Management Consulting/principle of management


Hi sir, gd evening please help me with the question below is the force which leads guides and directs an organization in the accomplishment of pre determined objectives. do u agree or disagree? justify.

2. 'The job of the supervisor is many more difficult than that of higher lever managers'. Examine the major responsibilities of a supervisor in an agro based industry.

.management is the force which leads guides and directs an organization in the accomplishment of pre determined objectives. do u agree or disagree? justify.
Management is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
using   the  Management functions  of  :


*Analyze, on a periodic basis, workload and personnel needs of an organizational unit.

*Recommend changes in the staff level of the work unit.

*Review documentation for new positions and positions that have been revised.

*Obtain approval to modify positions.

*Interview candidates for employment and make hiring decision or recommendations.

*Orient new subordinates concerning policy and procedures, work rules, and performance expectation
levels. Review position responsibilities.

*Plan, delegate, communicate and control work assignments and special projects concerning

*Establish and maintain specific work goals and objectives or quantitative and qualitative work standards
to be achieved by subordinates.

*Train, develop, and motivate subordinates to improve current performance and to prepare for higher  level

*Determine significant changes in responsibilities and major duties of subordinates by reviewing their job
responsibilities on a regular basis.

*Evaluate the performance of subordinates. Document and discuss present and past

*performance with each direct report. Keep supervisor informed of results.

*Review salaries of subordinates and recommend changes according to policy and procedures.

*Recommend personnel actions such as promotions, performance awards, demotions, etc., according
to budget guidance and policy.

*Advise superiors and subordinates of developments that impact job duties. Ensure proper

*Maintain discipline, recommend and administer corrective action according to policy and procedures.

*Communicate and administer personnel programs in accordance with design and objectives.

*Maintain proper documentation on all subordinates.

*Direct the business activities of the company for the achievement of short and long term business/policy objectives, increased profit, production activity, or market share.

*Establish the business's objectives, policies and programmes within the context of the overall Corporate plan and, where appropriate, recommend standards and set targets (may include manufacturing, sales, marketing, distribution and administration).

*Prepare, or arrange for the preparation of the business's budgets, reports and forecasts, and ensure they are presented in a timely manner to the  MANAGEMENT.

*Appraise the activities of the BUSINESS according to overall strategies and objectives, and monitor and evaluate branch and division performance, the efficiency of staff, procedures and production costs.

*Co ordinate subordinate staff to optimise the use of human and material resources to achieve goals. Consult with subordinate staff and review recommendations and reports.

*Oversee the development and implementation of all BUSINESS  activities including production, distribution and sales, to protect the funds invested.

*Plan and review the BUSINESS  operating costs particularly with regard to production, output, quality and quantity, cost, time available, labour requirements, planned production programmes and control activities, inventory levels, freight and advertising.

*Direct the preparation of marketing plans, key customer strategies and sales forecasts recommended by subordinate managers and ensure adequate support is provided in all branches/areas.

*Control use of production plant facilities by planning maintenance, designating operating hours and supply of parts and tools.

*Direct research into new and improved production methods and products, changes in selling policies, and other areas necessary to ensure the continued growth of the business.

*Select, or approve the selection and training of senior staff. Establish lines of control and delegate responsibilities to staff.

*Provide overall direction and management of the business, including personnel, technological resources and assets. Maintain necessary contact with major suppliers, customers, industry associations and government representatives to achieve the objectives of the business.

*Ensure all the business's activities comply with relevant Acts, legal demands and ethical standards.
The three parts are:
•   achieving the task
•   managing the team or group
•   managing individuals
***Your responsibilities as a manager for achieving the TASK  are:
•   identify aims and vision for the group, purpose, and direction - define the activity (the task)
•   identify resources, people, processes, systems and tools (inc. financials, communications, IT)
•   create the plan to achieve the task - deliverables, measures, timescales, strategy and tactics
•   establish responsibilities, objectives, accountabilities and measures, by agreement and delegation
•   set standards, quality, time and reporting parameters
•   control and maintain activities against parameters
•   monitor and maintain overall performance against plan
•   report on progress towards the group's aim
•   review, re-assess, adjust plan, methods and targets as necessary

