Management Consulting/business leadership


well explanation of 2 approaches to leadership displayed by any team and their approaches to motivation? And how the process of delegation worked in a team?

LEADERSHIP iS COMPLEX, comprising many
definitions and qualities . One
definition of leadership is ‘a multifaceted process of
identifying a goal, motivating other people to act,
and providing support and motivation to achieve
mutually negotiated goals’ .
A leader’s role is to elicit effective performance
from others. This involves leading and influencing
the development of shared values, vision and
expectations to enhance their organisation’s
planned goals and overall effectiveness . Traditionally, leaders were seen as having
different personality traits from those of followers
these traits as confidence, purpose, courage, ethical fitness and ability to prioritise.

some people are natural leaders, everyone can be a
leader, given the necessary knowledge and skills.
suggested that leadership skills can be advanced
through education.
Successful organisations develop their leaders’
emotional intelligence by enhancing their
self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and social skills . Emotional
intelligence has been defined as the ability to manage the effect of emotions on relationships with others
the most effective leaders possess emotional intelligence.
He suggested that even with high-quality training, good ideas and an analytical mind, a leader will not
be ‘great’ without emotional intelligence.
For leaders to identify followers’ emotions
accurately, they need to be aware of their own
feelings and emotions.
Emotionally intelligent leaders will
not rush to fix, cure or control the responses of staff to change, but are empathetic to their concerns, allowing people to express their feelings without judgement, pressure or guilt . These
leaders recognise that emotions can change from one situation to another. By managing these emotions, leaders can deal with the stress of failure or decisions that have led to poor outcomes .

Transactional leadership
Offering rewards to others in return for compliance
is defined as transactional leadership .
transactional leadership, based on contingent
rewards, can have a positive effect on followers’
satisfaction and performance. However, a
transactional leader focuses on management tasks,
and will not identify shared values of a team. By
contrast, transformational leaders inspire others
with their vision and work together with their
team to identify common values .

The transactional approach is
task-orientated and can be effective when meeting
deadlines, or in emergencies such as when dealing
with a cardiac arrest. This approach can lead to
non-holistic patient care, because nurses focus on
the task they need to complete, rather than the
patient as a whole .
Autocratic leadership is an example of
transactional leadership. Autocratic leaders have
been described as controlling, power-orientated
and closed-minded . They stress
obedience, loyalty and strict adherence to the
rules . Autocratic leaders may be
disliked by their team, but this may evolve into
appreciation and fondness once the positive results
of their leadership become evident .

Although staff may dislike autocratic leaders, they
often work well under them .
well-liked leaders might
be perceived as ineffective while disliked leaders
might be perceived as effective.
Autocratic leaders can be effective because they
create good structure, and determine what needs
to be done . They provide rewards
for compliance, but punish disobedience . However, autocratic leaders can be abusive,
create fear among staff and often make decisions
without consulting the team . Followers
of an autocratic leader can rely heavily on their
team leader and may underperform in the leader’s
absence. an autocratic leader
will take full accountability. in this situation, leaders experience significant pressure while followers remain relatively stress-free.
Transactional leaders can be categorised
into three types: contingent reward, where
rewards are offered if certain criteria are met;
management by exception-active, where leaders
aim to intervene in followers’ behaviours before
they become problematic; and management by
exception-passive, where leaders do not intervene
until followers’ behaviour becomes problematic.
When leadership is weak, poor performance is
not addressed, resulting in poor-quality patient
care and unacceptable behaviour being allowed
to flourish . The
‘management by exception-passive’ style is similar
to the laissez-faire style of leadership, in which
leaders have little control and provide minimal
direction . Unlike
transactional leaders, the laissez-faire leader does
not plan or co-ordinate and there is little co-operation
from followers. Laissez-faire leaders are likely to
be inefficient and unproductive  suggested that
mature followers can thrive under laissez-faire
leadership as they need little guidance; however,
others may struggle.


