Management Consulting/assignments


hai sir
please help me for finding these questions answer

1.¡°Give specific attentions in implementing employee empowerment¡± ¨C Discuss its operationalization and implications for effective outcomes.

2. ¡°Learning is involved in almost everything that everyone does¡±. Substantiate your views and indentify the applications of learning in positive and negative
reinforcement¡¯s strategy

3. ¡°Different models of decision makers have been proposed to explain their
behavior in decision making process; some suggest complete rationality, others
suggest bounded rationality¡±. Describe these models and show how they
contribute to arrive at a decision.

4. ¡°In designing structure for information systems, a variety of forms can be
used¡±. Discuss these forms and the situations in which each of these can be
used effectively.

5.Explain in detail about Relational Algebra, Domain Relational Calculus and
Tuple Relational Calculus with suitable examples.

6. Describe about the Multi-Valued Dependencies and Fourth normal form with
suitable examples.

7.A Leading software company wants to implement ERP Software. Select software
of your interest and give the steps of implementing that ERP software in the

8. Enlist the general problems faced during implementation of ERP and the
solution for it.

9. Discuss the current situation and emerging trends in electronic commerce.

10. Discuss the IT infrastructure necessary to implement e-commerce system for
the inventory process.

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1.¡°Give specific attentions in implementing employee empowerment¡± ¨C Discuss its operationalization and implications for effective outcomes.