***Your responsibilities as a manager for theGroup / team  are:
•   establish, agree and communicate standards of performance and behaviour
•   establish style, culture, approach of the group - soft skill elements
•   monitor and maintain discipline, ethics, integrity and focus on objectives
•   anticipate and resolve group conflict, struggles or disagreements
•   assess and change as necessary the balance and composition of the group
•   develop team-working, cooperation, morale and team-spirit
•   develop the collective maturity and capability of the group - progressively increase group freedom and authority
•   encourage the team towards objectives and aims - motivate the group and provide a collective sense of purpose
•   identify, develop and agree team- and project-leadership roles within group
•   enable, facilitate and ensure effective internal and external group communications
•   identify and meet group training needs
•   give feedback to the group on overall progress; consult with, and seek feedback and input from the group

***Your responsibilities as a manager for each INDIVIDUAL   are:
•   understand the team members as individuals - personality, skills, strengths, needs, aims and fears
•   assist and support individuals - plans, problems, challenges, highs and lows
•   identify and agree appropriate individual responsibilities and objectives
•   give recognition and praise to individuals - acknowledge effort and good work
where appropriate reward individuals with extra responsibility, advancement and status :

To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. A role is an organized set of behaviors. There  are  ten roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups:
interpersonal, informational, and decisional.
1.The informational roles link all managerial work together.
2.The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided.
3.The decisional roles make significant use of the information.
The performance of managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees depending on the level and function of management. The ten roles are described individually, but they form an integrated whole.

The organizing process can be done efficiently if the managers have certain guidelines so that they can take decisions and can act. To organize in an effective manner, the following principles of organization can be used by a manager.
1.   Principle of Specialization
According to the principle, the whole work of a concern should be divided amongst the subordinates on the basis of qualifications, abilities and skills. It is through division of work specialization can be achieved which results in effective organization.
2.   Principle of Functional Definition
According to this principle, all the functions in a concern should be completely and clearly defined to the managers and subordinates. This can be done by clearly defining the duties, responsibilities, authority and relationships of people towards each other. Clarifications in authority-responsibility relationships helps in achieving co-ordination and thereby organization can take place effectively. For example, the primary functions of production, marketing and finance and the authority responsibility relationships in these departments shouldbe clearly defined to every person attached to that department. Clarification in the authority-responsibility relationship helps in efficient organization.   
3.   Principles of Span of Control/Supervision
According to this principle, span of control is a span of supervision which depicts the number of employees that can be handled and controlled effectively by a single manager. According to this principle, a manager should be able to handle what number of employees under him should be decided. This decision can be taken by choosing either froma wide or narrow span. There are two types of span of control:-
a.   Wide span of control- It is one in which a manager can supervise and control effectively a large group of persons at one time. The features of this span are:-
i.   Less overhead cost of supervision
ii.   Prompt response from the employees
iii.   Better communication
iv.   Better supervision
v.   Better co-ordination
vi.   Suitable for repetitive jobs
According to this span, one manager can effectively and efficiently handle a large number of subordinates at one time.
b.   Narrow span of control- According to this span, the work and authority is divided amongst many subordinates and a manager doesn't supervises and control a very big group of people under him. The manager according to a narrow span supervises a selected number of employees at one time. The features are:-
i.   Work which requires tight control and supervision, for example, handicrafts, ivory work, etc. which requires craftsmanship, there narrow span is more helpful.
ii.   Co-ordination is difficult to be achieved.
iii.   Communication gaps can come.
iv.   Messages can be distorted.
v.   Specialization work can be achieved.
Factors influencing Span of Control
3.   Managerial abilities- In the concerns where managers are capable, qualified and experienced, wide span of control is always helpful.
4.   Competence of subordinates- Where the subordinates are capable and competent and their understanding levels are proper, the subordinates tend to very frequently visit the superiors for solving their problems. In such cases, the manager can handle large number of employees. Hence wide span is suitable.
5.   Nature of work- If the work is of repetitive nature, wide span of supervision is more helpful. On the other hand, if work requires mental skill or craftsmanship, tight control and supervision is required in which narrow span is more helpful.
6.   Delegation of authority- When the work is delegated to lower levels in an efficient and proper way, confusions are less and congeniality of the environment can be maintained. In such cases, wide span of control is suitable and the supervisors can manage and control large number of sub- ordinates at one time.
7.   Degree of decentralization- Decentralization is done in order to achieve specialization in which authority is shared by many people and managers at different levels. In such cases, a tall structure is helpful. There are certain concerns where decentralization is done in very effective way which results in direct and personal communication between superiors and sub- ordinates and there the superiors can manage large number of subordinates very easily. In such cases, wide span again helps.
4.   Principle of Scalar Chain
Scalar chain is a chain of command or authority which flows from top to bottom. With a chain of authority available, wastages of resources are minimized, communication is affected, overlapping of work is avoided and easy organization takes place. A scalar chain of command facilitates work flow in an organization which helps in achievement of effective results. As the authority flows from top to bottom, it clarifies the authority positions to managers at all level and that facilitates effective organization.
5.   Principle of Unity of Command
It implies one subordinate-one superior relationship. Every subordinate is answerable and accountable to one boss at one time. This helps in avoiding communication gaps and feedback and response is prompt. Unity of command also helps in effective combination of resources, that is, physical, financial resources which helps in easy co-ordination and, therefore, effective organization.
Authority Flows from Top to Bottom