Transformational leadership
Transformational leaders recognise followers’
potential, but in terms of Maslow’s  hierarchy
of needs, will go further to satisfy their higher
needs – such as self-esteem and achieving their full
potential – to engage followers fully.
that leaders

should be visible role models and empower followers to become leaders. Empowered followers possess increased organisational loyalty, motivation and job
satisfaction, reducing sickness levels and promoting a positive work environment . This may
be because leaders display the skills required
to develop successful relationships with followers,
in an environment where both leaders and followers
aim to meet the organisational goals necessary to
fulfil the team’s vision.
Transformational leaders express a clear,
compelling vision of the future, intellectually
inspire followers, identify individual differences
and assist followers to develop their strengths

transformational leaders provide inspiration
and motivation to invigorate others to pursue
the team’s vision. if followers have input into the
team’s vision they feel valued, and the relationship
between leader and follower is enhanced. This
encourages followers to develop ownership of the
team’s vision and move towards achieving this,
thereby increasing morale. Followers become
motivated to develop their own leadership
skills .

different types
of transformational leadership. inspirational
motivation is where leaders influence followers
through charismatic communication of a set of
goals and motivate the team to achieve them.
individualised consideration occurs when leaders
help followers achieve their desired essential
needs. idealised influence is divided into ‘idealised
influence attributed’, in which the leader’s
charisma is used to form strong positive emotional
bonds with followers, and ‘idealised influence
behaviour’, in which idealised behaviour of the
leader becomes apparent in collective values and
actions throughout the organisation. Finally,
intellectual stimulation pushes followers to think
creatively, and pursue new and creative ideas.
Transformational leaders tend to adopt a
democratic approach to leadership. democratic
leaders believe workers are motivated to do well;
they seek autonomy and opportunities to prove
themselves . democratic leaders are
considerate and share responsibility with their
followers. This allows followers to develop their
own leadership skills and become independent,
while reducing the leader’s stress and risk of burnout
democratic leaders have less control
than autocratic leaders, because they provide
guidance to their followers rather than controlling
them. They ask questions and make suggestions,
rather than issuing orders. This can work well if
followers have adequate knowledge and skills, and
they work well with each other. . democratic leaders consult followers before
making decisions, but consulting many people can
be time consuming and the democratic style may
be frustrating for those wanting rapid decisions
although democratic leadership can
be less effective than other forms of leadership, it can
be more flexible, and usually increases motivation
and creativity.
When leading an individual, transformational
leaders aim to develop their full potential by
enhancing their abilities and skills, and improving
self-esteem. They achieve this by taking an interest
in staff as individuals, and providing tailored
support. When dealing with groups, these leaders
aim to express the significance of group goals,
develop shared values and beliefs, and motivate
a united effort to achieve group goals .
Effective transformational leadership requires
trust between the leader and followers. if
followers trust the leader they will do whatever
the leader envisions . recommended that to develop trust,
leaders should treat everyone in they way they
would wish to be treated.  leaders should be honest,
acknowledge individual achievements, show interest
in their working day, include followers in decision
making and listen actively to what they are saying.
Trust between leaders and followers is important,
because transformational leadership is an approach
based on change. Leaders who use this approach
are able to use their own qualities to motivate their
followers to change . A leader who has
trust and support from his or her followers can lead a
team through change more successfully than a leader
who does not .
Transformational leadership is important for
improving patient outcomes . it can improve clinical environments so
clinical leaders can deliver quality agendas and
ensure staff are engaged in the process. research
has shown that where there are well-developed
transformational leaders, nursing teams take on
more responsibility, and have greater empowerment
and job clarity .
The transformational leadership approach
is popular,
transformational qualities need to be combined
with traditional transactional management skills.
This may require leaders to adopt an autocratic
style to manage staff sickness or conflict within the
team.  effective leaders need to have
vision as well as a plan and structure if goals are to
be accomplished.
Although an effective approach,
transformational leadership does not address
all relationship situations. Some management
requirements of the leader’s job can have a
negative effect on the relationship with followers.
For example, addressing issues such as sick leave
and team conflict can have a negative effect on
relationships, yet they are essential to being an
effective leader .

