Management Consulting/ANSWER THE QUATION

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Question
Explain The Concept Of Organizational Diagnosis. Describe Any Two Methods Of Diagnosis And Its Benefits And Limitations With The Help Of Examples.

Answer
Organizational Diagnosis
Organizational Diagnosis helps organizations identify the “gaps” between “what is” and “what ought to be.” Once we gain a shared vision of the desired state, we  identify barriers and work toward solutions.
The   Six-Phase approach to organizational diagnosis is tailored to the specific needs of each co:
Phase 1: Define
develop a shared understanding of the task, issue, or problem along with a plan for diagnosis.
Phase 2: Diagnose
examine organizational archival reports/documents and utilize information gathered through interviews, focus groups, questionnaires & surveys, along with objective observations to collect relevant data.
Phase 3: Analyze
After collecting the data, use statistical analysis methods to interpret the data and develop practical recommendations.
Phase 4: Presentation of Findings
This phase involves  determining   an effective intervention strategy.  
Phase 5: Action Planning
We work with key players from the  organization to develop an action plan that:
•   Fits the needs of the  organization
•   Will yield measurable results
•   Will enhance the   organization’s capacity to manage change
•   Is catered to the  organization’s situation, culture, context, and maturational cycle
Phase 6: Reinforce
maintaining a focus on the desired state and helping organizations sustain change initiatives. The reinforce phase ensures effective implementation of our action plan and outlines the next steps to take once the action plan has been implemented.
=================================================================
2. ORG.ANALYSIS    IS  THE  SECOND  STAGE,   WHERE WE  ANALYSE  THE
INFORMATION   IN  A  SCIENTIFIC   MANNNER   AND  DEVELOP
A  STRATEGY /  ACTION  PLAN.

•   Culture and Climate Analysis
•   Employee Opinion Analysis
•   Market Research  Analysis
•   Competitive Analysis
•   COMPANY  SWOT Analysis
•   Environmental Scan ANALYSIS / Development
•   Skill and Competency Assessment
•   Customer Input or Feedback  ANALYSIS
Group and Individual Assessments,  and 360 Evaluations

FROM   THESE   WE  DEVELOP


Development of Master Strategies
Development of Goals
Development of Objectives
Development of Tactics
Structural Redesign
Change Planning, Implementation Design, and SUPPORT SYSTEMS.
============================================   
The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*marketing
*manufacturing
*sales
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*distribution
*warehousing/  transportation
*TQM  
=========================

THE  ORGANIZATIONAL   ANALYSIS    INCLUDE:

1.ENVIRONMENTAL  ANALYSIS

Environmental analysis is defined as the process by which strategists monitor the economic, governmental, legal, market, competitive, supplier, technological, geographic, and social cultural settings to determine opportunities and threats to their firms / company / organization. Environment diagnosis principally consists of managerial decisions made by strategist for analyzing the significance of the data like Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of the organization to has to design their own strategy for formulation, implementation and controlling the internal environmental factors.
Environmental analysis helps to strategic executive and manager to diagnosis of strategic competitive force and components of strategic management. However, internal environment of the organization is a quite essential and important from the point of view of the environment analysis. It is the cornerstone of the new and exiting business opportunity analysis too.
For instance, the individual life success depends on his innate capabilities like psychological factors, traits and skills. These are to the cope with the environment then will be got success otherwise failure. The survival is the basic elements and success of the business organization, it has depend on its own strengths in terms of resources like money, men, machinery, materials, market and methods as its command. Organization success depends on effective utilization of physical resource, financial resources and human resource skills. These are adaptability to the business environment.
Every business organization principally consists of internal environment factors and set of external environmental factors. In this chapter, we shall discuss only the internal environment of the organization/company.
Internal environment factors are generally considered as controllable factors of the organization. Internal environment factors are important to business like personal (human) resource department. marketing department, production department, physical facilities, accounting and finance departments and swot analysis. Therefore, the organization controls over these factors, these factors are modified or alter by the organization that suit for the business environment.

INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANISATION / COMPANY
Formulation of an effective and efficient strategy has based on a clear definition of organization mission, an accurate assessment of the external environment and through internal analysis of the organization. Organization requires success it needs at least three ingredients. They are as listed:
Strategy must be consistent with conditions in the competitive environment
Strategy must place realistic requirements on the organization / companys internal resources and capabilities.
Strategy must be carefully formulated, implemented, controllable and executed.
Internal analysis of the organization is to difficult and challenging one to strategist.
An internal analysis has leads to design a realistic organization profile. It frequently involves tradeoff, value system judgments, educated and skilled guess as well as objective and standardized analysis. A systematic internal analysis leads to main objective of the organization profile. It is essential to develop strategy and design a realistic mission for achievement of the strategy.
Internal analysis of the organization must identify the strategically strengths, opportunities, weakness and threats that are based on organization strategy. Organizational analysis identifies suitable strategy that based on the SWOT analysis.
Internal analysis can be achieved by first identifying key internal factors like value system, mission objectives, management structure and nature, integrated power relationship, human resource, company/organization image and brand equity, physical assets, R&D, technological capabilities, marketing resource and financial resource factors and secondly by evaluating these factors.

THE VALUE OF SYSTEMATIC INTERNAL ASSESSMENT
The value system of internal assessment is essential from the point of view of strategy formulation by the experienced strategist of the organization / company. The value system applies to either large or small business concern. It is critical in developing a successful business strategy. Regardless of the favorable opportunities in the environment, a strategy must be considered the essential internal strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the organization if such opportunities are to be maximized for accomplishment of goals.
The value systematic internal analysis is particularly essential in small business organizations. Small business organizations are faced lot of problems like limited resource and markets. These organizations are flexible and capable to capture selected markets and effectively channel their limited resource and maximize these limited market opportunities. Internal analysis is the basis objectives of the organization.
Steps/Process in the Development of a Organizational / Company Profile
Company / organization profile focus on determination of strengths and weakness of the strategic environment of the business. Identifying and evaluating strategic internal factors are based to accomplish to organization future strategy. The major steps are important to development of an organization / company profile. They are listed below:
Stage one -- Identification of Strategic Factors
Stage two --Using Value Chain Analysis
Stage three -- Evaluations of strategic internal factors