Managing Director

Marketing Manager

Sales/ Media Manager

According to the above diagram, the Managing Director has got the highest level of authority. This authority is shared by the Marketing Manager who shares his authority with the Sales Manager. From this chain of hierarchy, the official chain of communication becomes clear which is helpful in achievement of results and which provides stability to a concern. This scalar chain of command always flow from top to bottom and it defines the authority positions of different managers at different levels.
Principles of organization
1. Principle of unity of objectives: Organizational goals, departmental goals, and individual goals must be clearly defined. All goals and objectives must have uniformity. When there is contradiction among different level of goals desired goals can’t be achieved. Therefore, unity of objectives is necessary
2. Principle of specialization:  Sound and effective organization believes on organization. The term specialization is related to work and employees. When an employee takes special type of knowledge and skill in any area, it is known as specialization. Modern business organization needs the specialization, skill and knowledge by this desired sector of economy and thus, efficiency would be established.
3. Principle of coordination: In an organization many equipment, tools are used. Coordination can be obtained by group effort that emphasize on unity of action. Therefore, coordination facilitates in several management concepts
4. Principle of authority: Authority is the kind of right and power through which it guides and directs the actions of others so that the organizational goals can be achieved. It is also related with decision making. It is vested in particular position, not to the person because authority is given by an institution and therefore it is legal. It generally flows from higher level to lowest level of management. There should be unbroken line of authority.
5. Principle of responsibility: Authentic body of an organization is top level management, top level management direct the subordinates. Departmental managers and other personnel take the direction from top level management to perform the task. Authority is necessary to perform the work .only authority is not provided to the people but obligation is also provided. So the obligation to perform the duties and task is known as responsibility. Responsibility can’t be delegated. It can’t be avoided.
6. Principle of delegation: Process of transferring authority and creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish a certain task is called delegation of authority. Authority is only delegated, not responsibilities in all levels of management. The authority delegated should be equal to responsibility
7. Principle of efficiency: In enterprise different resources are used. Therese resources must be used in effective manner. When the organization fulfill the objectives with minimum cost, it is effective. Organization must always concentrate on efficiency.
8. Principle of unity of command:  subordinates should receive orders from single superior at a time and all subordinates should be accountable to that superior. More superior leads to confusion, delay and so on.
9. Principle of span of control: unlimited subordinates cant be supervised by manager, this principle thus helps to determine numerical limit if subordinates to be supervised by a manager. This improves efficiency.
10. Principle of balance: the functional activities their establishment and other performances should be balanced properly. Authority, centralization, decentralization must be balance equally. This is very challenging job but efficient management must keep it.
11. Principle of communication:  Communication is the process of transformation of information from one person to another of different levels. It involves the systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding opinions ideas, feelings, information, views etc, in flow of information. Effective communication is important
12. Principle of personal ability: for sound organization, human resources is important. Employees must be capable. Able employees can perform higher. Mainly training and development programs must be encouraged to develop the skill in the employees
13. Principle of flexibility:  organizational structure must be flexible considering the environmental dynamism. Sometimes, dramatically change may occur in the organization and in that condition, organization should be ready to accept the change
14. Principle of simplicity: this principles emphasizes the simplicity of organizational structure, the structure if organization should be simple with minimum number of levels do that its member an understand duties and authorities.
. 'The job of the supervisor is many more difficult than that of higher lever managers'. Examine the major responsibilities of a supervisor in an agro based industry
As a supervisor in any industry, you would manage a team of staff and organise their workload. You would draw up rotas, allocate work and monitor team performance. You could be a supervisor in lots of different places from offices to shops and from care homes to factories.
If you've got good people skills and are a good motivator, this job could suit you well.
You would also need to have good communication skills and be well organised, with the ability to prioritise tasks.
You don't need any specific qualifications to get into this job. You would usually get promoted to supervisor after gaining experience in your area of work and by showing leadership skills.

