Management Consulting/Management Question


Dear Mr. Lingham,
My question as follows:

1.Some organizational examples where "process based change" has taken place successfully.

Change is a process, which progress over a period of time. Whilst change itself always carries with it improbability, the process of change should be managed by an effetive plan, unambiguous rules, processes, protocol and system. Educational researches have defined the change process for both organisations and individuals as :
•        Change is not a single event, it takes time to plan for change, try new practices, and incorporate new programs effectively.
•        Change can energize, act as a catalysts and build a sense of community.
•       The process of change may not be empraced at all conflicts are a natural part of the change process.
•        Change begins with the individuals and will not be manifested in organisation until individuals believe in the change and understand the reason which promted change.
•        Involvement in the change process is individualistic and ultimately the responsibility of each person within the organisation.
•        When individuals have cleased defined goals and expectation along with an understanding that the change can be effective, success and more acceptance of the change process can occur.
Reasons for the process change : (i)     Reengineering:
•        Fundamental rethinking
•        Redical redesign
•       Process
•        Deamatic Improvement
•        Measures
•        Return Risk
(ii) Process:
• Activities
• Customers
• Measusres
• Work ordering
• Time
• Space
• Beginning
• Ending
• Inputs
• Outputs
• Structure
• Action
• Baseline

Reegineering and organisational change :

Indicates the important attached in the BPR paradign to deep and redical change. BPR involves the total creative rethinking of one or more of a company's business processes. The process of reengineering itself has no fixed rules identified common themes found in reengineered process. Some of these include.

Several Jobs are combined into one :
Work normally performed by a number of specialists in different functional departments can now be performed by one individual or team. Through shared databases and decision support systems this generalist had access to all the required information and expert systems make a sound decisions.
Workers make real decisions :
They have full grasp of the entire process and can tak responsibility if a customer is dissatified. Creativity, ability to work independently and a sense of responsibility are required attributes of this new worker. Managers act more as coaches than bean counters."
Work is performed where it makes the most sense :
A product development development team, for example, instead of being spread out over multiple locations and departments is now under one roof or group. When a team member makes design changes those changes are immediately propagated to other team members for review.
Checks and controls are reduced, reconciliation and the associated over-head is minimized:
For example in the case of ford motor company invoices are no longer reconcilied with what is shipped because a shipment is not received unless it agrees with the orginal invoice. Further, suppliers are not paid until their parts are actually used in production, thus forcing the supplier to deliver, quality and to be in tune with ford's production schedules.
A case manager provides a single point of contact:
When a customer calls with a complaint, one person is responsible and takes ownership for the resolution of tht complaint. BPR involves significant organisation change and that managing the change process must therefore be critical to the success of such undertaking with all its major implications.
Cultural Change :
Many of the BPR writers of commentators address the cultural illues in more than one way. The social scientists, see culture, or at least the neglect of people, as an inhibitor to effective implementation of BPR.
Changing Role of Empployees :
Reengineering alos needs change in the behavior of employees, their mindset, attitudes etc. BPR change their behaviour and are self managed. They also advocate for empowering staff, encouraging team working and developing a communications programme.
Changing Role of Leaders :
Despite a reduction in managerial layers there is still a role for leaders.
Our experience about the change process that our organisation with which has undergone a large-scale restructuring programme. I will stress more on TQM because if the quality is good then management also works. Any quality approach used by an organzation must be treated as an organisation change success in implementing TQM and receiving a return on investment depends upon understanding positioning and managing and managing TWM as a large-scale organisation change. TQM does impact management. TQM is an organisational strategy with accompanying techniques that deliver quality products and/or services to customers. TQM is also defined as "an integrated organisational approach : TQM methods which need large-scale organizational changes : (i) Desing of Experiments (DoE) (ii) Purpose
(iii)   Quality Function Deployment (QFD) (iv)    Just in Time (JIT) (v)    Zero Defects (vi)    Concurrent Engineering (CE)
ISO 9000 series were developed by international organisation for standardisation (ISO) a specilised international agency for standerdisation composed of the national standard of 91 countries in the year 1987. It ensures consistent quality for customers ISO 9000 certifications indicates that a company perform a minimum level of quality.
(a)     Management responsibility.
(b)     Quality System.
(c)     Contract review
(d)     Design control
(e)     Document contorl
(f)     Process control
(g)     Quality records
(h)    Internal quality audits
(i)     Training
(j)      Servicing
(k)     Statistical techniques

Scope of change management

This tutorial provides a summary of each of the main areas for change management based on Prosci's benchmarking research with more than 3400 organizations over the last 15 years.  

