Management Consulting/Human Resources


Q1. How does HRM enable organizations to adapt to the dynamic changes in the environment? Illustrate with examples.
Q2. How to  devise  HRIS for a mid – sized organization?
Q3. What are the various principles and purposes of promotion and types and purpose of transfers.

Q1.How does HRM enable organizations to adapt to the dynamic changes in the
environment? Illustrate with examples.


- creating a  global mind-set within the HR group, creating
practices that will be consistently applied in different
locations/offices while also maintaining the various
local cultures and practices, and communicating a
consistent corporate culture across the entire
-considering  the HR function not as just an
administrative service but as a strategic business
Companies are  involving  the human resources
department in developing and implementing both
business and people strategies.

- Communicate  to all locations about a common
corporate culture.
- Allow   local cultures to maintain their identity
in the context of the corporate culture.
- Establish   common systems (e.g., accounting,
marketing, MIS).
- Provide   management with education outlining
how the company does business.
- Create  an organizational mission with input
from all locations.
- Create a written strategy outlining the
corporate culture.

Technology-related skills
• Skills in identifying new applications of technologies
• Skills in developing new technologies, or advancing existing technologies
• Skills in identifying technological solutions to problems

Operative/Technical skills
• Skills in operating new tools or equipment, or applying new methods/processes
• Skills in applying new processes or tools to existing work
• Skills in installing and maintaining new products, and
• Skills in manufacturing new products.


Management skills
• Skills in identifying which innovation outcomes are appropriate for commercialisation
• Skills in knowing when and how to market a new product, tool or process (or other innovation outcome) successfully
• Skills in securing intellectual property rights over innovation outcomes
• Skills in setting up efficient manufacturing processes for new products
• Skills in negotiating appropriate training provision with education and training providers
*Building an educated and highly skilled workforce.
*Becoming a leader in knowledge creation and innovation.
*Developing linkages, clusters and networks to become a more integrated and networked local economy.
*Fostering high levels of enterprise formation and business growth.
*Becoming a globally focused and internationally integrated economy.
*Creating a business environment and infrastructure base that facilitates business success.
establishing a culture of innovations  THRU
#Co-operative Research Centres
#Knowledge and Technology Diffusion
#Technology, Research Parks and Precincts
-more  systems / more  software  for  the  business  means
different  methods  of  working, which  affect  the  working  human resources.
HRM have  to  face / meet/  manage  the  human  resources  to deliver  the  results.
-the  demand  for  cheaper labor  forced  the  companies  to
seek  more  destinations  in the underdeveloped countries.
This  created  an  enormous  challenge  to  the  HRM
to seek/develop/manage  overseas  HR.

-the  rapid  development  of   underdeveloped  countries
forced  many companies  to  shift  their  production  base
overseas.This  created  an  enormous  challenge  to  the  HRM
to seek/develop/manage  overseas  HR.
-the  rise in per capita  income  created  more  educated
human  resources.

There are seven steps to developing a human resource strategy and the active involvement of senior line managers should be sought throughout the approach.

Steps in developing HRM strategy
Step 1: Get the 'big picture'
Understand your business strategy.
•   Highlight the key driving forces of your business. What are they? e.g. technology, distribution, competition, the markets.
•   What are the implications of the driving forces for the people side of your business?
•   What is the fundamental people contribution to bottom line business performance?
Step 2: Develop a Mission Statement or Statement of Intent
That relates to the people side of the business.
Do not be put off by negative reactions to the words or references to idealistic statements - it is the actual process of thinking through the issues in a formal and explicit manner that is important.
•   What do your people contribute?
  Step 3: Conduct a SWOT analysis of the organization
  Focus on the internal strengths and weaknesses of the people side of the business.
•   Consider the current skill and capability issues.
  Vigorously research the external business and market environment. High light the opportunities and threats relating to the people side of the business.
•   What impact will/ might they have on business performance?
•   Consider skill shortages?
•   The impact of new technology on staffing levels?
From this analysis you then need to review the capability of your personnel department. Complete a SWOT analysis of the department - consider in detail the department's current areas of operation, the service levels and competences of your personnel staff.
Step 4: Conduct a detailed human resources analysis
Concentrate on the organization's COPS (culture, organization, people, HR systems)
•   Consider: Where you are now? Where do you want to be?
•   What gaps exists between the reality of where you are now and where you want to be?
Exhaust your analysis of the four dimensions.
Step 5: Determine critical people issues
Go back to the business strategy and examine it against your SWOT and COPS Analysis
•   Identify the critical people issues namely those people issues that you must address. Those which have a key impact on the delivery of your business strategy.
•   Prioritize the critical people issues. What will happen if you fail to address them?
Remember you are trying to identify where you should be focusing your efforts and resources.
Step 6: Develop consequences and solutions
For each critical issue highlight the options for managerial action generate, elaborate and create - don't go for the obvious. This is an important step as frequently people jump for the known rather than challenge existing assumptions about the way things have been done in the past. Think about the consequences of taking various courses of action.
Consider the mix of HR systems needed to address the issues. Do you need to improve communications, training or pay?
What are the implications for the business and the personnel function?
Once you have worked through the process it should then be possible to translate the action plan into broad objectives. These will need to be broken down into the specialist HR Systems areas of:
•   employee training and development
•   management development
•   organization development

•employee reward



Develop your action plan around the critical issues. Set targets and dates for the accomplishment of the key objectives.
Step 7: Implementation and evaluation of the action plans
The ultimate purpose of developing a human resource strategy is to ensure that the objectives set are mutually supportive so that the reward and payment systems are integrated with employee training and career development plans.
There is very little value or benefit in training people only to then frustrate them through a failure to provide ample career and development opportunities.