Employee empowerment refers to the delegation of power and responsibility from higher levels in the organizational hierarchy to lower level employees, especially the power to make decisions.
[1] Employee empowerment will lead to improving productivity, performance and job satisfaction .Employee empowerment has been associated with the concept of power, implying that power in organization should be re-shared from the top management to the lower management.
Employee empowerment perspectives
There are multiple perspectives on empowerment and the particular meanings given to the construct, according to persons, settings, goals, and other variables. Research on empowerment has largely focused on groups that are typically considered disadvantaged, disempowered or ostensibly powerless. During the 1990s writers claimed that the shift in the way organizations treated their employees was the “empowerment era”. Research on the study of empowerment has been primarily through the relational approach or the motivational approach. The relational approach, based on management practices, focuses on the delegation of power and decision making authority. According to this approach, empowerment was based on the movement of power down an organization‟s hierarchy  where sources of power could be legal (control of office); normative (control of symbolic rewards); remunerative (control of material rewards); coercive (control of punishment); and/or knowledge/expertise. The motivational approach stressed Psychological enabling as the main reason for an individual‟s feelings of empowerment. Because the conceptual and operational definitions of empowerment often differ from study to study, more research is needed to better articulate the homological net of the construct of empowerment. Researchers have defined empowerment in at least two ways: the situational approach and the psychological approach . On one hand, the situational approach concerns passing power from higher-level management to employees by involving them in decision making. This approach is also known as relational or management practice approach. On the other hand, the psychological approach puts less emphasis on delegation of decision-making. Instead, this approach stresses motivational processes in workers. The psychological approach views empowerment as various psychological cognitions that contribute to enhanced intrinsic motivation.
Different dimensions of empowerment and team performance Proponents of the psychological perspective of empowerment have agreed that there are multiple dimensions of employee empowerment explain that the psychological cognitions of employee empowerment include meaningfulness, competence, choice, and impact.
there were seven dimensions of employee empowerment and that included power, decision-making, information, autonomy, initiative and creativity, knowledge and skills, and responsibility.  3. Materials & Methods The current research method was applied and after the fact –Descriptive and The population in this study includes all the employees of Telecommunication Company. The sample of study was 226 people which were selected randomly. The data collected tools were two standard and modified questionnaires which their validity of tools was confirmed through Content method and their reliability was determined through alpha Cronbach 0.98 and 0.95 respectively. 4. Results The resultant findings from Wilcoxon test‟s showed that the employee‟s performance before and after implementation of empowerment dimensions with measure Z= -10.937, sig=0.000 are different. The results of testing hypothesis are as follows: Subhypothesis1: delegation authority causes improvement of employee‟s performance. The findings resulted from Regression Analysis with correlation coefficient 0.611,R-square 0.374 and significance level 99 percent and also Spearman correlation test with coefficient 0.57 confirmed the first sub-hypothesis. Sub hypothesis 2: reward based on performance causes improvement of employees‟ performance. The findings resulted from Regression Analysis with correlation coefficient 0.579,R-square 0.335 and significance level 99 percent and also Spearman correlation test with coefficient 0.67 confirmed the second sub-hypothesis. Sub hypothesis 3: suggestion system causes improvement of employees‟ performance. The findings resulted from Regression Analysis with correlation coefficient 0.453, R-square 0.205 and significance level 99 percent and also Spearman correlation test with coefficient 0.62 confirmed the third sub-hypothesis. Main hypothesis: empowerment causes improvement of employees‟ performance. The findings resulted from Regression Analysis with correlation coefficient 0.607,R-square 0.369 and significance level 99 percent and also Spearman correlation test with coefficient 0.66 confirmed the main hypothesis. Also, the results of Multiple Regression Analysis about priority of empowerment factors effect on employees‟ performance has been shown in table 1. As it's clear in the table 1, delegation authority variable with (β =0.399), reward based on performance with (β =0.307) and suggestion system with (β =0.047) have the most effect on improvement of employees‟ performance and have priorities 1 to 3. Advanced Research in Economic and Management Sciences (AREMS) Vol.2. July 2012 ISSN: 2322-2360 44 Table 1: Output of the multiple regressions Model Variable Standardized Coefficients Squares Standardized Coefficients Sig t B Squares S.d Beta Squares Delegation authority 0.000 6.077 0.399 0.067 0.406 reward based on performance 0.000 4.404 0.307 0.067 0.296 participating management 0.000 0.712 0.047 0.068 0.048 5. Conclusion The purpose of this study was assessment of empowerment's effects (delegation of authority, encouragement and giving reward and participating management) and determination of priority and classification of these dimensions' effects on employees' performance improvement. The results showed that the main hypothesis; that is, implementation of empowerment's dimensions in organization, in comparison with before implementation of empowerment, has caused improvement of employees' performance with correlation coefficient 0.607,R square 0.369 and significant level 99 percent. Also, it become specified that the first sub-hypothesis has confirmed with regression analysis and correlation coefficient 0.611 and R square 0.374 and significant level 99 percent. It means that, the implementation of delegation of authority causes improvement of employee‟s performance, and the second sub-hypothesis has confirmed with regression analysis and correlation coefficient 0.579 and R square 0.335 and significant level 99 percent. It means that, the implementation of reward based on performance has causes improvement of employee‟s performance, and the third sub-hypothesis has confirmed with regression analysis and correlation coefficient 0.453 and R square 0.205 and significant level 99 percent. It means that, the implementation of suggestion system has causes improvement of employee‟s performance. At the end, the results indicated that, delegation of authority, reward based on performance and implementations of suggestion system have the most effect on improvement of performance, respectively. By considering the results, since delegation of authority as one of empowerment dimensions, has the most effect on improvement of employees‟ performance, it is suggested to organization‟s manager that: • Employees are allowed to get involved in cession of activities, so that they play a role in choosing job and condition of its implementation. Because in this case, it is more possibility that they accept their delegated tasks eagerly, perform the jobs with competence and experience getting empowered. Advanced Research in Economic and Management Sciences (AREMS) Vol.2. July 2012 ISSN: 2322-2360 45 • In delegation of every task, holding a justification meeting is useful and essential. Individuals mustn‟t be responsible for indefinite tasks; expected result of each task must be expressed clearly. Clearness of whatever must be done the reason for its importance is a prerequisite for delegation of authority and consequently performance improvement. • Control and supervision should focus on results instead of methods of performance of the job. When tasks and authorities were obligated, excessive control on performance methods, destroys morale of confidence. Also the results showed that after delegation of authority, encouragement and giving reward have the most effect on improvement of employees‟ performance. So for increasing employees‟ empowerment and consequently their better performance, it is suggested that: • The reward is paid based on performance assessment and for more effectiveness, it must be donated in a special ceremony. • Incorporeal rewards such as: verbal appreciation, delegation of authority, giving more responsibility and giving the right to decision-making are applied in reward programs. At last, with respect to the results of the research i.e. having relation between suggestion system and improvement of employees‟ performance, it is suggested to the organizational managers that: • Suggestion forms are given to the all employees and in sufficient quantity. Suggestion forms must be designed and printed as booklets and these booklets are given to the new employees by recruitment office at once. • Accepted suggestions are implemented timely. Because one of the most important motives for continuous suggestion presenting which stronger than giving rewards is its on time implementation. • Equitable and on time reward are given to creative and useful suggestions. Giving reward timely and its quantitative proportionate plays an effective role in success of suggestion system. • In case presented suggestions are rejected, the reasons of rejection must be announced and individuals must have the right to inspection and pursuance. Insufficient explaining in the case of rejection of suggestions, in addition to omit the educational aspects, turns the persons who their plans rejected, into the opponents of suggestion system.