Situational leadership
Since healthcare organisations face constant
change, it is important for top-tier leaders to
encourage subordinate leaders to develop different
leadership styles to manage different situations
. This requires adoption of the
situational leadership approach, where effective
leaders adapt their leadership style to manage
particular situations. For example, simple or
complicated situations would be best handled
through a task-orientated approach such as
transactional leadership .
The core competencies of situational leaders are
the ability to identify the performance, competence
and commitment of others, and to be flexible
Situational leadership has been defined as being
‘based on a relationship between the leader’s
supportive and directive behaviour, and between
the follower’s level of development’. Supportive behaviour involves the personal
involvement leaders have with their followers,
achievable by maintaining communication and
providing emotional support. directive behaviour
is the amount of direction the leader provides to the
group, in terms of defining group roles. This can be
achieved by the leader explaining the activities each
role should complete and how these tasks are to be
completed. The development level of the followers
is a result of their own experiences, willingness
and ability to take on responsibility .
This has also been referred to as the ‘readiness level’
a follower displays. For example, an enthusiastic
beginner would respond most effectively to directive
leadership .
Situational leadership, also known as having
a contingency approach, has become popular, as
different situations require different leadership
styles . despite this, it has been
criticised for focusing too much on leaders and not
enough on group interaction , whereas transactional and transformational
theories are based on interactions between leaders
and followers. people and leadership situations
are complex, and therefore adaptability is
paramount to the situational leadership approach.
This approach encourages leaders to recognise
the complexity of work situations and consider
many factors when deciding which action to take

Factors could influence your decision to delegate work to a subordinate

Delegation  is the assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities. However the person who delegated the work remains accountable for the outcome of the delegate work. It allows a subordinate to make decisions, i.e. it is a shift of decision-making authority from one organizational level to a lower one.
-an  effective/  talented  manager  would  delegate.
-an  effective /  talented  manager  who  has  interest  in  developing  the  subordinates.
-an overload  of  work  could  force  a  manager  to  delegate.
-the  task  could   recur  in  the  future ,  frquently
-the Time is  available for adequate training, for questions and answers, for opportunities to check progress, and for rework if that is necessary.
-the  Tasks in  hand  is  critical for long-term success   and  genuinely do need your attention
-the  subordinate  has  the  necessary  experience/ expertise   to handle  the   tasks.
-The task’s timelines/deadlines.
*How much time is there available to do the job?
*Is there time to redo the job if it’s not done properly the first time?
*What are the consequences of not completing the job on time?
-Your expectations or goals for the  task(s)
*How important is it that the results are of the highest possible quality?
*Is an "adequate" result good enough?
*Would a failure be crucial?
*How much would failure impact other things?

-the   staff  have  the expertise  to  complete  the job.
-the  delay is  acceptable, if  the  staff  can't complete.
-the  staff  is  keen  to  take  the  opportunity to  grow/  develop.

-The experience, knowledge and skills of the individual as they apply to the delegated task.
*What knowledge, skills and attitude does the person already have?
*Do you have time and resources to provide any training needed?

-The individual’s preferred work style.
*How independent is the person?
*What does he or she want from his or her job?
*What are his or her long-term goals and interest, and how do these align with the work proposed?

-The current workload of this person.
*Does the person have time to take on more work?
*Will your  delegating this task require reshuffling of other responsibilities and workloads?