IDENTIFICAION OF STRATEGIC FACTORS
An important identification of strategic factors approach as listed below:
1. Functional approach
2. The value chain approach
FUNTIONAL APPROACH
Functional approach refers to Organizations basic capabilities; characteristics, swot analysis and limitation are the key strategic factors. Functional approach key strategic factors are as follows:
Marketing
Finance and accounting
Production /operation/ technical
Human resource development
Organization of general management
Marketing
Marketing deals with the following issues:
Organizations products / service; product life cycle and marketing strategy.
Concentration of sales in few products or little customer segmentation.
Ability to gathered information about the market.
To know the market share or sub market share.
Product/service mix and expansion potential: to know the life cycle of key products; to know the profit or loss of the product/service.
To clearly know the channel of distribution; number, coverage, and control.
To maintain effective sales organization: to find out knowledge about the customer needs.
To improve product/service quality with image and reputation of brand name.
Efficient and effective utilization of available resource for effective sales promotion and advertising.
To aware of the pricing strategy and pricing flexibility.
To effective monitoring and feedback of the marketing functions and expansion of product
Effective implementation of after sales service and follow up.
To keep standards, goodwill and brand loyalty.
Finance and Accounting
Finance and accounting functions refers to:
Ability to raises short term and long-term capital: either debt or equity.
To maintain good corporate level resource.
To know the cost of capital relative to industry and competitors
Tax consideration
To build up effective relationship with owners, investors, financial institution and stock holders.
To know the leverage position: capacity to utilization financial strategies, like lease or sale and lease back.
To aware of the cost of entry and barriers of the entry.
To know the price earning ration
Present working capital position of the organization.
Effective cost control and ability to minimize cost of expenditure for production of goods and service.
Financial size of the organization.
Efficient and effective accounting system for cost, budget, and profit planning of the organization.
Production/Operation/Technical
Production or operation or technical refers to:
To know the present raw material cost and availability
Inventory control system of the organization.
Location facilities; layout and utilization facilities.
Technical efficiency and effective utilization of technical resource in the organization.
Effective use and implementation of subcontracting.
Degree of vertical integration in terms of value added and profit margin of the product.
To know the efficient and cost benefit of production techniques.
Effective utilization and implementation of operation control procedure: design, scheduling, purchasing, quality control and efficiency.
To know the costs and technological competencies relative to industry and competitors.
Research development, innovative, advance ethnological development.
Patents, trademarks and similar legal protection for their organization products/service.
Human Resource Development
Human resource development refers to the following:
Effective management of the human resource in the organization.
Improvement of employee skill and morale.
Labor relations costs compared to industry and competition from present industry scenario.
Efficient and effective formulation and implementation and controlling of the policies.
Effective utilization of incentive to motivate employees performance.
To know the ability to level peaks and valleys of employment.
To regulate employee turnover and absenteeism.
Specialized skills and experience.
Organization of general management
Organization of general management refers to the following:
To know the organization structure.
Organization image and prestige to public world.
Organization record for achieving goals and objectives.
Effective utilization of resource and overall organization control system.
To effective monitoring organization cultural climate.
Effective utilization of systematic procedure and tools and techniques in decision-making.
To know the top management skills, capabilities and interest.
Effective implementation strategic planning system.
To keep and maintain intra organization synergy (multibusiness)
Some of which would be the focus of internal analysis in most business organization.
Organization is not likely to consider all of the factors are potential strengths or weakness. Strategist has develop or review the factors which are important for successful of the organization.
For the Analysis of the organization, firstly, a strategist has to analyze the past trends like sales, costs and profitability. These trends are the major importance in identification of the internal factors of the organization. Further this identification should be based on a clear picture of the nature of the organizations sales trends. An anatomy of past trends has broken down by product lines channels of distribution of goods and service into different segmentation of key customers, geographical region and sales approach should be developed in detail. A similar anatomy of past trends should focus on costs and profitability. Strategist has to conduct detailed investigation of the organizations performance history that helps isolate internal factors influencing to sales, costs and profitability or their interrelationships. The above factors are important in future strategy decisions.
Identification of strategic factors also requires an external focus of the organization. Strategist isolates key internal factors through analysis of past and present performance like industry conditions / trends and comparisons with competitors. In addition, strategic internal factors are often selected for in depth evaluation because organizations are contemplating expansion of products or markets, diversification. Strategist carefully scrutinizes the industry under consideration of current competitors. This is a key means of identifying strategic factors, if an organization is evaluating its capabilities more into unfamiliar markets.
===================================

INTERNAL  ORGANIZATIONAL   ANALYSIS
-plan  to  change  operational methods [ change in  skills/ knowledge]
-plan to  change technology [ change  in  knowledge/skills]
-organization  restructuring [ change  in  job functions]
-changes in  corporate  strategy [ change  in  knowledge /skills]
-changes in the  role  of  jobs. [  change  in  knowledge  /  skills]

====================================================

Levels of Analysis
1. Organizational Analysis
-Identification of short- and long-term goals
-Identification of human resource needs
-Evaluation of methods of meeting HR needs (e.g.,
selection, training)
-Assessment of resource availability
-Evaluation of support for transfer of training
2. Task (Job) Analysis
-Identification of: tasks
-standards
-optimal procedures
3. Person Analysis
-Evaluation of individual against standards
-Identification of deficiencies
-Identification of causes (e.g., motivation vs. ability)
4. Demographic Analysis
-Assess the specific training needs of various
demographic groups (e.g., the disabled, ]

========================================================
################## #########################################




After collecting the data, use statistical analysis methods to interpret the data and develop practical recommendations.
Phase 4: Presentation of Findings
This phase involves  determining   an effective intervention strategy.  
Phase 5: Action Planning
We work with key players from the  organization to develop an action plan that:
Fits the needs of the  organization
Will yield measurable results
Will enhance the   organization’s capacity to manage change
Is catered to the  organization’s situation, culture, context, and maturational cycle
Phase 6: Reinforce
maintaining a focus on the desired state and helping organizations sustain change initiatives. The reinforce phase ensures effective implementation of our action plan and outlines the next steps to take once the action plan has been implemented.
===============================
2. ORG.ANALYSIS    IS  THE  SECOND  STAGE,   WHERE WE  ANALYSE  THE
INFORMATION   IN  A  SCIENTIFIC   MANNNER   AND  DEVELOP
A  STRATEGY /  ACTION  PLAN.