2. ¡°Learning is involved in almost everything that everyone does¡±. Substantiate your views and indentify the applications of learning in positive and negative
reinforcement¡¯s strategy
Learning is the lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes.
I might add to that:
•   It is not dependent upon classes and courses – though these can be very useful tools for learning
•   It does not require a degree, certificate, or grade to prove its worth – though clearly these have social value that most people would be unwise to ignore
•   It does require – in varying degrees, and in varying times and circumstances – activities like practice, reflection, interaction with the environment (in the broadest sense), and social interaction. The latter, in particular, can be greatly facilitated by the range of new technologies for communication and collaboration now available to us.
•   It does not always – probably not even most of the time – happen consciously – though I think that those who strive for a more conscious approach to learning throughout their lives – whether at work or otherwise – tend to be more successful in pretty much whatever way they define success.

Learning is a "change" in knowledge, behaviour, attitudes, values, priorities, or creativity that can result when learners interact with information. It occurs to the
extent that learners are motivated to change, and it is applied in the real world to the extent they take successful steps to integrate that learning into the real world situation.


It helps the participants become motivated to learn.

Helps the participants effectively handle course information and

Helps the participants develop knowledge, skills, values and
attitudes and creative ideas.

Helps the participants transfer their learning to the application



1.LEARNING  Broadens  the participants'  interests  /  awareness.

2. LEARNING  broadens  the  participants' business  perspectives.

3.LEARNING  Exposes the  participants  to new avenues  of  practices  thoughts.

4.LEARNING Prepares the  participants  for  greater  responsibility.

5.LEARNING  Permits the  participants  to  greater interaction  internal/external channels.

6.LEARNING  Helps  to  prepare participants  for  promotions  within  the  organization.

7.LEARNING  Helps  to  prepare the  participants    for  additional  responsibilities.

8.LEARNING  Helps to  provide  the  participants   with modern  practices/ techniques.

9.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants     to  share  ideas concepts  with  others.

10.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new technologies.

11.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accept / manage  new  processes.

12.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  culture.

13.LEARNING   Helps  the  participants    to  accepts / manage  new  OD programs.

etc  etc.

How LEARNING   Benefits the Organization

•   Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitude towards profit orientation
•   Improves job knowledge and skills at all levels in the organisation
•   Improves workforce morale
•   Helps people and organisational alignment
•   Enhances corporate image
•   Fosters authenticity, openness and trust
•   Improves boss-subordinate relationships
•   Aids Organisational development
•   Learns from the trainee
•   Helps prepare guidelines for work
•   Aids implementation of organisational policies
•   Helps predict future needs
•   Enhances decision making and problem solving
•   Enhances “promotion” probability
•   Aids replicating “success” factors
•   Enhances productivity
•   Optimizes resources
•   Enhances “learning orientation”
•   Improves labour-management relations
•   Enhances internal expertise / reduces dependence on consultants
•   Helps transition from Q1 to Q2
•   Helps conflict management
•   Enhances communication
•   Helps “change management”