•    1)   Each Organisation needs personnel with necessary qualifications, skills, knowledge, experience & aptitude .
•    2)   Need for Replacement of Personnel -  Replacing old, retired or disabled personnel.
•    3)   Meet manpower shortages due to labour turnover
•    4)   Meet needs of expansion / downsizing programmes
•    5)   Cater to Future Personnel Needs
•    6)   Nature of present workforce in relation with Changing Environment - helps to cope with changes in competitive forces, markets, technology, products and government regulations.


i)  quantify job for producing TYPE  of  product / service    
ii) quantify people & positions required
ii) determine future staff-mix
iii) assess staffing levels to avoid unnecessary costs
iv) reduce delays in procuring staff
v) prevent shortage / excess of staff
vi) comply with legal requirements


A high quality CORPORATE  is dependent upon the quality, reputation and productivity of its
staff, its human resources. The Human Resources Division will continue to engage in
regular analysis and planning to ensure its services address the long term needs of the
COMPANY . Over the next  3 years the six strategic concerns are:

1.Staff and Organisational Renewal – Recruiting and Retaining High Quality Staff
Employment Flexibility
2.Accounting for Performance
3.Continual Learning
4.Creating an Equitable and Diverse Workplace
5.Creating a Safe and Supportive Workplace Culture
6.Strategies to address these are identified in the COMPANYs Operational Priorities Plan and
the related HR Operational Priorities Plan.

3.1 Staff and Organisational Renewal – Recruiting and Retaining High Quality Staff
Recruitment and retention of high quality staff in a competitive labour market is of vital
importance to the COMPANY . As there is a concentration of staff in the older
age groups and a relatively small proportion of younger  staff. Successful human
resource management will require effective recruitment and retention strategies that take
into account the following:

Accelerated retirements will be accompanied by continued growth in staff
numbers as the participation rate rises, increasing the demand for staff
There will be increased competition for a limited number of quality staff in an
increasingly international labour market in which  we
are significantly constrained in contrast to many competitors.

. Traditional  career structures may be less attractive to younger people than
in the past.
. Well-being in the workforce has become increasingly important. High workload, low
financial reward careers may further constrain the supply of quality staff. Together
with increased expectations about research performance and higher levels of
accountability and reporting, there is the potential to become less competitive
.A difficult funding environment will continue to limit the  company's ability to provide
an internationally competitive reward structure.

3.2 Employment Flexibility
Current collective agreements are aligned with the company's strategic planning and
budget process, and salary increases are based on capacity to pay. There continues to be
moves towards greater flexibility at both the institutional and individual level, a trend seen
as also important in recruitment and retention.

3.3 Accounting for performance – a high performance culture
Human Resources analyses information from a variety of sources to assist in the
development of institutional improvement strategies. The COMPANY’s staff performance
management framework linking individual and institutional performance objectives is an
important element in the COMPANY ’s accountability framework.

3.4 Continual learning
A rapidly changing knowledge base in the work of COMPANIES , rapidly developing
information technologies, the competitive environment, the devolution of decision-making to
LOWER  STAFF  leaders, and an increasing level of liaison with the community requires a
high level of skill and knowledge on the part of staff. This can be developed only by a
commitment to lifelong learning by each member of staff as well as access to a
comprehensive range of staff development opportunities. The need to develop 21 st century
leadership capacity offers a particular challenge, particularly given the significant
demographic change.

3.5 Creating an equitable and diverse workplace
Diversity amongst staff  which reflects the broader  community has
the benefit of building a broad base of community support as well as meeting important
social, moral and human rights, and commitments to equity and diversity. A diverse staff
will improve the quality of decision-making in the COMPANY and is incorporated into its
accountability framework. This commitment is not only important in terms of social justice
but it an important attraction and retention strategy.

3.6 Creating a safe and supportive workplace culture
Physically and psychologically safe work environments and safe work practices are key
aspects of the COMPANY’s risk management strategy. This COMPANY has a high
commitment to safety, not only for its own employees and CUSTOMERS, but also for contractors
and visitors. To maintain THE  COMPANY  as an employer of choice requires a positive, inclusive and high performance culture marked by cooperation and respect, and where the work
environment promotes work/life balance for staff. Improved productivity also rests,
therefore, on building a ‘one-staff, one-COMPANY ’ culture.

The core values of the COMPANY are a commitment to:
. A high performance culture designed to achieve international excellence
. KNOWLEDGE  freedom to encourage staff and students to engage in open exchange of
ideas and thought
. Continuous improvement through self-evaluation and external review
. Fostering the values of openness, honesty, tolerance, fairness, trust and
responsibility in social, moral and WORKPLACE matters
. Transparency in decision-making and accountability
. Equity and merit as the fundamental principles for the achievement of the full
potential of all staff .

Human Resources is determined to provide a quality integrated service by creating a safe,
healthy and supportive environment where its own staff are valued, respected and able to
realise their full potential. In so doing Human Resources has further refined the COMPANY
level values to demonstrate:

Integrity by Maintaining confidentiality and professionalism, treating
others with respect, courtesy and fairness

Innovation by Promoting and embracing meaningful change, pursuing
excellence and striving to improve our knowledge and

Diversity by Recognising and respecting the value of human
differences, acknowledging and appreciating the
contributions of others

Freedom of expression by Expressing views without fear of recrimination,
encouraging and acknowledging new ideas

Team spirit by Communicating openly and honestly in a constructive
and a supportive manner sharing ideas and resources

Accountability by Taking personal and professional responsibility for our
actions, maintaining a consistently high level of

In so doing Human Resources aspires to maintain a positive attitude, sense of perspective
and good humour

A. Education
1.0 To provide services that contribute to ongoing improvement of TRAINING
and learning
1.1 To support the career transition of  STAFF   AND  MANAGERS.
1.2 To contribute to the embedding of equity and diversity perspectives into the

B. Research and  Training
1.0 To provide services that contribute to ongoing improvement of
1.1 To support the development of  staff and  leaders

C. External Relations
1.0 To demonstrate excellence in human resource management that positions
COMPANY   as an employer of choice nationally and internationally
1.1 To expand links with external organisations (both nationally and
internationally) and community groups
1.2 To showcase COMPANY  HR achievements and expertise and contribute to national
HR agendas.