The purpose of defining these change management areas is to ensure that there is a common understanding among readers. Tools or components of change management include:  
•Change management process   
•Defining change management
•Readiness assessments   
•Communication and communication planning   
•Coaching and manager training for change management   
•Training and employee training development   
•Sponsor activities and sponsor roadmaps   
•Resistance management   
•Data collection, feedback analysis and corrective action
•Celebrating and recognizing success

Change management process

The change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change management team or project leader would follow to apply change management to a project or change. Based on Prosci's research of the most effective and commonly applied change, they have created a change management process that contains the following three phases:

Phase 1 - Preparing for change   (Preparation, assessment and strategy development)

Phase 2 - Managing change (Detailed planning and change management implementation)

Phase 3 - Reinforcing change™   (Data gathering, corrective action and recognition)

Figure 1 - Prosci 3-Phase Change Management Process

The Prosci 3-Phase Process is available in two Do-It-Yourself options for immediate access to the methodology and tools:
    -  Change Management Pilot Professional: online option, $489 - order |  learn more
    -  Change Management Toolkit: hardcopy option, $389 -  order |  learn more
Also presented in Prosci's acclaimed 3-day Certification Program:  brochure |  see schedule

Defining change management

It is important to note what change management is and what change management is not, as defined by the majority of research participants.

•Change management is not a stand-alone process for designing a business solution.

•Change management is the processes, tools and techniques for managing the people-side of change.

•Change management is not a process improvement method.

•Change management is a method for reducing and managing resistance to change when implementing process, technology or organizational change.

•Change management is not a stand-alone technique for improving organizational performance.

•Change management is a necessary component for any organizational performance improvement process to succeed, including programs like: Six Sigma, Business Process Reengineering, Total Quality Management, Organizational Development, Restructuring and continuous process improvement.

•Change management is how we drive the adoption and usage we need to realize business results.

Prosci's definition of change management: Change management is the application of a structured process and set of tools for leading the people side of change to achieve a desired outcome.

Readiness assessments

Assessments are tools used by a change management team or project leader to assess the organization's readiness to change. Readiness assessments can include organizational assessments, culture and history assessments, employee assessments, sponsor assessments and change assessments. Each tool provides the project team with insights into the challenges and opportunities they may face during the change process.

•Assess the scope of the change, including: How big is this change? How many people are affected? Is it a gradual or radical change?

Assess the readiness of the organization impacted by the change, including: What is the value- system and background of the impacted groups? How much change is already going on? What type of resistance can be expected?

•Assess the scope of the change, including: How big is this change? How many people are affected? Is it a gradual or radical change?

•Assess the readiness of the organization impacted by the change, including: What is the value- system and background of the impacted groups? How much change is already going on? What type of resistance can be expected?

•Assess the strengths of your change management team.

•Assess the change sponsors and take the first steps to enable them to effectively lead the change process.

Communication and communication planning

Many managers assume that if they communicate clearly with their employees, their job is done. However, there are many reasons why employees may not hear or understand what their managers are saying the first time around. In fact, you may have heard that messages need to be repeated 6 to 7 times before they are cemented into the minds of employees. That is because each employee’s readiness to hear depends on many factors. Effective communicators carefully consider three components: the audience, what is said and when it is said.  

For example, the first step in managing change is building awareness around the need for change and creating a desire among employees. Therefore, initial communications are typically designed to create awareness around the business reasons for change and the risk of not changing. Likewise, at each step in the process, communications should be designed to share the right messages at the right time.  

Communication planning, therefore, begins with a careful analysis of the audiences, key messages and the timing for those messages. The change management team or project leaders must design a communication plan that addresses the needs of front-line employees, supervisors and executives. Each audience has particular needs for information based on their role in the implementation of the change.

Sponsor activities and sponsor roadmaps

Business leaders and executives play a critical sponsor role in change management. The change management team must develop a plan for sponsor activities and help key business leaders carry out these plans. Sponsorship should be viewed as the most important success factor. Avoid confusing the notion of sponsorship with support. The CEO of the company may support your project, but that is not the same as sponsoring your initiative.  

Sponsorship involves active and visible participation by senior business leaders throughout the process. Unfortunately many executives do not know what this sponsorship looks like. A change agent's or project leader's role includes helping senior executives do the right things to sponsor the project.

Coaching and manager training for change management

Supervisors will play a key role in managing change. Ultimately, the direct supervisor has more influence over an employee’s motivation to change than any other person at work. Unfortunately, supervisors as a group can be the most difficult to convince of the need for change and can be a source of resistance. It is vital for the change management team and executive sponsors to gain the support of supervisors and to build change leadership. Individual change management activities should be used to help these supervisors through the change process.  

