: large unmet medical
need and an opportunity to develop deep biological insight. Analysis of market size and net
present value were explicitly rejected as criteria for project selection at the research phase. One
strategy for project selection was to identify pathways that might span multiple disease areas, and
to initiate clinical trials in the disease with a small, well defined patient population. This could
allow proof of mechanism in human subjects to be established more quickly. Once proof of

mechanism was established, the research program could then be expanded to larger therapeutic
applications. NBIR had responsibility for programs from discovery through proof of concept.
Research was organized around both platform groups focused on specific research capabilities
(e.g. proteomics, pathways, molecular biology, medicinal chemistry, etc.) and therapeutic areas
focused on diseases (oncology, cardiovascular, neurological, etc.). NIBR had six research sites:
Cambridge, MA; Basel, Switzerland; Horsham, UK; Emeryville, CA; East Hannover, NJ; and
Shanghai, China. While each site had some degree of specialized focus, there was also a high
degree of overlap. For instance, both Cambridge and Basel had biology and platform groups; all
sites had discovery chemistry groups; discovery in several therapeutic areas (like oncology) were
carried out at multiple sites.
The Novartis research strategy addressed architecture (separate NIBR), people (locate where the
talent is), process (establish proof of mechanism in well-defined patient populations first), and
portfolio (select projects based on scientific attributes). It was predicated on the “core
hypothesis” that improved scientific knowledge of the disease pathway and mechanism would
allow better decision-making about drug candidates to advance, and this would ultimately reduce
later stage attrition rates. The strategy was, in essence, a bet on the science.
Strategy is a systematic approach to solving a problem. Some problems have small stakes (e.g.
how can I beat Joe at tennis this weekend?). Some problems are more important (e.g. what’s the
right approach to finding a cure for Alzheimer?). In this note, we outlined a way to develop a
systematic approach to addressing the problem: how can we make our R&D organization more
competitive and effective? This involves consistent and coherent choices across architecture,
processes, people, and portfolio. The pharmaceutical examples above give some flavor of how
and why different companies pursued different strategies to essentially address the same
problem. The differences were largely rooted in different “core hypotheses” (bets) on the
underlying root cause of the problem. This suggests that the very first question to be answered in
strategy development is: what’s our shared understanding of the root cause of the problem we
are trying to solve?    

Q5.   ‘The new Companies Act 2013 urges the organizations to actively take up social causes, by making corporate social responsibility (CSR) statutory’. Elucidate the statement and its implications on the business integrated view of CSR.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR):
•   Formation of CSR Committee has been made mandatory for a company having net worth of Rs. 500 crore or more, or turnover of Rs.1,000 crore or more or net profit of Rs. 5 crore or more during any financial year.
•   Such company shall spend, in every financial year, at least 2 % of the average net profits of the company made during three immediately preceding financial years, in pursuance of its Corporate Social Responsibility Policy (CSRP).

Changes Corporate Social Responsibility - Followings Companies shall constitute a CSR Committee: Net worth of rupees five hundred crore or more, or Turnover of rupees one thousand crore or more, or Net profit of rupees five crore or more. Committee to consist of at least three directors out of which at least one should be independent director. Board to ensure that at least 2% of the average net profits of last 3 years is spent by the company on CSR activities every financial year, else reasons for not spending to be specified in the Board's report signed by a director and the company secretary, or where there is no company secretary, by a company secretary in practice. The annual return, filed by a listed company or, by a company having such paid-up capital and turnover as may be prescribed, shall be certified by a company secretary in practice in the prescribed form, stating that the annual return discloses the facts correctly and adequately and that the company has complied with all the provisions of this Act. Key Managerial Personnel - No company can have both Managing Director and Manager at the same time. Every company belonging to such class or description of companies as may be prescribed, to have managing director, or chief executive officer or manager and in their absence, a whole-time director, company secretary and chief financial officer.


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Leo Lingham


management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc


18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc


24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
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