The work
In any industry, your supervisory duties would typically include:
•   planning workloads and rotas
•   allocating tasks to team members
•   handling problems or complaints
•   briefing teams on targets, initiatives and policy changes
•   coaching and training staff
•   monitoring and reporting on team performance
•   carrying out appraisals
•   completing relevant paperwork
•   keeping up to date with regulations.
In some jobs, you might also carry out the same work as your team members, whilst in others you might only be responsible for supervising the team.
You may also be known as a first line manager, shift supervisor or team leader.
Your hours will depend on the industry you work in but will typically be 35 to 40 a week. Part-time work and job sharing are often available.
Your working environment would also depend on your industry. For example, you might work in an office, shop, factory or call centre.
In some companies you may supervise staff based at different locations, so you may need to travel between different sites.
Salaries for supervisors and team leaders are normally between £65,000 and £85,000 a year, although this can vary according to the industry.
Figures are intended as a guideline only.
Entry requirements
You would usually need at least one or two years’ experience in a job to become a team leader or supervisor. Employers may also want you to have work-based qualifications and evidence of relevant training certificates for the industry you’re working in.
Skills like leadership, organisational ability and time management are all important for this type of job.
A common way to become a supervisor is to be promoted from within a company or, in larger businesses, by completing an in-house management trainee scheme.
Another option is to take an Apprenticeship in Management with a company, which could lead into supervisory and trainee manager jobs. Check with your employer and on the Apprenticeships website for more details about opportunities.
Training and development
You would normally receive training to develop your supervisory skills and you may be mentored by an experienced colleague while you learn on the job. Some employers also run their own structured in-house training programmes for supervisors.
You may have the chance to gain recognised qualifications in supervisory management whilst you are working, such as:
•   Level 2 (NVQ) Certificate in Team Leading
•   Level 2 Certificate in Team Leading Principles
•   Level 3 Certificate/Diploma in First Line Management
•   Level 3 (NVQ) Certificate/Diploma in Management.
You could also study for part-time qualifications through the Institute of Leadership & Management (ILM) and the Chartered Management Institute (CMI).
In certain types of work, you may take qualifications aimed at supervisory management in your particular industry. This is common in call centres, retail, care and hospitality.
As your career progresses, you may be given the opportunity to take further training to move into middle then senior management positions.
Skills, interests and qualities
To be a supervisor, you will need:
•   the ability to motivate people
•   good spoken and written communication skills
•   a responsible attitude
•   good 'people skills' for building relationships with colleagues at all levels
•   the ability to plan and prioritise your own work and other people's
•   the ability to remain calm under pressure
•   good judgement for decision-making
•   the ability to keep accurate records
•   good IT skills.

People  Management    Skills

1 Analysing the subordinate's job.

What is a good job. What do you need to manage a team. Analysing the job. Developing the job profile. Developing the job specification and standards.
2. Selection process.

Why improve the selection process. Job requirements and qualifications. Preparation for selection. Areas of probing. Planning for the interview. Conducting the interview. Rating the evaluation.

3. Setting objectives.

Managing by objectives. Steps in managing by objectives. Establishing objectives. Developing measurable objectives. Written "objectives" statements. Conducting the objective setting interview.

4.Performance review and development plan.

Preparing for the interview. Importance of advance planning   know you staffs performance   positive feedback   managing negative feedback. Causes of performance problems. Analysing performance problems and critical incidents. Conducting the development interview. Using probing questions. Handling the fear of change. Managing conflicts. Developing and negotiating a development plan.
5.Counselling during the interviews communication skills.
6.Managing by situational leadership influence.