Compare and contrast conditioned & instrumental learning.
Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlov's experiments with dogs. The gist of the experiment is this: Pavlov presented dogs with food, and measured their salivary response (how much they drooled). Then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. At first, the dogs did not begin salivating until the food was presented. After a while, however, the dogs began to salivate when the sound of the bell was presented. They learned to associate the sound of the bell with the presentation of the food. As far as their immediate physiological responses were concerned, the sound of the bell became equivalent to the presentation of the food.
Classical conditioning is used by trainers for two purposes: To condition (train) autonomic responses, such as the drooling, producing adrenaline, or reducing adrenaline (calming) without using the stimuli that would naturally create such a response; and, to create an association between a stimulus that normally would not have any effect on the animal and a stimulus that would.
Stimuli that animals react to without training are called primary or unconditioned stimuli (US). They include food, pain, and other "hardwired" or "instinctive" stimuli. Animals do not have to learn to react to an electric shock, for example. Pavlov's dogs did not need to learn about food.
Stimuli that animals react to only after learning about them are called secondary or conditioned stimuli (CS). These are stimuli that have been associated with a primary stimulus. In Pavlov's experiment, the sound of the bell meant nothing to the dogs at first. After its sound was associated with the presentation of food, it became a conditioned stimulus. If a warning buzzer is associated with the shock, the animals will learn to fear it.
Secondary stimuli are things that the trainee has to learn to like or dislike. Examples include school grades and money. A slip of paper with an "A" or an "F" written on it has no meaning to a person who has never learned the meaning of the grade. Yet students work hard to gain "A's" and avoid "F's". A coin or piece of paper money has no meaning to a person who doesn't use that sort of system. Yet people have been known to work hard to gain this secondary reinforcer.
Classical conditioning is very important to animal trainers, because it is difficult to supply an animal with one of the things it naturally likes (or dislikes) in time for it to be an important consequence of the behavior. In other words, it's hard to toss a fish to a dolphin while it's in the middle of a jump or finding a piece of equipment on the ocean floor a hundred meters below. So trainers will associate something that's easier to "deliver" with something the animal wants through classical conditioning. Some trainers call this a bridge (because it bridges the time between when the animal performs a desired behavior and when it gets its reward). Marine mammal trainers use a whistle. Many other trainers use a clicker, a cricket-like box with a metal tongue that makes a click-click sound when you press it.
You can classically condition a clicker by clicking it and delivering some desirable treat, many times in a row. Simply click the clicker, pause a moment, and give the dog (or other animal) the treat. After you've done this a few times, you may see the animal visibly startle, look towards the treat, or look to you. This indicates that she's starting to form the association. Some clicker trainers call this "charging up the clicker". It's also called "creating a conditioned reinforcer". The click sound becomes a signal for an upcoming reinforcement. As a shorthand, some clicker trainers will say that the click = the treat.
Operant Conditioning
Classical conditioning forms an association between two stimuli. Operant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and a consequence. (It is also called response-stimulus or RS conditioning because it forms an association between the animal's response [behavior] and the stimulus that follows [consequence])
Four Possible Consequences
There are four possible consequences to any behavior. They are:
Something Good can start or be presented;
Something Good can end or be taken away;
Something Bad can start or be presented;
Something Bad can end or be taken away.
Consequences have to be immediate, or clearly linked to the behavior. With verbal humans, we can explain the connection between the consequence and the behavior, even if they are separated in time. For example, you might tell a friend that you'll buy dinner for them since they helped you move, or a parent might explain that the child can't go to summer camp because of her bad grades. With very young children, humans who don't have verbal skills, and animals, you can't explain the connection between the consequence and the behavior. For the animal, the consequence has to be immediate. The way to work around this is to use a bridge (see above).
Technical Terms
The technical term for "an event started" or "an item presented" is positive, since it's something that's added to the animal's environment.
The technical term for "an event ended" or "an item taken away" is negative, since it's something that's subtracted from the animal's environment.
Anything that increases a behavior - makes it occur more frequently, makes it stronger, or makes it more likely to occur - is termed a reinforcer. Often, an animal (or person) will perceive "starting Something Good" or "ending Something Bad" as something worth pursuing, and they will repeat the behaviors that seem to cause these consequences. These consequences will increase the behaviors that lead to them, so they are reinforcers. These are consequences the animal will work to attain, so they strengthen the behavior.
Anything that decreases a behavior - makes it occur less frequently, makes it weaker, or makes it less likely to occur - is termed a punisher. Often, an animal (or person) will perceive "ending Something Good" or "starting Something Bad" as something worth avoiding, and they will not repeat the behaviors that seem to cause these consequences. These consequences will decrease the behaviors that lead to them, so they are punishers.
Applying these terms to the Four Possible Consequences, you get:
Something Good can start or be presented, so behavior increases = Positive Reinforcement (R+)
Something Good can end or be taken away, so behavior decreases = Negative Punishment (P-)
Something Bad can start or be presented, so behavior decreases = Positive Punishment (P+)
Something Bad can end or be taken away, so behavior increases = Negative Reinforcement (R-)
(behavior increases)    Punishment
(behavior decreases)
(something added)   Positive Reinforcement:
Something added increases behavior   Positive Punishment
Something added decreases behavior
(something removed)   Negative Reinforcement
Something removed increases behavior   Negative Punishment
Something removed decreases behavior
Remember that these definitions are based on their actual effect on the behavior in question: they must reduce or strengthen the behavior to be considered a consequence and be defined as a punishment or reinforcement. Pleasures meant as rewards but that do not strengthen a behavior are indulgences, not reinforcement; aversives meant as a behavior weakener but which do not weaken a behavior are abuse, not punishment.