D. Resourcing
1.0 To align resource allocation with COMPANY  strategic and operational priorities
1.1 To collaborate in maximising TRAINING/DEVELOPMENT  funding

E. Staffing
1.0 To support the development of COMPANY as a learning organisation responsive to
individual and organisational needs
1.1 To provide appropriate leadership development opportunities
1.2 To develop and maintain orientation and induction procedures
1.3 To support the career aspirations of  THE  COMPANY  staff

2.0 To provide high quality human resource services to the COMPANY
2.1 To manage the employment instruments of the COMPANY.
2.2 To recruit the highest quality staff (Staff) and support their retention

3.0 To ensure that the COMPANY fulfils its HR statutory and audit requirements
3.1 To ensure compliance with State and FEDERAL  legislation applicable to
the management of the COMPANY ’s workforce.

4.0 To monitor organisational and individual performance
4.1 To support the performance management process (the Professional
Development Review)
4.2 To support quality assurance through benchmarking and auditing

5.0 To identify, promote and implement improved policies and practices that
demonstrate social and economic responsibility
5.1 To work towards an equitable representation and distribution of staff from
diverse backgrounds (Staff)
5.2 To promote a safe, healthy and inclusive workplace that encourages work/life
balance for staff
5.3 To facilitate the provision of appropriate facilities and services to create an
accessible work and study environment

F. Management
1.0 To respond to workplace trends and opportunities
1.1 To build a comprehensive policy review and development process
1.2 To develop strategic policy responses to human resource issues
1.3 To facilitate cultural change and organisational well being

2.0 To support effective management systems, organisational structures and
2.1 To partner with managers in addressing their emerging human resource
2.2 To improve leave management in the COMPANY.
2.2 To develop and deliver high quality and responsive IT/IS capabilities
2.3 To improve the coordination between and within central and devolved units in
the  MANAGEMENT  structure (Mgt) through practical application of the One Staff,
One COMPANY  approach
2.4 To establish systems that ensure maintenance of the knowledge of key human
resources procedures
2.5 To provide accurate and reliable HR data through regular management
reporting to facilitate decision making

A crucial step in the planning process is translation of strategic goals and objectives into a specific
set of operational priorities. This is achieved through development of an Operational Priorities
Plan (OPP). The Operational Priorities Plan (OPP) provides the link between the Human
Resources Strategic Plan and the detailed business plans of each team within the Division.
The OPP specifies the particular objectives that are to have the highest priority during the
specified 3-year period and within this framework, the associated performance
indicators and implementation strategies.

It also assigns responsibility and accountability for
particular objectives.

These  include

-Recruitment/ Selection  PLAN
-Induction / Orientation PLAN
-Training  / Developement  PLAN
-Compensation  PLAN
-Salary  administration  PLAN
-Payroll  Administration  PLAN
-Performance  Appraisal  PLAN
-Performance  Management  PLAN
-Industrial  Relations  PLAN
-Promotions  PLAN [ IF  ANY ]
-Terminations  PLAN
-Transfers  PLAN
-Staff  amenities. PLAN
-retraining  plan
-early retirement  plan
-redundancy  plan
-changes in  workforce utilization  plan
-career  path  plan
-succession  plan.
-personnel  and  career  plans


The elements  in  HR  department  budget  would  vary  with
-company  policy
-budget  process
-company  accounting  system
-nature of  the business operation

HERE  is  a  broad  set  of   guidelines.

-recruitment/ selection [ internal/ outsourcing ]
-PLACEMENT contractors [external ]
-salary/ wages
-training/ development [ includes  induction/ orientation]
-staff benefits
-staff  amenities
-workplace  facilities
-workplace safety [ OHS]
-salary  contingency
-workers  compensation
-staff  communication [ includes newsletter/ intranet ]
-labor relations [ legal/ investigations]
-HR administration
-HR travels
etc etc.

Q2. How to  devise  HRIS for a mid – sized organization?

Management information  
Management functions      
Decision making      
Information system      
Management information    


1. Selecting objectives      
2. Identifying activities required to achieve the stipulated objectives      
3. Describing the resources or skills, or both, necessary to perform the activities      
4. Defining the duration of each activity to be undertaken      
5. Determining the sequence of the activities    


1. Supplying the information needed by the planner at each step
2. Establishing procedures for procuring the information at each step (including the means to view alternatives)
3. Arranging for storage of the approved plans as information for the control process
4. Devising an efficient method for communicating the plans to other members in the organization
Controlling involves
1. Establishing standards of performance in order to reach the objective
2. Measuring actual performance against the set standards
3. Correcting deviations to ensure that actions remain on course
1. Defining expectations in terms of information attributes
2. Developing the logic for reporting deviations to all levels of management prior to the actual occurrence of the deviation
Levels of decision making
• Strategic
• Tactical
• Technical
Elements of decision making
• Model
• Constraints
• Optimization
"A set of elements forming an activity or a procedure/scheme seeking a common goal or goals by operating on data and/or energy and/or matter in a time reference to yield information and/or energy and/or matter."
1. Some components, functions and processes performed by these various components
2. Relationships among the components that uniquely bind them together into a conceptual assembly which is called a system
3. An organizing principle which is an overall concept that gives it a purpose
4. The fundamental approach of the system is the interrelationship of the sub-systems of the organization