Your leadership styles. Personal and individual factors. Situational factors. Assessing the various situations. Developing and adapting appropriate styles for effectiveness. Understanding staff readiness.
7.Managing by exception   techniques.
8.After performance review meeting.

Coaching for improved performance. Mentoring.
9.Staff counselling and problem solving.

10. Managing problem employees.

    *Behaviours and intervention strategies.
11. Motivating people through supporting communication.

*Praise. Positive reinforcement. Continuous feedback. Empowerment   to spark exceptional performance. Enabling   to bring out the best.
12. Managing the change.

Changes in market, methods and organisation. Resistance to change. How to initiate change. Managers' roles in change. Communication in change.
13. Managing  diversity
14. Assertiveness.
15. Delegation   





1. . . . Making the best use of time while on the job?

2. . . . Planning ahead so to know what you want to do?

3. . . . Organizing his/her activities so to save time and get productivity?

4. . . . Conducting oneself so that the workers respect you?

5. . . . Cooperating with other supervisors or departments?

6.        Living with job pressures?
7.        Honestly adapting to change?
8.        Using a daily checklist of projects to be completed?

  9.      Being accountable for your actions?
10. Making a definite effort to grow and develop  on the job?



1.Giving workers definite assignments and productivity goals?

2.Training the workers for top performance?
3.Counseling and coaching the people?
4.The workers feeling they can approach  their supervisor at any time?
5.Getting the workers to accept responsibility?

6.       Orienting new employees properly?
7.       Controlling tardiness?
8.      Getting the workers to develop good work  habits?

  9.    Having good morale in the organization.
10. Handling the worker's complaint?



I   Managing by objectives?
2.   Reaching your objectives   get the job done?
3.   Keeping equipment in good repair?
4.   Workers producing in relation to acceptable quality standards?
5.   Operating with a cost control program?
6.   Supervisors doing their part to have proper  housekeeping in all work areas?
7. . . . Operating within the safety /environmental regulations provided to the supervisors?
8. . . . Carrying out the directives of top management?
9. . . . The supervisors seeking out ways to improve their operation?
10   Making the total commitment to the job?



1.   Leading by example?
2.   Inspiring team effort?
3.   Getting the supervisors to accept the respon sibility that getting the job done lies squarely
on their shoulders?
4.   Treating the workers fairly?
5.   Supervisors displaying self confidence in  their leadership?
6. . . . Encouraging ideas and suggestions from the workers before making a decision?

7.   Supervisors knowing their job?
8.   Being patient with the workers?
9.   Not knowing an answer, to admit it openly,  and not bluffing?
10 . . . Making a determined effort to remember names?



1. . . . Listening to the people when the occasion warrants it?

2. . . . Keeping personal problems from interfering with his/her job as a supervisor?

3.   Giving clear and accurate instructions?
4.   Writing a memo so it is understandable?
5.   Standing in front of a group and communi¬cating orally?

6.   Encouraging the people to communicate to the supervisor?

7. . . The supervisor making a conscious effort to communicate with his/her boss?

8. . . . The supervisors putting their people at ease before starting to communicate with them?

9. . . . Employing empathy, or putting yourself in the other person's shoes, when communicating



1.   Being self motivated?
2.   Giving orders that get acceptance and action?
  3.   Motivating each worker as an individual?
  4.   Being positive in sayings and actions?
  5.   Encouraging loyalty to the organization?
  6.   Promoting good morale among the workers?
  7.   Showing appreciation for good work?
  8.   Appealing to a worker's pride?
  9.   Getting workers to produce as expected?
  10.   Asking workers for their opinions and  suggestions?



1.. . Taking the time to know each worker as an individual?

2. . The workers feeling that their supervisor jespects them?

3. . . . Treating and supervising men and women the same way?

4. ..Talking to people as equals?

5. ... Communicating to a worker what he/she is expected to do on the job?

6. . . . The workers knowing where they stand at all times?

7. . . . Keeping supervisors from manipulating their workers?

8. . . . Controlling personality clashes so they do not affect supervision?