Culture and Climate Analysis
Employee Opinion Analysis
Market Research  Analysis
Competitive Analysis
COMPANY  SWOT Analysis
Environmental Scan ANALYSIS / Development
Skill and Competency Assessment
Customer Input or Feedback  ANALYSIS
Group and Individual Assessments,  and 360 Evaluations

FROM   THESE   WE  DEVELOP


Development of Master Strategies
Development of Goals
Development of Objectives
Development of Tactics
Structural Redesign
Change Planning, Implementation Design, and SUPPORT SYSTEMS.
======================================
THE  ORGANIZATIONAL   ANALYSIS    INCLUDE:

1.ENVIRONMENTAL  ANALYSIS
Environmental analysis is defined as the process by which strategists monitor the economic, governmental, legal, market, competitive, supplier, technological, geographic, and social cultural settings to determine opportunities and threats to their firms / company / organization. Environment diagnosis principally consists of managerial decisions made by strategist for analyzing the significance of the data like Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of the organization to has to design their own strategy for formulation, implementation and controlling the internal environmental factors.
Environmental analysis helps to strategic executive and manager to diagnosis of strategic competitive force and components of strategic management. However, internal environment of the organization is a quite essential and important from the point of view of the environment analysis. It is the cornerstone of the new and exiting business opportunity analysis too.
For instance, the individual life success depends on his innate capabilities like psychological factors, traits and skills. These are to the cope with the environment then will be got success otherwise failure. The survival is the basic elements and success of the business organization, it has depend on its own strengths in terms of resources like money, men, machinery, materials, market and methods as its command. Organization success depends on effective utilization of physical resource, financial resources and human resource skills. These are adaptability to the business environment.
Every business organization principally consists of internal environment factors and set of external environmental factors. In this chapter, we shall discuss only the internal environment of the organization/company.
Internal environment factors are generally considered as controllable factors of the organization. Internal environment factors are important to business like personal (human) resource department. marketing department, production department, physical facilities, accounting and finance departments and swot analysis. Therefore, the organization controls over these factors, these factors are modified or alter by the organization that suit for the business environment.

INTERNAL ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANISATION / COMPANY
Formulation of an effective and efficient strategy has based on a clear definition of organization mission, an accurate assessment of the external environment and through internal analysis of the organization. Organization requires success it needs at least three ingredients. They are as listed:
Strategy must be consistent with conditions in the competitive environment
Strategy must place realistic requirements on the organization / companys internal resources and capabilities.
Strategy must be carefully formulated, implemented, controllable and executed.
Internal analysis of the organization is to difficult and challenging one to strategist.
An internal analysis has leads to design a realistic organization profile. It frequently involves tradeoff, value system judgments, educated and skilled guess as well as objective and standardized analysis. A systematic internal analysis leads to main objective of the organization profile. It is essential to develop strategy and design a realistic mission for achievement of the strategy.
Internal analysis of the organization must identify the strategically strengths, opportunities, weakness and threats that are based on organization strategy. Organizational analysis identifies suitable strategy that based on the SWOT analysis.
Internal analysis can be achieved by first identifying key internal factors like value system, mission objectives, management structure and nature, integrated power relationship, human resource, company/organization image and brand equity, physical assets, R&D, technological capabilities, marketing resource and financial resource factors and secondly by evaluating these factors.