1.   The individual      
2.   The formal and informal organization      
3.   Patterns of behaviour arising out of role demands of the organization      
4.   The role perception of the individual      
5.   The physical environment in which individuals work    
• Developing and managing operating systems (e.g., money flows, manpower systems)
• Designing an information system for decision making
• Systems approach and HRIS
• HRIS aims at interrelating, coordinating and integrating different sub-systems by providing information required to facilitate and enhance the working of the sub-systems and achieve synergistic effects
'A set of classified and interpreted data used in the decision making process"

Information has also been defined as some tangible entity which serves to reduce uncertainty about future state or events
In the context of different levels of decision making, information can be described as:
• source
• data
• inference and predictions drawn from the data
• value and choices (evaluation of inferences with regard to the objectives, and then choosing courses of action)
• action which involves a course of action
The value of management information lies in its content, form and timing of presentation



1. Concepts of organization
2. Organizational theories, principles, structure, behaviour and processes such as communication, power and decision making
3. Motivation and leadership behaviour
• Hierarchy of authority
• Specialization
• Formalization
• Centralization
• Modification of the basic model
• Information model of organization
• Organizational culture
• Organizational power
• Organizational growth cycle
• Goal displacement
• Organizational learning
• Project model of organizational change
• Case for stable system
• Systems that promote organizational change
• Organizations as socio-technical systems
1. Assessing information requirements
2. Levels of information requirements
• Organizational level
• Application level
• Technical
• Database
1. Asking
2. Deriving from an existing information system
3. Synthesizing from characteristics of the utilizing system
4. Discovering from experimentation with an involving information system
1. Identify elements in the development process utilizing system:
• Information systems or applications
• Users
• Analysts
2. Identify process uncertainties:
• Existence and availability of a set of usable requirements
• Ability of users to specify requirements
• Ability of analysts to elicit and evaluate requirements
3. Evaluate the effects of elements in the development process over process uncertainties
4. Evaluate the combined effects of the process uncertainties on overall requirements uncertainty
5. Select a primary strategy for requirements determination based on the overall requirements uncertainty

Uncertainty level    Strategy       
Low    • Asking or deriving from an existing system       
  • Synthesis from characteristics of utilizing systems       
High    • Discovering from experimentation     
6. Select one or more from the set of methods to implement the primary strategy
1. Databank information system
2. Predictive information system
3. Decision making information system
4. Decision taking information system
1. Understand the organization
2. Analyse the organization's information requirements
3. Plan overall strategy
4. Review
5. Preliminary analysis
6. Feasibility assessment
7. Detailed fact finding
8. Analysis
9. Design
10. Development
11. Cutover
12. Obtain conceptual schema
13. Recruit database administrator
14. Obtain logical schema
15. Create data dictionary
16. Obtain physical schema
17. Create database
18. Modify data dictionary
19. Develop sub-schemas
20. Modify database
21. Amend database
• Relevance
• Management by exception
• Accuracy
• Adaptability
• Organization-chart approach
• Integrate-later approach
• Data-collection approach
• Database approach
• Top-down approach
Q3. What are the various principles and purposes of promotion and types and purpose of transfers

Purpose and Advantages of Promotion

Promotion stimulates self-development and creates interest in the job.  “promotion provides incentive to initiative, enterprise and ambition; minimizes discontent and unrest; attracts capable individuals; necessitates logical training for advancement and forms an effective reward for loyalty and cooperation, long service etc.” The purposes and advantages of promotions are to:
•   recognize employee’s performance and commitment and
motivate him towards better performance;
•   develop competitive spirit among employees for acquiring knowledge and skills for higher level jobs;
•   retain skilled and talented employees;
•   reduce discontent and unrest;
•   To fill up job's vacant position that is created due to retirement, resignation or demise of an employee.In this case next senior employee will be promoted to the vacant job.
•   utilize more effectively the knowledge and skills of employees; and
•   attract suitable and competent employees.
Favouring family members leads to employee disengagement:
a large proportion of employees expressed that competency should be the most important criteria for employment or promotion. And, they feel disengaged when relatives are given a key position or promotion, bypassing talented employees. The study highlighted that nepotism policies -favoritism towards family members- degrade level of commitment, loyalty and the sense of ownership amongst employees and leads to higher attrition rate.

"Nepotism is most commonly seen in family run businesses. And, family run businesses (FRBs) constitute most businesses in India. While favouring family members is very common in family businesses, it runs the dual risks of demoralising non-family members and increasing complacency among family members. The after effects of favouring family members for a senior level position on the existing employees are severe

Types of Promotions

Different types of promotions are discussed below.

a) Up or Out Promotion: In this case, an employee either earns a promotion or seeks employment elsewhere. Out promotion usually leads to termination of employee and joining some other organization in a better position.

b) Dry Promotion: In this type, promotion is given in lieu of increase in salary. For example, when an university professor is made Head of the Department, there is no increase in salary.
c) Paper promotion: Paper promotion happens on seniority of employee in government sector having different departments. Paper promotion is an employee promotion given to the employee belonging to the parent department, but indeed working in another department on transfer, on request of employee or due to exigency of work. Paper promoted employee draws salary pertaining to job in another Department, but not according to promotion’s job in the parent Department.