9.       Disciplining a worker when it is needed?



Achieve Desired Results Through Others
Write job descriptions; post positions; serve on search committees; interview candidates; make hiring decisions; follow AA/EEO guidelines
Set goals for individuals and team; communicate expectations; give direction
Determine measures for productivity, customer service, accuracy, etc as appropriate; communicate standards to the team and to management; hold others accountable for meeting standards
Observe and document individual and team performance; give feedback; write performance plans; coach and train; write and deliver performance appraisals; take corrective action; acknowledge and praise good performance; use appropriate HRMS systems
Determine what motivates each member of the team; facilitate team-building activities/conversations
Help staff members write individual development plans; check progress on development plans; revise plans as necessary; acknowledge accomplishments; coach staff on career development
Stay aware of current personnel policies, contracts, and laws; manage absences according to policy; follow corrective action rules and policies

Maintain a Safe and Conducive Work Environment
Hold staff accountable for required health and safety training; encourage ergonomic assessments; provide safety equipment; post and inform staff of emergency procedures
Encourage individuals' potential; encourage input and participation of all staff; celebrate diversity; build trust; encourage risk-taking; encourage creativity and innovation; celebrate successes; maintain open lines of communication; provide training and development opportunities for all staff; conduct regular climate surveys

Communicate Effectively Up, Down, and Sideways
Solicit feedback from your manager, subordinates, and peers; give feedback to your manager, subordinates, and peers
Create conditions that help minimize conflict; appreciate different work styles; manage conflicts that occur
Give status reports to management orally and in writing; share relevant information with staff orally and in writing; communicate changes in a timely manner; give staff “big-picture” view; attend required training and share information with staff as appropriate

Make Ethical Decisions
Follow the Code of Conduct for Supervisors; make decisions according to relevant laws, policies, and precedent; act as a steward of University resources; report ethical breaches
Change Facilitation
Includes ability and willingness to learn, adaptability to new technologies, flexibility when situations change, and ability to work in an ambiguous environment.
Demonstrates understanding of a dynamic organization and the process of change by continually learning and adapting; makes thoughtful changes and seeks opportunities in new situations.
•   Demonstrates knowledge of the change process and how it affects self and others in a diverse environment
•   Paints a realistic picture of change and helps guide others through it
•   Continually seeks better ways of doing business, including using technology
•   Questions assumptions and traditions while understanding their reason for existing
•   Involves others in decisions about change when appropriate
•   Seeks new knowledge and tools to facilitate change for self and others

Includes partnering, teamwork, building alliances, looking for win-win solutions, and building participative processes. Demonstrates and encourages a cooperative, participative environment where appropriate.
•   Creates and facilitates cooperation among diverse groups and individuals
•   Demonstrates willingness to place the collective interests of a department/team before self-interest
•   Gains cooperation and support through influence and persuasion
•   Actively contributes as a member of working teams to achieve results

Includes listening, choosing an appropriate medium for a message, presenting information clearly and concisely, and giving and receiving feedback.
Demonstrates the ability to receive information, as well as present appropriate information clearly and concisely to a variety of audiences.
•   Actively listens and tries to understand what others have to say
•   Encourages expression of ideas and opinions
•   Understands the impact of communication and shapes communication accordingly
•   Demonstrates understanding of campus communication channels by using appropriate ones for each message
•   Understands factors affecting communication -- e.g. cultural issues, target audiences -- and shapes it accordingly
•   Communicates information so that it is timely and relevant to audience
•   Gives and encourages constructive feedback

Critical Thinking
Includes analyzing and evaluating information and situations, problem-solving, decision-making, and conceptualizing.
Asks questions that get to the root cause of issues and situations, is willing to apply experience and listen to new approaches, synthesizes ideas and integrates information resulting in holistic versus fragmented perspective and action, and considers consequences of decisions before taking action.
•   Seeks many perspectives on issues and situations
•   Asks questions that go beyond the obvious
•   Applies previous learning to new situations
•   Looks broadly at issues rather than being constrained by function, history, and experience
•   Considers both short-term and long-term implications of decisions
•   Makes decisions that are based on thorough analysis of issues and uses sound judgment

Includes demonstrating accountability, integrity, and influence, having future focus, and accepting responsibilities of being a leader.
Sets direction and makes decisions, is willing to take action, understands the accountability that accompanies leadership, sees larger organization view as opposed to just own view.
•   Makes decisions that are aligned with vision, mission, goals, and values of the campus
•   Models integrity in decisions, communication, and treatment of people
•   Communicates leadership style and values
•   Places the organization's best interest before own best interest; thinks holistically
•   Has vision of the future and communicates it to others Mentors and develops others