Principles of Effective Learning
• Teaching/ Training   is designing for learning
• Designing for learning is an art form
• As in any art form, there are principles that
guide good design

The organisation  I   am  are referring to

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*warehousing/  transportation

Principles of Effective Learning

Many heads are better than one -
We don’t automatically have the  necessary skills to learn
- cooperative
- organisational
- thinking
- operational - task specific
The brain needs to be stimulated to learn
We need to feel secure to  learn
We can be challenged/stimulated by  the standards set by others
The brain needs to talk to learn
We learn with our whole body
We learn when we have a purpose
We yearn to achieve
We yearn for enrichment
We learn by copying
Understanding develops through  examples, metaphor & models
We need to know how we’re  going
We yearn to express ourselves
Everyone likes to be acknowledged  and to contribute
Understanding is essential to  meaningful language acquisition
Learning is constructing and  reconstructing meaning
The brain finds it easy to learn  patterns
- difficult to learn  arbitrary information
Mastery in learning requires  practice and persistence
The form of evaluation that we undertake is determined by the criteria that we choose, or are told to use, to measure success:
Efficiency is a measure of the amount of learning achieved relative to the amount of effort put in. In practical terms this means the amount of time it takes to complete a piece of training. Efficiency has a direct relation to cost – the more efficient a training method is, the less it will cost.
Reactions are what you measure with the ‘happy sheet’. Reactions are important because, if students react negatively to your courses, they are less likely to transfer what they learned to their work and more likely to give bad reports to their peers, leading in turn to lower student numbers.
Learning, in terms of new or improved skills, knowledge and attitudes, is the primary aim of a training event. Learning can be measured objectively using a test or exam or some form of assessed exercise. If a student has to achieve a certain level of learning to obtain a ‘pass mark’, then the number of passes may be used as an evaluation measure. Another important aspect of learning is the degree of retention – how much of the learning has stuck after the course is over.
4.Behaviour change
If a student has learned something from a course, you hope that this will be reflected in their behaviour on the job. If a student employs what they have learned appropriately, then their work behaviour will meet desired criteria. Behaviour can be measured through observation or, in some cases, through some automated means. To assess behaviour change requires that the measurements are taken before and after the training.
5.Performance change
If, as a result of training, students are using appropriate behaviours on the job, then you would expect that to have a positive impact on performance. A wide variety of indicators can be employed to measure the impact of training on performance – numbers of complaints, sales made, output per hour and so on. It is hard to be sure that it is training that has made the difference without making comparisons to a control group – a group of employees who have not been through the training.
There are many different ways to train.  How can a manager charged with training his or her employees choose an appropriate method?
The method by which training is delivered often varies based on the needs of the company, the trainee, and on the task being performed. The method should suit the audience, the content, the business¡¦ environment, and the learning objective. Ideally, the method chosen will motivate employees to learn, help employees prepare themselves for learning, enable the trainees to apply and practice what they've been taught, help trainees retain and transfer what they have learned, and integrate performance with other skills and knowledge.
Other factors affecting the choice of a training method include:
-Age, gender, or level of education of the trainees
-Learning styles of the trainees
-Number of trainees
-Trainer's skills and training style
Common group training methods include:
A lecture is the method learners often most commonly associate with college and institutions. Yet, it is also considered one of the least effective methods to use for adult learners. In this method, one person (the trainer) does all of the talking. He or she may use handouts, visual aids, question/answer, or posters to support the lecture. Communication is primarily one-way: from the instructor to the learner.
Pros: Less time is needed for the trainer to prepare than other methods. It provides a lot of information quickly when it is less important that the trainees retain a lot of details.
Cons: Does not actively involve trainees in training process. The trainees forget much information if it is presented only orally.
Demonstration is very effective for basic skills training. The trainer shows trainees how to do something. The trainer may provide an opportunity for trainees to perform the task being demonstrated.
Pros: This method emphasizes the trainee involvement. It engages several senses: seeing, hearing, feeling, touching.
Cons: It requires a great deal of trainer preparation and planning. There also needs to be an adequate space for the training to take place. If the trainer is not skilled in the task being taught, poor work habits can be learned by the trainee.
Seminars often combine several group methods: lectures, discussions, conferences, demonstrations.
Pros: Group members are involved in the training. The trainer can use many group methods as part of the seminar activity.
Cons: Planning is time-consuming. The trainer must have skill in conducting a seminar. More time is needed to conduct a seminar than is needed for many other methods.
The conference training method is a good problem-solving approach. A group considers a specific problem or issue and they work to reach agreement on statements or solutions.