The reason for giving paper promotion is, generally in government sector, employee promotion will be given in order of seniority of employees subjected to the vacancy position created. Whoever is most senior employee amongst all employees in the same cader, out of them top senior employee will be given promotion. When a top senior is working in another Department, in such cases to fill up the vacancy position, promotion on paper will be given to such employee, because he’s not occupying job in the parent Department. Subsequently promotion will be given to the next top senior who is working in the parent Department. Paper promoted employee draws salary pertaining to the job of another Department only but not according to the job, which got paper promoted in the parent Department.

The main objective of a promotion is to protect the right, seniority of an employee and reserve his/her promotion seat in the parent department when an employee reverts to his/her parent department.


Promotion Program and Procedure

Every organization should make advance plans for promotion programme. A carefully planned promotion programme has four elements:
a) formulation of promotion policy,
b) identification of promotion channels,
c) promotion appraisal, and
d) centralized records. We shall discuss each element in detail.

a) Formulation of Promotion Policy:
Each organization needs to maintain a balance between the internal sources of personnel promotion and external sources by means of recruitment. Hence, promotion must be based on consistent, fair and clear cut policy. The National Institute of Personnel Management (NIPM) has suggested a promotion policy on the following lines:

•   Encouragement of promotion within the organization instead of looking outside to fill vacancies in higher places.
•   An understanding that ability as well as seniority will be taken into account in making promotions. Ability, efficiency, attitude, job performance, physical fitness, leadership, experience, and length of service are some of the factors considered in making promotions.
•   Drawing up an organization chart to make clear to all the ladder of promotion. Where there is a job analysis and a planned wage policy, such chart is quite easy to prepare.
•   Making the promotion system clear to all concerned who may initiate and handle cases of promotion. Though departmental heads may initiate promotion, the final approval must lie with the top management, after the personnel department has been asked to check from its knowledge whether any repercussion is likely to result from the proposed promotion.
•   All promotions should be for a trial period to ascertain whether the promoted person is found capable of handling the job or not. Normally, during this trial period, he draws the pay of the higher post, but it should be clearly understood that if “he does not make the grade” he will be reverted to his former post and former pay scale.
b) Promotion Channels:
Promotion channels should be identified and recorded on paper. This process is related with job analysis and career planning of an organization.

c) Promotion Appraisals:
The promotion of an employee is entirely dependent upon his/her performance appraisal outcome.

d) Centralised Records:
The education, experience, skills, abilities and evaluation of all employees should be recorded and maintained in a centralised manner by the department of the organization, because basing on these attributes, promotion is given to an employee.

Bases of Promotion

Promotion is given on the basis of seniority or merit or a combination of both. Let us discuss each one as a basis of promotion.

Seniority as a basis: It implies relative length of service in the same organization. The advantages of this are: relatively easy to measure, simple to understand and operate, reduces labour turnover and provides sense of satisfaction to senior employees. It has also certain disadvantages: beyond a certain age a person may not learn, performance and potential of an employee is not recognized, it kills ambition and zeal to improve performance.

Merit as a basis: Merit implies the knowledge, skills and performance record of an employee. The advantages are: motivates competent employees to work hard, helps to maintain efficiency by recognizing talent and performance. It also suffers from certain disadvantages like: difficulty in judging merit, merit indicates past achievement, may not denote future potential and old employees feel insecure.
Employees who reach office early more likely to get promoted
LONDON: Want to bag a promotion at work? Reach office early!

Employees who arrive at work earliest are most likely to get a pay rise, regardless of their performance and total time worked, according to a new study. Researchers also found that those who turn up late and leave the office last are more likely to be overlooked for promotions.

"We think it's a cultural thing. Those who turn up early are thought of as hard workers, while if you turn up later, you're perceived as lazy," said Kai Chi Yam, who led the research at the University of Washington.

Researchers surveyed 149 pairs of employees and managers about when each arrived at work and how the manager rated the employee's conscientiousness and performance.

People who started later were rated worse, particularly when their managers were early risers. There was no evidence that people who went home early were seen as less productive.In a second experiment, students took the role of a manager in a fictional scenario to rate staff performance.

They were told that the employees' performances were identical but their start times varied. Late start times led to lower ratings, even though productivity and total hours were the same.

The study is to be published in the Journal of Applied Psychology.

INDIA: Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) employees approached Andhra Pradesh High Court on the irregularities in their promotions. Aggrieved employees allege that their promotions are not being done in accordance with prescribed regulations, which prescribes merit, suitability and seniority of employee should be considered while promotions. In response to this, the honourable High Court of Andhra Pradesh issued interim stay on the promotion of employees.
The economic Times, 22-dec-12

Seniority-cum-Merit as basis: As both seniority and merit as basis suffer from certain limitations, therefore, a sound promotion policy should be based on a combination of both seniority and merit. A proper balance between the two can be maintained by different ways: minimum length of service may be prescribed, relative weightage may be assigned to seniority and merit and employees with a minimum performance record and qualifications are treated eligible for promotion, seniority is used to choose from the eligible candidates.

Facts [+]

Employees have no "vested" right to promotion
Feb, 2012, NEW DELHI [India]: The Delhi High Court said though employees have no "vested" right to promotion but they should not be deprived of it "arbitrarily" and without any reasonable ground by their employers.

"It is true that no employee has a vested right for promotion but respondents (employer) cannot act arbitrarily and without any reasonable excuse defer the meeting of Departmental Promotion Committee (DPC) and thereby deprive the employee of his legitimate expectations for being considered for promotion to a post if he is eligible for being promoted," a bench of justices B D Ahmed and V K Jain said.
March, 2012: In the other case women officers recruited in short service commission of Indian Air Force, filed a petition in the Delhi High Court for making them eligible for promotion and permanent job. The High Court issued orders to Indian Air Force in favour of women officers to make there  jobs permanent and promote them to the higher rank with all consequential financial benefits .