Organizational Acumen
Includes understanding governance, environment, culture, processes, procedures, and how decisions are made.
Also understands organizational values, traditions, power structures, use of resources, and roles.
•   Demonstrates understanding of the relationship between academic and administrative environments.
•   Consults with stakeholders and constituents before making decisions that affect them.
•   Is respectful and understanding of perspectives and roles of others.
•   Builds relationships and partnerships to accomplish goals.
•   Is knowledgeable about and can clearly represent own area.
•   Knows who the organization's leaders and decision-makers are; is familiar with campus organizational structure.
•   Works with others to create win-win results.

People Management
Includes having self-awareness, listening, giving feedback and assessing performance, understanding and valuing diversity, developing and coaching staff, effectively implementing the hiring and selection process, and preventing and resolving conflict.
Develops and supports people through fair and equitable policy administration, training, development, and other opportunities for learning; clarifies roles and performance expectations; provides recognition; provides opportunities for staff to contribute to decisions that affect them; and ensures a safe and healthy work environment.
•   Demonstrates knowledge of policies and procedures that affect employees and applies them fairly.
•   Creates development plans with employees that include training and other ways to learn.
•   Clarifies and communicates performance expectations, objectives and roles.
•   Gives employees ongoing behavioral feedback and annual performance appraisals.
•   Supports people's efforts to develop skills, knowledge, and abilities that contribute to campus goals, and the development of their UC careers.
•   Recognizes people for their contributions to the success of the unit/department.
•   Provides a safe and healthy work environment.
•   Demonstrates an understanding of diversity and values differences. Manages and effectively resolves conflict. Defines skills, knowledge, and abilities for jobs; recruits and hires the best people. Demonstrates flexibility.

Includes assessing situations, setting and monitoring goals, delegating, managing implementations and projects, and evaluating outcomes.
Aligns goals and supporting actions with the organization's stated vision, mission, values, resources, and priorities.
•   Assesses needs of organization and own area.
•   Establishes and measures goals of own unit or department, teams, and individuals.
•   Delegates responsibility and accountability along with work.
•   Stays abreast of potential issues and situations that might affect goals and plans.
•   Establishes review process for evaluation of goals, processes, and systems.
•   Creates and reshapes planning in order to support organizational goals.

Resource Management
Includes understanding and managing financial, information, technology, and space resources.
Responsibly allocating and using resources, including staff, technology, equipment and facilities.
•   Demonstrates core knowledge of responsibilities in each resource area.
•   Integrates resource management into strategic planning and program development.
•   Develops ways of measuring effective and efficient uses of resources.
•   Understands different types of funds as well as sources and allowable uses of funds.
•   Stays within limits of allocated resources.

Service Orientation
Includes focusing on effectively providing appropriate services to identified constituents and stakeholders.
Considers others in decisions and actions by designing processes and procedures that effectively meet constituent and stakeholder needs.
•   Knows constituents and stakeholders and their diverse needs.
•   Develops systems and processes that are service oriented.
•   Understands how own services fit into the big picture for constituents and the organization.
•   Focuses on providing service and looking for solutions.
•   Understands that service reaches beyond immediate and obvious constituencies; service affects relationships and other aspects of organizational life.


-team effectiveness
-team  efficiency
-better  sales  results

Why are good Supervisors so important?
A Good Supervisors are the backbone of the business—
the strength that links the strategic planning of upper management with the body of the organisation.
Good Supervisors are often the people who:
q Make the difference between meeting production targets and missing them (because they
motivate and energise their teams)
q Have the most significant impact on workplace culture (because they set the tone of behaviour
in their individual work areas and across the plant)
q Influence the retention of staff (because people feel a strong sense of loyalty to their Supervisor)
q Provide an incentive for people to join a company (because word gets around that people will be
treated well and fairly).
q REDUCE High levels of absenteeism
q IMPROVE  productivity
q REDUCE Workplace conflict
q MANAGE Safety issues

The impacts listed above relate to the way Supervisor behaviour can influence those around them in the
workforce. However, the nature of the Supervisor’s role means there are also other impacts to consider.
Supervisors manage the day-to-day operations of the workplace and ensure both production and quality
targets are met. The decisions they make while doing this affect not only their specific work areas, but
also other areas of the business.
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What makes a good Supervisor?