Pros: There is a lot of trainee participation. The trainees build consensus and the trainer can use several methods (lecture, panel, seminar) to keep sessions interesting.
Cons: It can be difficult to control a group. Opinions generated at the conference may differ from the manager¡¦s ideas, causing conflict.
A panel provides several points of view on a topic to seek alternatives to a situation. Panel members may have differing views but they must also have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. This is an excellent method for using outside resource people.
Pros: Trainees often find it interesting to hear different points of view. The process invites employees to share their opinions and they are challenged to consider alternatives.
Cons: It requires a great deal of preparation. The results of the method can be difficult to evaluate.
Role Playing
During a role play, the trainees assume roles and act out situations connected to the learning concepts. It is good for customer service and sales training.
Pros: Trainees can learn possible results of certain behaviors in a classroom situation. They get an opportunity to practice people skills. It is possible to experiment with many different approaches to a situation without alienating any actual customers.
Cons: A lot of time is spent making a single point. Trainers must be skilled and creative in helping the class learn from the situation. In some role play situations, only a few people get to practice while others watch.
Case Studies
A case study is a description of a real or imagined situation which contains information  that trainees can use to analyze what has occurred and why. The trainees recommend solutions based on the content provided.
Pros: A case study  can present a real-life situation which lets trainees consider what they would do. It can present a wide variety of skills in which applying knowledge is important.
Cons: Cases can be difficult to write and time-consuming to discuss. The trainer must be creative and very skilled at leading discussions, making points, and keeping trainees on track.
Trainees participate in a reality-based, interactive  activity where they imitate actions required on the job. It is a useful technique for skills development.
Pros: Training becomes more reality-based, as trainees are actively involved in the learning process. It directly applies to jobs performed after training. Simulations involve yet another learning style, increasing the chance that trainees will retain what they have learned.
Cons: Simulations are time-consuming. The trainer must be very skilled and make sure that trainees practice the skills correctly. Only perfect practice makes perfect.
Projects require the trainees to do something on the job which improves the business as well as helps them learn about the topic of training. It might involve participation on a team, the creation of a database, or the forming of a new process. The type of project will vary by business and the skill level of the trainee.
Pros: This is a good training activity for experienced employees. Projects can be chosen which help solve problems  or otherwise improve the operation. Trainees get first-hand experience in the topic of the training. Little time is needed to prepare the training experience.
Cons: Without proper introduction to the project and its purpose, trainees may think they are doing somebody else¡¦s work. Also, if they do not have an interest in the project or there is no immediate impact on their own jobs, it will be difficult to obtain and maintain their interest.
Common individual training methods include:
Trainees discover the competencies on their own using such techniques as guided exercises, books, and research.
Pros: Trainees are able to choose the learning style that works the best for them. They are able to move at their own pace and have a great deal of ownership over their learning.
Cons: Trainees can easily get side-tracked and may move slower than the trainer desires. It is also more difficult to measure the employee¡¦s progress.
Movies/videos/computer-based training
Content for the training experience comes primarily from a videotape or computer-based program.
Pros: It is easy to provide this training and the trainer can follow-up with questions and discussion. It is also easy to assure that the same information is presented to each trainee.
Cons: It is expensive to develop. Most trainers choosing this option must purchase the training from an outside vendor, making the content less specific to their needs.
On-the-job training
This is the most common method of training. The trainee is placed on the job and the manager or mentor shows the trainee how to do the job. To be successful, the training should be done according to a structured program that uses task lists, job breakdowns, and performance standards as a lesson  plan.
Pros: The training can be made extremely specific to the employee's needs. It is highly practical and reality-based. It also helps the employee establish important relationships with his or her supervisor or mentor.
Cons: Training is not standardized for employees. There is often a tendency to have a person learn by doing the job, providing no real training.
A mentor can tutor  others in their learning. Mentors help employees solve problems both through training them in skills and through modeling effective attitudes and behaviors. This system  is sometimes known as a buddy system.
Pros: It can take place before, during, or after a shift. It gives the trainee individual attention and immediate feedback. It also helps the trainee get information regarding the business culture and organizational structure.
Cons: Training can be interrupted if the mentor moves on. If a properly trained mentor is not chosen, the trainee can pick up bad habits.
When choosing from among these methods, the trainer must decide which one best suits the trainees, the environment, and the investments available. Many trainers will choose to combine methods or vary them. Others will select a single method that works best for them and never vary. With so many options, a trainer is limited only by his or her creativity.