Use the following principles to delegate successfully:
Clearly articulate the desired outcome. Begin with the end in mind and specify the desired results.
Clearly identify constraints and boundaries. Where are the lines of authority, responsibility and accountability? Should the person:
•   Wait to be told what to do?
•   Ask what to do?
•   Recommend what should be done, and then act?
•   Act, and then report results immediately?
•   Initiate action, and then report periodically?
Where possible, include people in the delegation process. Empower them to decide what tasks are to be delegated to them and when.
Match the amount of responsibility with the amount of authority. Understand that you can delegate some responsibility, however you can’t delegate away ultimate accountability. The buck stops with you!
Delegate to the lowest possible organizational level. The people who are closest to the work are best suited for the task, because they have the most intimate knowledge of the detail of everyday work. This also increases workplace efficiency, and helps to develop people.
Provide adequate support, and be available to answer questions. Ensure the project’s success through ongoing communication and monitoring as well as provision of resources and credit.
Focus on results. Concern yourself with what is accomplished, rather than detailing how the work should be done: Your way is not necessarily the only or even the best way! Allow the person to control his or her own methods and processes. This facilitates success and trust.
Avoid “upward delegation”. If there is a problem, don’t allow the person to shift responsibility for the task back to you: ask for recommended solutions; and don’t simply provide an answer.
Build motivation and commitment. Discuss how success will impact financial rewards, future opportunities, informal recognition, and other desirable consequences. Provide recognition where deserved.
Establish and maintain control.
•   Discuss timelines and deadlines.
•   Agree on a schedule of checkpoints at which you’ll review project progress.
•   Make adjustments as necessary.
•   Take time to review all submitted work.
In thoroughly considering these key points prior to and during the delegation process you will find that you delegate more successfully.
ADOPT the steps of successful delegation
1 Define the task
Confirm in your own mind that the task is suitable to be delegated. Does it meet the criteria for delegating?
2 Select the individual or team
What are your reasons for delegating to this person or team? What are they going to get out of it? What are you going to get out of it?
3 Assess ability and training needs
Is the other person or team of people capable of doing the task? Do they understand what needs to be done. If not, you can't delegate.
4 Explain the reasons
You must explain why the job or responsibility is being delegated. And why to that person or people? What is its importance and relevance? Where does it fit in the overall scheme of things?
5 State required results
What must be achieved? Clarify understanding by getting feedback from the other person. How will the task be measured? Make sure they know how you intend to decide that the job is being successfully done.
6 Consider resources required
Discuss and agree what is required to get the job done. Consider people, location, premises, equipment, money, materials, other related activities and services.
7 Agree deadlines
When must the job be finished? Or if an ongoing duty, when are the review dates? When are the reports due? And if the task is complex and has parts or stages, what are the priorities?
At this point you may need to confirm understanding with the other person of the previous points, getting ideas and interpretation. As well as showing you that the job can be done, this helps to reinforce commitment.
Methods of checking and controlling must be agreed with the other person. Failing to agree this in advance will cause this monitoring to seem like interference or lack of trust.
8 Support and communicate
Think about who else needs to know what's going on, and inform them. Involve the other person in considering this so they can see beyond the issue at hand. Do not leave the person to inform your own peers of their new responsibility. Warn the person about any awkward matters of politics or protocol. Inform your own boss if the task is important, and of sufficient profile.
9 Feedback on results
It is essential to let the person know how they are doing, and whether they have achieved their aims. If not, you must review with them why things did not go to plan, and deal with the problems. You must absorb the consequences of failure, and pass on the credit for success.
At first sight, delegation can feel like more hassle than it’s worth, however by delegating effectively, you can hugely expand the amount of work that you can deliver.
When you arrange the workload so that you are working on the tasks that have the highest priority for you, and other people are working on meaningful and challenging assignments, you have a recipe for success.
To delegate effectively, choose the right tasks to delegate, identify the right people to delegate to, and delegate in the right way. There’s a lot to this, but you’ll achieve so much more once you’re delegating effectively!

-  managers  would  delegate.
-  manager  has  interest  in  developing  the  subordinates.
-reduced overload  of  work  with   managers.
-the Time is  available for adequate training, for questions and answers, for opportunities to check progress, and for rework if that is necessary.
-meet The task’s timelines/deadlines.

-the   staff  have  developed the expertise  to  complete  the job.
-there  is  no the  delay  in completing  the  job..
-the  staff  is  keen  to  take  the  opportunity to  grow/  develop.

-The experience, knowledge and skills of the employees improved as they apply to the delegated task.
*person have  more  time to take on more work.


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Leo Lingham


management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc


18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc


24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
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