Once managers and supervisors are on board, the change management team must prepare a coaching strategy. They will need to provide training for supervisors including how to use individual change management tools with their employees.

Training and training development

Training is the cornerstone for building knowledge about the change and the required skills. Project team members will develop training requirements based on the skills, knowledge and behaviors necessary to implement the change. These training requirements will be the starting point for the training group or the project team to develop training programs.

Resistance management

Resistance from employees and managers is normal. Persistent resistance, however, can threaten a project. The change management team needs to identify, understand and manage resistance throughout the organization. Resistance management is the processes and tools used by managers and executives with the support of the project team to manage employee resistance.

Data collection, feedback analysis and corrective action

Employee involvement is a necessary and integral part of managing change. Managing change is not a one way street. Feedback from employees is a key element of the change management process. Analysis and corrective action based on this feedback provides a robust cycle for implementing change.

Celebrating and recognizing success

Early successes and long-term wins must be recognized and celebrated. Individual and group recognition is also a necessary component of change management in order to cement and reinforce the change in the organization.  

The final step in the change management process is the after-action review. It is at this point that you can stand back from the entire program, evaluate successes and failures, and identify process changes for the next project. This is part of the ongoing, continuous improvement of change management for your organization and ultimately leads to change competency.


These eight elements comprise the areas or components of a change management program. Along with the change management process, they create a system for managing change. Good project managers apply these components effectively to ensure project success, avoid the loss of valued employees, and minimize the negative impact of the change on productivity and a company's customers. The Prosci Change Management Certification Program is a great option for hands-on learning about these eight elements and other tools for managing change.


Change Agent, Task to perform as Change Agent, Managing Change in Organisations
List out the skills required for the role of a change agent. Describe yourself as a change agent and the tasks you perform as a change agent in your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

Change is not single event, it takes time to plan for change for change, try new practices and incorporate new programs effectively. Change is a process, which progress ones a period of time. Whilst change itself always carries with it improbability, the process of change should be managed by an effective plan, unambiguous rules, processes, protocol and system. Educational researchers have defined change agent for organisartions and individuals as :

(i) Change can enegize, act as a catalyst.
(ii) Build a sense of community.
(iii) Process of change may not be embraced by all.
(iv) Conflicts are a natural part of the change process.
(v) Involvement in the change process is individualistic and ultimately the responsibility of
each person with in the organisation, (vi) When individuals have clearly defined goals and expectations along with an understanding that the change can be effective, success and more acceptance of the
change process can occur.

Reasons for the change agent:
(i) Technological Advanchement the new technologies basically CRM, e-business and knowledge management technology is now considered as a strategic tools, an automation tool in the past. This necessitates upgrading of the existing skill sets of employees change as well. The advancement in the information technology requires organisations to.

(ii) Be able to develop an IT strategy that fully supports and enables the business strategy to develop and grow.

(iii) Listen to business needs and traslate them into technology requirements.

(iv) Make the common database availabel to all in customer service management.

(v) Use easy access to a knowledge management approach and technology to turn individual knowledge into comnpany wide knowledge speedily and effectively.

Following are ones about what three was most agreement.
• Regards organisations as open socio technical systems that must constantly adapt in an integrated way in order to improve cutomer service.
• Adopt a process-oriented process view of how the business operates.
• Unlearn part habits of thinking and adopt new ways.
• Encourage greates team working in which each members has multiple skills.

The process to manage the change :
Implementation of the above processes bring large scale organisational changes which must be managed properly employees must strive to appraise the situation so as to identity major barriers and evolve strategies to deal with the new situation. Implementing the change process is as immense as the challenge of creating innovative business process solutions but change brings destruction as wel. Incorporation of both these hard and soft skills will help to win widespread support for process changes and methodologies to execute the solution effectively.

As a change agent in my organisation or an organisation I am referring to. (i) Sensitivity Training : Sensitivity Training refers toi a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interface T-groups aim at the following :
• Understanding one's own behaviour and how one's behaviour affets others
• Understanding why people behave the way they do.
• Encouraging ont to try out new ways of interacting with people and receiving
• Understanding group processes.
• Developing tolerance for other people's behaviour.


Diagnostic Methodologies, Factors Consideration for diagnosis, Managing Change in Organisations,

(ii) The formal group Diagnostic Meeting: The formal group diagnostic meeting allows a group to be its own in order to identify its strengths and problem areas. It accourages every group member to contribute and generate ideas. The data collected during the meeting serves the foundation for future actions.