THE VALUE OF SYSTEMATIC INTERNAL ASSESSMENT
The value system of internal assessment is essential from the point of view of strategy formulation by the experienced strategist of the organization / company. The value system applies to either large or small business concern. It is critical in developing a successful business strategy. Regardless of the favorable opportunities in the environment, a strategy must be considered the essential internal strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the organization if such opportunities are to be maximized for accomplishment of goals.
The value systematic internal analysis is particularly essential in small business organizations. Small business organizations are faced lot of problems like limited resource and markets. These organizations are flexible and capable to capture selected markets and effectively channel their limited resource and maximize these limited market opportunities. Internal analysis is the basis objectives of the organization.
Steps/Process in the Development of a Organizational / Company Profile
Company / organization profile focus on determination of strengths and weakness of the strategic environment of the business. Identifying and evaluating strategic internal factors are based to accomplish to organization future strategy. The major steps are important to development of an organization / company profile. They are listed below:
Stage one -- Identification of Strategic Factors
Stage two --Using Value Chain Analysis
Stage three -- Evaluations of strategic internal factors

IDENTIFICAION OF STRATEGIC FACTORS
An important identification of strategic factors approach as listed below:
1. Functional approach
2. The value chain approach
FUNTIONAL APPROACH
Functional approach refers to Organizations basic capabilities; characteristics, swot analysis and limitation are the key strategic factors. Functional approach key strategic factors are as follows:
Marketing
Finance and accounting
Production /operation/ technical
Human resource development
Organization of general management
Marketing
Marketing deals with the following issues:
Organizations products / service; product life cycle and marketing strategy.
Concentration of sales in few products or little customer segmentation.
Ability to gathered information about the market.
To know the market share or sub market share.
Product/service mix and expansion potential: to know the life cycle of key products; to know the profit or loss of the product/service.
To clearly know the channel of distribution; number, coverage, and control.
To maintain effective sales organization: to find out knowledge about the customer needs.
To improve product/service quality with image and reputation of brand name.
Efficient and effective utilization of available resource for effective sales promotion and advertising.
To aware of the pricing strategy and pricing flexibility.
To effective monitoring and feedback of the marketing functions and expansion of product
Effective implementation of after sales service and follow up.
To keep standards, goodwill and brand loyalty.
Finance and Accounting
Finance and accounting functions refers to:
Ability to raises short term and long-term capital: either debt or equity.
To maintain good corporate level resource.
To know the cost of capital relative to industry and competitors
Tax consideration
To build up effective relationship with owners, investors, financial institution and stock holders.
To know the leverage position: capacity to utilization financial strategies, like lease or sale and lease back.
To aware of the cost of entry and barriers of the entry.
To know the price earning ration
Present working capital position of the organization.
Effective cost control and ability to minimize cost of expenditure for production of goods and service.
Financial size of the organization.
Efficient and effective accounting system for cost, budget, and profit planning of the organization.
Production/Operation/Technical
Production or operation or technical refers to:
To know the present raw material cost and availability
Inventory control system of the organization.
Location facilities; layout and utilization facilities.
Technical efficiency and effective utilization of technical resource in the organization.
Effective use and implementation of subcontracting.
Degree of vertical integration in terms of value added and profit margin of the product.
To know the efficient and cost benefit of production techniques.
Effective utilization and implementation of operation control procedure: design, scheduling, purchasing, quality control and efficiency.
To know the costs and technological competencies relative to industry and competitors.
Research development, innovative, advance ethnological development.
Patents, trademarks and similar legal protection for their organization products/service.
Human Resource Development
Human resource development refers to the following:
Effective management of the human resource in the organization.
Improvement of employee skill and morale.
Labor relations costs compared to industry and competition from present industry scenario.
Efficient and effective formulation and implementation and controlling of the policies.
Effective utilization of incentive to motivate employees performance.
To know the ability to level peaks and valleys of employment.
To regulate employee turnover and absenteeism.
Specialized skills and experience.
Organization of general management
Organization of general management refers to the following:
To know the organization structure.
Organization image and prestige to public world.
Organization record for achieving goals and objectives.
Effective utilization of resource and overall organization control system.
To effective monitoring organization cultural climate.
Effective utilization of systematic procedure and tools and techniques in decision-making.
To know the top management skills, capabilities and interest.
Effective implementation strategic planning system.
To keep and maintain intra organization synergy (multibusiness)
Some of which would be the focus of internal analysis in most business organization.
Organization is not likely to consider all of the factors are potential strengths or weakness. Strategist has develop or review the factors which are important for successful of the organization.
For the Analysis of the organization, firstly, a strategist has to analyze the past trends like sales, costs and profitability. These trends are the major importance in identification of the internal factors of the organization. Further this identification should be based on a clear picture of the nature of the organizations sales trends. An anatomy of past trends has broken down by product lines channels of distribution of goods and service into different segmentation of key customers, geographical region and sales approach should be developed in detail. A similar anatomy of past trends should focus on costs and profitability. Strategist has to conduct detailed investigation of the organizations performance history that helps isolate internal factors influencing to sales, costs and profitability or their interrelationships. The above factors are important in future strategy decisions.
Identification of strategic factors also requires an external focus of the organization. Strategist isolates key internal factors through analysis of past and present performance like industry conditions / trends and comparisons with competitors. In addition, strategic internal factors are often selected for in depth evaluation because organizations are contemplating expansion of products or markets, diversification. Strategist carefully scrutinizes the industry under consideration of current competitors. This is a key means of identifying strategic factors, if an organization is evaluating its capabilities more into unfamiliar markets.
===================================