Four Ways to Maximize Learning Retention
As you design your presentation, remember that your instructional goal is to maximize the participants' understanding and retention of the subject matter. Ultimately, the participants will learn more if they can focus their attention on the subject matter and make the ideas relevant to themselves. Four ways to maximize understanding and retention follow; try to use some or all of them as you present your lecture.
1. OPENING SUMMARY: At the beginning of the lecture, state (or summarize in writing) its major points and conclusions to help participants organize their listening.
Example: A trainer began a lecture on PERT (Program/Project Evaluation and Review Technique) with the following opening summary: "I'm going to give you a thumbnail sketch of PERT before we look at it in detail. PERT was developed by the Navy Department for the Polaris missile. It is useful in the planning, scheduling, and monitoring and control aspects of project management. In the planning phase, it requires you to list the tasks entailed by the project, calculate the gross requirements for resources, and make time/cost estimates. In the scheduling phase, it involves laying out the tasks in a time sequence and detailing schedule or resource requirements. In the monitoring and control phase, it entails reviewing the schedule and actual performance, revising the schedule if necessary, and assessing the likelihood of jeopardy and cost escalation. PERT can be employed in such applications as building construction, installing a computer system, or the end-of-month closing of accounting records. Now, let's take a closer look at the process and examine when and how it works.
2. USE KEY TERMS: Reduce the major points in the lecture to key words that act as verbal subheadings or memory aids.
Example: A trainer was giving a presentation on supervisory styles. She decided to use these three catchy terms to describe alternatives open to supervisors:
Tell & Sell: In this mode, the supervisor explains to employees what is expected of them and why their cooperation is needed.
Tell & Listen: In this mode, too, the supervisor initially explains to employees what is expected but then asks for (and listens to) their feedback to his requests.
Listen & Tell: In this mode, the supervisor asks his employees to comment on the work they are doing, listens to their responses, and then tells them what he feels and wants.
3. PROVIDING EXAMPLES: As much as possible, provide real-life illustrations of the ideas in the lecture.
Example: In a course called "Selling to Your Client's Style," the trainer was teaching the personality types described in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument used widely to help people understand their personal style and the styles of others with whom they work. She was discussing the differences between a "Thinker" (T) type and a "Feeler" (F) type and illustrated the distinction with the following example: "A prospect who is a T will probably speak in a concise fashion, will appear to be firm and tough minded, likes to argue, and is focused on the bottom line. To be effective with a T, don't ramble, be logical, and address objections head on. A prospect who is an F, on the other hand, will appear personable and friendly, takes time to get to know you, seems to like harmony, and is more interested in process than outcome. With such a person, it's best to spend time getting to know the person, to be friendly and warm, to be affirming, and to understand that the prospect may have difficulty being critical and not reveal true feelings about your product or service."
4. ANALOGIES : If possible, make a comparison between your material and the knowledge or experience the participants already have.
Example: An instructor in an adult education class on auto mechanics realized how frustrating it must be for people to understand how a car works. He found an interesting way to explain the sequence of events in, of all places, a children's book. The instructional approach is performed entirely through analogies.
• The gasoline tank is like an oil can. The gasoline goes from here to the fuel pump.
• The fuel pump, which is like a water pump, pumps the gasoline to the carburetor.
• The carburetor, which is like a perfume atomizer, changes the liquid gasoline into a gasoline-and-air vapor, which goes to the cylinder.
• The cylinder is like a cannon with a piston in it.
• The spark plug, which is like a lighter, ignites the vapor in the cylinder. The vapor burns and expands quickly, pushing the piston down.


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Leo Lingham


management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc


18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc


24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
human resource management, management training, business coaching,
counseling etc




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