(iii) Team Building Activities : A team is a group of individuals who tend to work interdependently to satisfy organisational as well as their own individual objectives teams as different from other gorups by
(1) Participative leadership.
(2) Shared responsibility.
(3) Aligned on purpose.
(4) High communication
(5) Future Focussed
(6) Task Focussed
(7) Creative Talents
(8) Rapid response

In my organisation I have to assess the team empowerment. Think of a team that have been member of in a work setting. Respond to each statement below by indicating the degree to which agree or diagree with it in terms of the team.
(i) Potency items
(ii) Meaningfulness items
(iii) Autonomy items,
(iv) impact items.

Techniques and exercise used in team building :
(i) Role Analysis Technique (RAT)
(ii) Role Negotiation Technique.
(iii) Interdependency Exercise.
(iv) Appreciative Inquiry
(v) Responsibility charting
(vi) Visioning.
(vii) Perocess consultation : Feedback to groups during process analysis or regular work time, feedback to individuals after meetings or after data gathering,
(viii) Coaching or counselling of individuals,
(ix) Rertaining to group membership,
(x) Communication or interaction Patterns,
(xi) Agenda review and testing procedures,
(xii) Meeting devoted to interpersonal processand allocation at work.

Organisational Culture, Organisational Examples, Managing Change in Organisations,

What is organisational culture? Describe how organisational culture change takes place by citing organisational examples. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

Culture should be reserved for the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization. The culture of the factory is its customary and traditional way of thinking and of doing things, culture in this sense convers a wide range of behavioure the methods of production, job skills and technical knowledge attitudes towards discipline and punishment the customers and habits of managerial behaviour, the objectives of the concern, its way of doing business the methods of payment, the values placed on different types of work beliefs in domocratic living and joint consultation and the less conscious conventions and taboos. The making of relationships, is governed by the extent to which the individuals concerned have each absorbed the culture of individual for handling his relationships and on which has depends for making his way among, and with, other members and groups change are expressed through three main areas the market itself, the technology to meet market demand competitively the organization of resources and the enterprise to achieve success.

Types of change :

(a) Organizationl Culture Organizational Structure.
(b) Market-Led issues
Customer market orientation New productrs Reduction to core Internationalize Quality emphasis.
(c) People issuesCommunication/Participation.
People matters
Reward Development
Emphasis on training and development
New work practices
Teams/group/task forces.
(d) Technology
(e) Entreprenencial Creative
Innovation Entrepreneueship
(f) Economics
Costing culting Staff reductions Productivity
(g) Crises change: Change is basically required to meet danger or toavoid impending disaster

Corporate change cannot be achieved by one man alone, and even the active support of all the managers in a company is no more than the first crucial step. It means touching the organisation on actually exists. It does not exist in balance sheets, building or computers seeking to improve results do something about the organisational structure and culture issues together head the types of change recorded in the as heidge data. Organization is a matter of structuring the way in which resources are brough and kept together in order to achieve objectives. These resource include people, places, money, materials, machines and so on for a number of tese may actually be neded in any particular type of change organisation and culture modification is not on the resources themselve not on people as individuals, but on the way in which they are interlined and mobilized, where the resoures are positioned how coordination is ensured and the resources include people, places, money material, machines and so on, for the number of these may actually be needed in any particular type of change.

(i) The market, quzlity and change
(ii) People and change
(iii) Taining and development.
(iv) Involvement
(v) Qualit and improvement circles
(vi) Technology
(vii) Imgination
(viii) Managing the beforemath
(ix) Looking Back from the future.
(x) Creting the future.

The organisation which I refer to is that the importance of organizations for man and society can hardly be once-estimated from the life to death one or other organisation plays a role in the life of the individual and impact on societies nations and communities, be it political, religions, culture, eductional, Judicial, economic indurtrial or sport organisations etc, organisation is the vehicle through which groups, collectives and individuals, work to achieve their goals, aima and objectives in my organisation the movement of people from a current state to a defined state, different improved and desired new state through a set of planned and integrated interventions. The organisational culture could one of the key ingredients in determine effectiveness and efficiency in understanding benchmarking in becoming a world-class business and organisation.

The Factors that influenced our organisational culture is
•   History and ownershilp.
•   Size
•   Technology
•   Leadership and Mission.
•   Stories.
•   Routines.
•   Rituals
•   Symbols
•   Control System
•   Power Structures.