INTERNAL  ORGANIZATIONAL   ANALYSIS
-plan  to  change  operational methods [ change in  skills/ knowledge]
-plan to  change technology [ change  in  knowledge/skills]
-organization  restructuring [ change  in  job functions]
-changes in  corporate  strategy [ change  in  knowledge /skills]
-changes in the  role  of  jobs. [  change  in  knowledge  /  skills]

====================================================

Levels of Analysis
1. Organizational Analysis
-Identification of short- and long-term goals
-Identification of human resource needs
-Evaluation of methods of meeting HR needs (e.g.,
selection, training)
-Assessment of resource availability
-Evaluation of support for transfer of training
2. Task (Job) Analysis
-Identification of: tasks
-standards
-optimal procedures
3. Person Analysis
-Evaluation of individual against standards
-Identification of deficiencies
-Identification of causes (e.g., motivation vs. ability)
4. Demographic Analysis
-Assess the specific training needs of various
demographic groups (e.g., the disabled, ]

Work shops, Task Forces and
other Methods:
In the recent past work shops and internal-task forces becoming popular since there is greater involvement, team work as compared to questionnaire.
Diagnostic workshop methodology:
In this the participants of the organization are
assembled in groups for purposes of diagnosis.
They are further divided into smaller groups and then
ask to discuss a particular issue and diagnose the
situation.
SWOT analysis or Force field Analysis or symptoms-
sources-solution-action plans analysis are conducted
by the small groups with respect to a given
issue/problem/dimension needing the study
Procedure followed in Workshop
methodology:
Defining the problem or issue for
diagnosis:
-First it is important to clearly state the
problem or issue taking the decision to use work shop methodology. The problem may be general or specific
Preparatory work:
-In addition to developing clarity about the
problem it is necessary to plan for the work
shop in terms of the composition of groups,
introducing the problem, presentations,
class room facilities etc.
The participants called should be
concerned with the problem/issue and
contribution to the diagnosis and
subsequent improvements.
-The participants should be selected in such
a way that there should not be too many
levels of hierarchy present in the same
workshop
Workshop:
The workshop may begin with an introduction by
head, however should be left for the facilitator to
conduct the session.
-The workshop itself would consist of four groups of
activities:
Legitimization by the top management in terms of introducing the study, facilitators, plans for use of diagnostic data etc.
Rapport building by facilitators in the form of explaining
the meaning of diagnosis.
Group work where the groups will use Force Field Analysis, SWOT Analysis or symptoms-sources- solution-action plans analysis
Presentation by groups consolidation of data and
prioritization of variables for action etc. and closing.
The atmosphere in the workshop should be free,
open and informal. The facilitator has to play major
role in creating this atmosphere
When to use workshop methodology:
-If the problem or issue to be discussed is
believed to be amenable for improvements,
solution.
-The decision makers or the top
management of organization are
committed to bring about change or
improvements in the situation and are
willing to invest some resources for it.
-The organization values participative
processes and there is some amount of
openness or willingness to participate and
share organizational concerns.
-Involvement of employees becomes
important for solving the problem
Task forces and internal teams:
-Organizational designers and OD
consultants make it compulsory to an
organization to appoint an internal task
force to assist the facilitator in the change
process.
-A task force is a group of employees of an
organization constituted by the top
management and charged with the
responsibility of working on a specific task
or assignment in addition to their formally
assigned job.
-Each task force has a convener, a
secretary and a set of resources to
complete the task
The terms of reference should
contain the details of the purpose
-why the task force is constituted ,
-the methodology they can use,
-the flexibility they can have in
reformulating or redefining the job given
to them,
-the resources they have,
-the assistance they need/ expect from
other employees,
-the time frame and office bearers
The task forces may work independently or
under the general direction/guidance of the
chief executive to a top level manager.
-The work of the task force is time-bound.
Thus an organization can use any number
of task forces depending on the
problems/issues are willing to take up.
-Normally, the task forces are constituted
for diagnosis of specific problems and
working on specific issues
Example:
Initial Meetings: The task force had a few
initial meetings to clarify their own role and
list various activities they need to
undertake. They decoded to commission a
quick study of attitudes of employees to the
existing appraisal system and their
preferences for what should be included in
the new system.
Evolving a format and objectives after the
survey was conducted the task force had a
series of meetings and identified the main
and sub-objectives of the appraisal system.
They have also identified the components
and prepared a format incorporating these
objectives.
Testing out the format: The task force then
identified a representative sample of executives
and contacted them individually for testing out the
format. Each member interviewed a few
executives. The interview consisted of explaining
the objectives and format to each executive and
taking their views and reactions to it.
Preparing a manual: On the basis of this
preliminary try out the task force prepared an accompanying manual and also finalized the performance appraisal system.
Preliminary try-out: The task force then
conducted a series of orientation-cum-trial
workshops to introduce the new system .after this
again the views and opinions of executive were
obtained. S Another series of interviews were
conducted to diagnose the difficulties experienced
by executives in implementing the system