Demotion refers to the lowering down of the status, salary and responsibilites of an employee. Demotion is used as a disciplinary measure in an organization. The habitual patterns of behaviour such as violation of the rules and conduct, poor attendance record, insubordination where the individuals are demoted. Beach (1975) defines demotion as “the assignment of an individual to a job of lower rank and pay usually involving lower level of difficulty and responsibility”.

Causes of Demotion

Demotion may be caused by any of these factors:
•   Adverse business conditions: Employees may be demoted because of recession faced by company.
•   Incompetency of the employee: It happens when an employee finds it difficult to meet the required standard.
•   Technological changes: When employee is unable to adjust with any technological change made by the company.
•   Disciplinary measure.
Yoder, Heneman, Turnbull and Stone (1958) have suggested a fivefold policy with regard to demotion practice.
•   A clear and reasonable list of rules should be framed, violations of which would subject an employee to demotion;
•   This information should be clearly communicated to employees;
•   There should be a competent investigation of any alleged violation;
•   If violations are discovered, there should be a consistent and equitable application of the penalty, preferably by the immediate supervisor;
•   There should be a provision for review. (In a unionised case, this will be automatic via the grievance procedure; in a non-unionised case, the employer will need to make other provisions for review).

1.Explain the concept and purpose of mobility.
Mobility Programme
An innovative new Mobility Programme is   designed to enhance career opportunities for staff. The programme enables staff to take up short term temporary transfer opportunities to develop new skills and experience. The Mobility Programme is  developed in response to  the  need  for  better Working Life. The  staff   would like  to  be more equitable access to career development opportunities within the organization . It is   a fact that staff with higher levels of work place mobility increase their skills for future promotional opportunities. The initial focus of the Programme is on short term internal transfers. At a later stage, staff exchanges and placements with other organisations can also be arranged.
Programme Objectives
The objectives of the Programme are to:
1   Facilitate internal and external mobility opportunities for staff;
2   Enhance career development opportunities;
3   Create a more mobile and flexible workforce to enable the best use of skills and resources;
4   Enhance the  organization’s prospects of retaining high quality staff.
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Benefits of the Mobility Programme
Some of the benefits for staff may include the opportunity to:
1   Build skills to improve career advancement prospects;
2   Find a better career match and gain greater job satisfaction;
3   Generate new enthusiasm and learning;
4   Add new challenges to their job;
5   Develop both professionally and personally;
6   Gain a greater understanding of the organization/  future requirements;
7   Bring back new perspectives on returning to their position;
8   Explore another area without making a permanent change.
Some of the benefits for managers and the organization  may include the opportunity to:
1   Develop a skilled, adaptable and flexible workforce;
2   Enhance recruitment and retention as a result of offering career development opportunities;
3   Retain a talented internal pool of staff for future job openings;
4   Improve communication and relationships between work area as a result of staff movements;
5   Gain a staff member who already has good working knowledge of the organization.
Eligibility for the Programme
The Mobility Programme is available for full and part time general staff of all levels. The Programme is especially suited to those who are committed to their own career development, able to assume new or different responsibilities and wish to take the initiative to show that they are ready to learn new skills.

Applicants for mobility would normally have completed 12 months in their current position.
Staff on Fixed Term Employment
Fixed Term Contract staff of 1 year or more are eligible to apply for the Programme, although the mobility placement would not normally extend beyond the term of their current contract.
Length of placements
Mobility placement opportunities will generally be for periods between 3 and 12 months.
Selection Process
Selections for mobility placements are made by matching an individual’s skills and interests with positions that arise. Suitable applicants are referred to the manager of the temporary vacancy for an informal interview. The manager will complete a selection process and then inform staff of the outcome. The successful applicant will be awarded the temporary mobility placement and other staff will return to the Mobility Register for future opportunities that arise.
End of placement
At the end of the placement, staff return to their usual substantive position.

The following checklist is provided for receiving and releasing managers to ensure that these
issues are discussed with the successful mobility applicant and agreed to prior to the
commencement of the placement.

□ Current Level ________ Step ________
□ Is there any salary progression in place? Yes/ No Level________ Step _______
□ Does the staff member currently receive any allowances? Yes /No
□ Does the placement involve higher duties? Yes/ No
• If yes, complete Higher Duties Allowance form and return to HR Services

□ Does the person have any leave booked during the placement period? Yes /No
• If yes, Dates? _______________________________
Who will pay? _________________________
□ How much leave is likely to be accumulated during the placement? _________________
□ Can this leave be taken during or at the end of the placement, prior to returning to the work a
Yes / No
• If yes, then receiving area pays salary for duration of leave
• If no, then receiving area transfers leave amount including oncosts to
substantive area

□ What is the available start date of the successful staff member?____________________
□ How long is the staff member available for?____________________________________
□ Does the staff member have any training courses booked during the placement period?
Yes / No
• If yes, will these fit in with work commitments? ________________________
□ Is there any training required for this placement? Yes  /  No
• If yes, refer to  HR  or  contact Mobility Officer for assistance to
locate suitable training courses.
□ Does the person have flexible work arrangements in place? Yes / No
• If yes, details ___________________________________________________
□ Is the arrangement to continue during the placement Yes/ No

This pack includes information to assist the  managers  with this
placement along with a list of next steps in the process. Following this process and using the
templates and checklists provided should ensure a successful placement.