Organisational strctures who reports to whoim on a formal basis and who have an informal relaationships. Who makes the decisions, who influences the decisions how when. Higher level of work motivation and performance among organisational members relative to previously established standards, organisational effectiveness with repect to human resource management.

Turn Around Management, Applying Turn Around Management, Managing Change in Organisations,

What is turn around management? Explain in detail how turn around management can be applied in your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with. Describe the organisation you are referring to.

Turn around is when weak company is acquired it is rapidly subjected to turnaround management. Also when a sound and profitable company has been purchased, it is subjected to some form of turnaround management, to realize the synergies so as to increase profits and shareholders value which goes with a major acquisitions. Peripheral noncore activities are often sold out to concentrate on the organisation core business to enable the comany to increase its market share. Turnaround is also confused with the downsizing are restructuring downsizing might be part of a turnaround plan, it does not, by itself, constitute around a turnaround downsizing cannot guarantee a sick company survival and prosperity. The term turaround management primarily refers to companies or other organisations in distress. Organisations are normally sick when measured on different criteria. They often display life threating symptoms and the urgent need for restoring them to health through a whole battery of inteventions-both hard and soft. Arpi and mejke defined turnaround management as the systematic and rapid implementation of a range of measure to correct a seriously unprofitable situatios. It might include dealing with a financial disaster or measure to avoid the highly likely occurrence of such a disaster.

Turnaround management includes an element of crisis management. In medical parlance the term company needing turaround management has usually reached a highly crucial and dicisive moment in its life, which could either be for better or for worse. The trnaround management usually reached a highly crucial and decisive moments in its life, which could either be for better or for worse. The turnaround management is simply there to make sure that the turning point it for the better. Turnaround activities are also triggered by acquisitions, mergers and privatization. The activities most commonly initiated of late are.

(a) When a smaller company has been acquired.
(b) When two companies in the the same industry are merged.
(c) When a state hold company just been privatized.

The turnaround management can be applied in my organistion and the organisation which I refer are as following :

There is a broad spectrum of turnaround situations, which might occue. The anture situations, which might occur. The nature and urgency of the situation in often influenced by certain key parameters which include.
(a)     the ownership structure of the company.
(b)    The urgency of the crisais.
(c)     Whether the company must be radically cost reduced.
(d)    the management team presently in place.
(e)     whether the turnaround manager would be the long term CEO or not.
(f)     whether he is assisted by other or not
(g)    the degree of freedom given to him.
(h)    the time available to decide on priorities and actions.
(i)     the suitability of networks and tools used.
(j)     whether it is a trading company or services or manufacturing company.
(k)      which industry it represents.
(1)       The product structure
(m)     the size in market share.
(n)      reputation of the company.
(o)      the competitor profile and position.

Step involved in turnaround management.
(i)       Discussions before accepting the turnaround assignment is extremely important.
(ii)      If the distressed company is not in the middle of a life and death fight.
(iii)     The annual reports.
(iv)     Accounting on other published material on the organization can be scanned through
for a good insight.
(v)      Establishing numerical benchmarks based on performance standard,
(vi)     Cash is the first concern,
(vii)    Cash flow.
(viii)   Projections for the next one year,
(ix)     Learning by systematically following a cross functional trail for business re engineering becomes crucial,
(x)      Business missions.
(xi)     Blueprint for the future company would be arrived at based on the work done,
(xii)    Future core business, one or more mission statements with a target description and strategy document. The action plans are also spell out in the process,
(xiii)   Gaining acceptance. Formal approval,
(xiv)   Turnaround plans fall in the next steps,
(xv)    Implementating the plan,
(xvi)   Designed bluepring with a full approval,
(xvii) The implementation phase would have a capable CEO a well designed blueprint with a full approval.
(xviii) Monitoring
(xix)   Monitoring the action plans are also spelt out in the process.
Inaddition to these factors and parameters influencing the fturnaround situation organisations usually experience situations which could be described as given below :
(a)      Many turnaround managers would be their homework first in a situation which faces an immediate cash crisis.
(b)      There is no time for extensive homework.
(c)      An unprofitable subsidiary may also lead to a turnaround situations (SBUs) are keenly looked tfor turnaround situations before implementing any strategic changes in the company.
(d)      Organisations also face situations where cost cutting and downsizing va volume
improving or marging improving marketing solutions arise in the company. Cost cutting is not the way to improve the profits, new profit.
(e)      Leadership crisis is one of the often repeated kinds of turnaround that organisation.
(f)      Existing turnaround literature is very scare. The practice could be traced t the US. European turnaround also reflects a distinct turnaroud situation.


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Leo Lingham


management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc


18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc


24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
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