Reporting to OD Group:
-Periodically the task force went on
reporting to the OD Group. After first
rounds of trials decision was taken to
implement the new system and the
task force was dissolved and other
monitoring mechanisms were worked

WORKSHOP METHODOLOGY
In the Workshop Methodology participants (employees) of an organisation are assembled in groups (usually ranging between 20 to 30) for purposes of diagnosis. They are divided further into small groups (usually with a size of 6 to 8)
and are requested to discuss a particular issue and diagnose the situation. SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) or Force Field
Analysis (Symptoms - Sources - Solutions - Action Plans) are conducted by the small groups with respect to a given issue/problem/dimension needing the study.

The following procedure is normally followed in the workshop methodology.
Defining the Problem/Issue for Diagnosis: First it is important to clearly state the problem or issue at hand before the decision to use workshop methodology is taken. The problem may be general or specific.
Examples of General Diagnosis
a) The organisation is wanting to improve its general performance through improving the productivity and motivation of its employees. The present level of motivation and efficiency of employees at all levels is considered to be good but there is a feeling expressed by several categories of people that it can be still better. What is contributing to the present level of efficiency and what would help improving it.
b) The organisation is wanting to diversify. New units are expected to be added in the same locations. Some of the existing staff may have to look after the new units also with appropriate rationalisation of work loads. What are the factors that should be taken into consideration for implementing the diversification decisions?
c) There is general feeling that the employee motivation is low and  organisational health is poor. What are the reasons? What are the critical variables that could be dealth with?
d) The organisation is simply interested in improving itself. What are the ways in which the organisational functioning could be improved?

Examples of Specific Issues
a) The organisation is interested in changing the performance appraisal system and strengthen the open culture. What are the problems and possibilities?
What do people feel about the existing appraisal system? What changes do they want?
b) The absenteeism is on increase in some departments. What are the reasons? What could bed one?
c) The organisation would like to improve the team spirit and interdepartmental collaboration. What is contributing to team spirit to-day? How to enhance it?
d) The organisation would like to introduce computers in several sections.
What is the existing situation and what steps/variables should be considered for an effective implementation?
The process of defining the problem itself is important. To define the problem itself the top management team may need to have a meeting or a series of meetings. Some times even outside consultants could be used who may conduct a few preliminary interviews and make an assessment of the problem. While it is important to define the problem/issue before the workshop is convened, the facilitator of the workshop should be open enough to go beyond the stated problem if the workshop participants indicate the need for the same.
Preparatory Work: In addition to developing clarity about the problem it is necessary to plan for the workshop in terms of the composition of the groups, introducing the problem, presentations, class-room facilities etc. The
participants called for the workshop should be those concerned with the problem/issue, those affected by it and those who are likely to contribute to the diagnosis and subsequet improvements. The workshop participants should
be selected in such a way that there are not too many levels of hierarchy present in the same workshop. This is because juniors may feel inhibited to talk about the problems in the presence of seniors. If the group is small and if people of different hierarchial levels get included the sub-groups in the workshop may be so composed to take care of any inhibitions.