Supervisors have three quite distinct roles:
1. An operational role which manages the flow of work through decision making and problem
solving to meet targets in terms of production and quality
2. A leadership role which encourages, supports and motivates their team members
3. A communication role which serves as a two-way conduit between upper management and
the people who make up the general workforce.
These three roles need to be performed simultaneously—they are seamless—and to make the
Supervisor’s job even more complex, the roles need to concurrently address short term priorities as well
as long term outcomes and take account of the overall goals of the company and individuals.
Effective supervision is therefore about ‘managing up, down and across’.
It stands to reason then, that just being ‘good at their job’ does not equip people to be good Supervisors
of other people doing that job.
Technical skills and a good work history and high job performance are important starting points, but
companies that promote on this basis alone have found that they not only get an ineffective Supervisor,
they lose a good worker.
‘Good Supervisors’ usually come from a combination of different factors.

personal qualities and attributes?
q Good communication skills—Supervisors need to be able to present complex ideas in simple
terms and convince others about why tasks need to be done a certain way. They also need to
be able to communicate upward to higher management about issues and concerns on the
floor—and, importantly, good Supervisors have good listening skills which they use with both
upper management and their work teams.
q Resourcefulness—A good Supervisor needs to be able to ‘make things happen’ when
confronted by obstacles. Some people refer to this as having ‘problem-solving skills’ but it’s also
about being innovative and thinking ‘outside the square’—being creative and seeing solutions
others just don't see.
q Flexibility—The needs of the business will change throughout the year, throughout the week,
maybe even throughout the day. The needs of work team members will change also—and
flexible working arrangements are a valuable tool for today’s businesses to use in attracting and
retaining the workforce they require for success and sustainability. A good Supervisor will
understand and accommodate these requirements for flexibility and adapt readily to ‘change’.
q Commitment and Responsibility—Managers need to know that tasks assigned to Supervisors
will be completed. They also need to be confident that the work will be done in line with the
company’s values and long term goals—even for routine work.
q Empathy—This is about being sensitive to the thoughts and feelings of other people.
Understanding others and their likely reactions to specific situations is the first step in
developing relationships which can help to get the best performance from the work team. Good
Supervisors remember what it was like to be ‘new on the job’.
q Respect—Being respectful is more than just being courteous and polite. Good Supervisors treat
people as individuals, acknowledging their individual needs and aspirations.
q Enthusiasm—People who are enthusiastic can generally motivate and energise others to
behave the same way and reach their full potential.
q Time management skills—Good Supervisors don't try to do everything at once or try to do
everything themselves. They know how to manage interruptions and distractions from the task
at hand—and they also know how to say ’no’ when it’s needed. They know how to prioritise!
q Ability to delegate and influence—Being able to effectively delegate tasks and influence
others to perform the work in an appropriate way can be difficult to master, but there should be
early signs that the trait exists and can be developed through mentoring and experience.
q Being open to new ideas—This is related to flexibility, but it’s also about being open to looking
at things from different perspectives and trying new approaches. A Supervisor with this trait is
particularly valuable in a multigenerational or multicultural workplace.
q Attentiveness to team stresses—Being able to recognise hazards or stresses in the workforce
team is important—as are the skills to address them .

technical skills and knowledge?
Supervisors will often be required to provide instruction on the correct use and handling of machinery and
equipment—including the use of hazardous substances—so they need to be technically competent in
these aspects.
They are also responsible for educating new employees and apprentices about specific workplace
policies and procedures, so their knowledge in these areas needs to be extensive. Occupational Health,
Safety andWelfare (OHS&W) are key areas for Supervisor attention and will requires competent skills
and comprehensive knowledge.
Because Supervisors generally oversee more than one job, it’s helpful if they have broad skills and work
experience across a number of different areas in the business.
For the employer grooming a group of potential Supervisors as part of succession planning, it can be
useful to provide this experience and opportunity for skills development through job rotation.
Employees with a goal to becoming a Supervisor could investigate ways of obtaining knowledge or skills
in particular work tasks not part of their current job. This could involve short courses or workshops away
from the workplace



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Leo Lingham


management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc


18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc


24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
human resource management, management training, business coaching,
counseling etc




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