The pack includes:
□ Mobility Policy
□ Referee Report template
□ Checklist of issues for discussion prior to placement
□ Induction checklist for supervisors/managers
□ Induction checklist for administrative staff
□ Performance Expectations template
□ Recommendation to Offer Appointment form
□ Higher Duties Allowance form
All templates, forms and documents are available on the Mobility   with   the Human
Resources   department.

The following outlines responsibilities of each party in the process.
HR /Mobility Officer - responsibilities
• A Mobility Officer will contact you and refer any suitable applicants for the position.
• The Mobility Officer will notify any mobility applicants not selected for interview of the
• The Mobility Officer is available to provide assistance at any stage of the process.
• During the placement the Mobility Officer will be in contact with you to gain feedback on
the staff member and how they are progressing with the performance expectations set
out at the start of the placement.

Manager of the mobility placement vacancy - responsibilities
• Review resumes and select applicants to interview.
• Contact any applicants you will be interviewing and then notify the Mobility Officer of any
applicants you will not be interviewing.
• The interview process, while less formal than for a panel interview, should be fair and
equitable based on  ORGANIZATION  principles for selection.
• Email any updates to the Mobility Officers to keep them informed of progress.

Mobility Programme
• Following the interview it is recommended that you conduct referee checks using the
referee report template with the referees nominated by the applicant. In order to comply
with privacy obligations, it is important that you seek permission from the applicant if
there is anyone else you would like to contact for a reference.

Discussion of placement issues and recommendation for mobility placement
• Before confirming the placement with the suitable applicant, discuss the issues outlined
in the checklist of issues for discussion and liaise with their manager re release times.
• Once the placement is confirmed, complete the Recommendation to Offer and Higher
Duties Allowance form (if required). Send completed forms to the Mobility Officer in
Human Resources .
• Contact all interviewed applicants and the Mobility Officer to advise of the decision and to
provide feedback.

Setting Performance Expectations
• Prior to the placement, performance expectations should be set using the performance
expectations template as a guide. This will assist both you and the staff member to
understand what is expected.
• Induction checklists are included in this pack to assist the Supervisor and relevant
Administrative contact to prepare for the staff member to arrive. These checklists are
also useful for the first day and first week of placement. An induction is important for the
new staff member to gain an understanding of the area and will also assist the supervisor
and the team in ensuring that all relevant systems are set up.

End of Placement Review
• Upon completion of the placement a survey will be sent to both you and the staff member
to complete and return to the Mobility Officer, Human Resources. Your feedback will
assist us to make any improvements and changes required to ensure that the Mobility
Programme is a success.
The Mobility Officers will be available for assistance during the placement .

Before the first day

□ Contact the new staff member advising them of
when and who to meet on their first day including a
confirmation of hours of work.
□ Advise work team of the new staff member’s name,
role, commencement date and length of contract.
□ Designate a peer support person. It is
recommended that as part of the induction process
at the School level that the new staff member is
matched with a peer support person to assist the
staff member to settle into the school and be a
friendly point of contact for any questions.
□ Prepare a programme for the first week’s activities.
Depending on the nature of the position, this
programme may include relevant training sessions
□ Prepare a list of performance expectations to
discuss with the staff member .
□ Send all relevant system forms to staff member for
signing to ensure systems are set up before arrival.

On the first day
□ Meet and welcome the new staff member and take
them through the proposed programme for the week.
□ Discuss responsibilities, duties and expectations.
□ Explain the work group, its functions, structure,
interaction of positions within the workgroup and
□ Introduce the immediate work group.
□ Provide specific information relating to the area or
□ Introduce the designated peer support person.

Aim: To assist new staff, and to provide a refresher for existing staff, in understanding the priorities
and expectations of the position. It may form part of the induction conversation, be used as part of
development reviews or used as a self-reference tool by the staff member.
Related documentation: Position description including selection criteria, and policies, procedures and
guidelines relevant to the position and to employment at UWA.
Exhibiting personal effectiveness:
• Self management: Recognises, understands and harnesses personal feelings, takes personal
responsibility for actions, and exhibits persistence in the face of adversity.
• Self development: Engages in ongoing learning and development to ensure optimal performance.
Working collaboratively with others:
• Effective communication skills: Expresses ideas and information with economy and clarity. Listens
to and considers the thoughts and opinions of others.
• Interpersonal awareness: Notices, interprets and anticipates the concerns and feelings of others,
and works positively/cooperatively with them.
Demonstrating an orientation to results:
• Problem solving: Finds appropriate ways to analyse and resolve workplace problems.
• Goal orientation: Sets and achieves goals in a timely way, taking the initiative where appropriate.

• Promotes and maintains good working relationships, and communicates professionally and
effectively with all colleagues, contacts on campus and visitors to the Faculty
• Is reliable and co-operative, and responds constructively to instruction and feedback
• Is organised, sets priorities and works to schedule to meet deadlines
• Advises supervisor and relevant colleagues early if there are any problems in meeting requests
• Shows attention to detail in all areas of responsibility and produces accurate work that meets
document control and presentation standards
• Maintains confidentiality
• Has a good understanding and appreciation of section goals, priorities and guidelines