Workshop Itself: The workshop may begin with an introduction by the Chief Executive/Unit Head/Sponsor of the diagnostic study. However, after the introduction it should be left for the facilitator to conduct the session. It
is advisable if the sponsor of the study is not present during discussions in order to facilitate free expression of views. However, he could join the workshop at the end to listen to presentations. Some times the culture of an
organisation may not be open enough even for that. In such cases, the sponsor of the study could be given a presentation by the facilitator himself.
Thus the workshop itself would consist of four groups of activities:
i) Legitimisation by the top management in terms of introducing the study, the facilitators, plans for use of diagnostic data etc.
ii) Rapport Building by the facilitators in the form of explaining the meaning of diagnosis, sharing experiences of other organisatioins, explaining importance
of the data they generate, assuring confidentiality, explaining the rationale for group formation, announcing the groups or forming the groups there itself on the basis of suggestions by the members, and introducing the methodology.
iii) Group work where the groups will use Force Field Analysis, SWOT Analysis or Source-symptoms-Action Plan Analysis.
iv) Presentation by groups consolidation of data and prioratisation of variables for action etc. and closing.
The atmosphere in the workshop should be free, open and informal.
The facilitator has to play a major role in creating this atmosphere.

WHEN TO USE WORKSHOP METHODOLOGY
Workshop methodology could be used under the following conditions:
If the problem/issue to be discussed is believed to be amenable for improvements, solution.
The decision-makers or the top management of the organisation are committed to bring about change/improvements in the situation and are willing to invest some resources for it.
The organisation values partcipative processes and there is some amount of openness or willingness to participate and share organisational concerns.
Involvement of employees becomes important for solving the problem



Observational Methods
This method is most useful when an outside consultant is used for diagnosis.
Insiders are most often blind to the events and data that are a part of the organisation. An outsider could observe a number of things. For example, the behaviour of people when the work hours begin in the morning, at the time of
the close of working hours, the notices displayed, the work organisation, the behaviour of people in meetings, the kind of memos written to each other, tea and lunch breaks, canteen and the way it is organised, behaviour of employees
in the organisation etc. could be observed and inferences made.

The main limitations of this method are:
i) Not all processes are amenable to observation and the observer’s own biases get reflected in observations. Observation methods could be used as
preliminary diagnostic tools. Unless they are supplemented with interviews or other methods a good quality diagnosis may be different,
ii) The basic strength or weakness of observation as a tool is that the observer is the data-collection instrument (as opposed to the questionnaire as the observation instrument). A sensitive observer making use of an effective
structure for observation can be an effective data-collection tool. An observer who has little sensitivity and no guiding structure may spend hours observing, see nothing, and report no usable data.



Secondary Data and Unobtrusive Measures
Records maintained by organisations can be very useful sources. Now-a-days with easy accessibility of computers most organisations collect and store a lot
of data. Absenteeism rates and patterns, grievances, costs, delays, work performance records, attendance at meetings, circulars and other office
communications provide ample opportunities for diagnosis.
Minutes of meetings, points of view expressed in meetings etc. also offer enough insights. These methods unfortunately are less frequently used. For example, analysis of performance appraisal reports can give a lot of significant
data about the problems and difficulties of employees, their competency gaps and so on. Similarly an analysis of the delays in submitting reports (MIS, budgets, appraisals, reward recommendations), leave applications complaints etc.
may also provide significant insights.

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Leo Lingham

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management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc

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18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc

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24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
human resource management, management training, business coaching,
counseling etc

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PRINCIPAL -- BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

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MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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