Project template documentation
• Devise new project templates in
collaboration with relevant staff
• Regularly review project processes and
templates and undertake updates in line
with changing needs within  THE  policies as required
• Communicate with relevant staff regarding
amendments to project requirements and
template documentation
• Guidelines for using project templates are clear
and easily accessible
• Project templates address the documentation
requirements of corresponding projects
• Documentation throughout is consistent and
• Feedback from staff utilising project templates is
COMPANY strives to promote the most capable and experienced employees based on their demonstrated ability to assume greater responsibility and perform essential job tasks. Consequently, reasonable efforts will be made to fill vacant positions from within, where possible. At the same time, it may be deemed necessary to recruit and hire outside COMPANY to attract the most qualified individual for a particular job vacancy. Therefore, job openings may be posted on COMPANY bulletin boards and other areas accessible to all employees. Simultaneously, outside recruiting sources may be used. Posted vacancies shall remain open for a minimum of three (3) workdays. To be eligible to apply for a posted vacancy, employees must meet the minimum hiring specifications for the position, have completed his/her introductory period, and be an employee in good standing in terms of his/her overall work record. Selections for promotions and transfers shall be made based on an individual’s overall qualifications and ability to perform the essential duties required of the job, with or without reasonable accommodation.
Summary of Criteria for  Promotion
1   Demonstrated excellence  on the  job.
2   Demonstrated leadership  on  the  job/ projects.
3   Commitment to high quality /  quantity  results.
4   Demonstrated excellence in results achievement.
5   Demonstrated leadership in research.
6   Commitment to quality with an international focus.
7   Demonstrated contribution to the development of a collegial work environment.
8   Demonstrated professional leadership within the organization.
9   Contribution to community leadership.
Here are seven guidelines for promoting an employee:
1. Get to know all the wrong reasons for doing it. Sad to say, but there's no shortage of bad or misguided rationale for
moving an employee into a more important position. Don't forget the temptation to play white knight for a distraught employee."Someone may be dealing with some personal issues, so you think you'll be the saving grace by promoting him," "That's really nothing more than promoting someone in hopes of getting rid of a problem. It's just one of many bad reasons for promoting someone."
2. Recognize that competence doesn't necessarily mean a promotion. Not only
do many employers cite the wrong sorts of reasons in promoting someone, they also equate solid job skills in one role with continued success in a different role.Granted, it's great that someone's adept at their job, but that doesn't mean that he'll flourish in another position with greater or different responsibilities. Instead, focus on those areas that the new position requires, be it personnel management, communication or other skills."Technical competency is often a far second to people
skills," "Promoting someone into a higher position because they're good at what they did in their prior position is often the wrong reason. Many of those technical skills can be learned later."
3. Spell out why you'd promote an employee. A series of bungled promotions often boils down to the fact that a company
has never given any detailed thought to those attributes they look for in promotion-worthy personnel.So, take the time to delineate what you think is important in employees with promotion potential, be it leadership characteristics, an ability to foster teamwork or other attributes that not only work where they are now but also jibe with other, more important positions within the company.
4. Let your people know what you're looking for. Concomitant to establishing parameters for promotion is making sure
everyone in your firm knows what's on that list. Let your employees know.Then monitor how employees match up, be it in formal annual reviews or on an ongoing basis as the situation dictates. Encourage your people to suggest others in the company they think hit those guidelines."Employees should never really be surprised about any sort of promotion decision, "It's important to have an open dialogue on an ongoing basis so that everyone knows where he or she
stands pretty much all the time."
5. Look at weaknesses as well as strengths. Another common promotion snafu is turning a blind eye to problems that someone may confront in a new job.Don't ignore all their positives, but consider as well their struggles and challenges — be they technical or managerial in nature — and be prepared to offer after-the-fact support and, if necessary, supplementary
training to address them.
6. Know the importance of detachment. You've seen it in dozens of movies — a guy from the loading dock moves up to a supervisor's job, only he can't stop acting as though he's still one of the boys.Moving from buddy to boss isn't a transition that everyone can make. So make it clear to any candidate for a promotion that he or she is going to have to adjust to a whole different set of professional and social demands. "It can be very, very difficult, moving from being a friend to being their
supervisor,"  "For instance, before promoting someone, ask them if they think they'll be able to objectively critique somebody with whom they used to work."
7. Take a lesson if someone says "no thanks."  once a company which tried to promote a star salesperson. The "star" resigned immediately. "THE  MANAGER  said  he knew he was
such a poor fit for the job that they would end up firing him  in six months,"Never lose sight of the fact that employees can turn down a promotion for all sorts of reasons, including necessary travel or family reasons. Respect their choice.If, however, someone bolts the company because he knows better than you that he's not cut out for the job, it's probably a good idea to reevaluate your promotion methodology. That way, the next
time you dangle the promotion carrot, a better-suited bunny will be ready to grab it.

Job transfers generally fall into one of two categories:
1.those initiated by management or
2.those made in response to an employee’s request.
Transfers initiated by the employer may be necessary because of temporary workload imbalances; the need to rotate employees to limit exposure to harmful conditions; corporate restructuring; dislocations caused by job elimination or reductions in force; and demotions in response to disciplinary or performance problems. Employees may initiate a transfer because they want new or broader experience; there is friction among coworkers; they want to better use their skills; or they need accommodation for disabilities or family care responsibilities. Either way, transfers may be temporary or long-term, depending on the organization’s business needs.

The transfer of employees from full-time to part-time, to another location or within the same location.


• Reasons for Transfer
• Temporary vs. Long-Term Transfers
• Eligibility
• Order of Consideration
• Establishing Procedures
• Monitoring the Approval Process
• Relocation Transfers
• Introductory Period
• Medical Examinations
• Job Seniority
• Rate of Pay
• Labor Contracts
• Discrimination in Transfer Decisions
• Transfers as Retaliation
• Transfers as Remedy for Harassment
• Transfers for Safety Reasons
• Transfers as Accommodations
• Posting of Job Openings
If the employees  do not measure up  after one year
of  individual  development  planning,
they should be asked to leave.

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Leo Lingham


management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc


18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc


24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
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