Management Consulting/MS 22, IGNOU Assignment


1. What is the usefulness of Competency Mapping in overall organizational functioning? What are the basic steps followed in conducting Competency Mapping of an organization. Explain with an example. 2. What are the generally followed phases in implementing Organization Development programmes in an organization? Are there any conditions which play important role in success of Organization Development in an organization? Explain with relevant examples.
3. How do you distinguish between Information and Knowledge? Explain through the roles of a Knowledge Manager as to how do they help leveraging professional expertise in an organizational setup. Explain with relevant organizational examples you are familiar with. Describe the organization you are referring to.
4. What are the objectives, psychological bases, and important consideration in designing reward system of an organization? Critically evaluate these with an organizational example of reward system you are familiar with or known to you. Give brief and relevant details of the organization you are referring to.       
5. Explain how HRD is being used for health and family welfare programmes in your area or any area you are aware of. Discuss the importance of developing the competencies of field workers in social and family welfare programmes


I  will send  the balance  asap.

What is the usefulness of Competency Mapping in overall organizational functioning? What are the basic steps followed in conducting Competency Mapping of an organization. Explain with an example.
Competency profiling is typically a method for identifying specified skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour necessary to fulfilling a task, activity or career. In most  organisations its ultimate purpose is to provide value to the external customer.
Profiling   results  are  used  for  training  purposes  mostly.
In categorising competence, some organisations make distinctions between competencies,
1. which refer to desired personal attributes and behaviours, and
2.competences, which are the knowledge and skill required .
what is competency mapping?
Competencies IS the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes  that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individual’s behavior.
Competencies in organizations tend to fall into two broad categories:
-   Personal Functioning Competencies. These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors).
-   Functional/Technical Competencies. These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry.
Three other definitions are needed:
• Competency Map. A competency map is a list of an individual’s competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or industries that are part of the individual’s current career plan.
• Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role.
• Top Competencies. Top competencies are the vital few competencies (four to seven, on average) that are the most important to an individual in their ongoing career management process. “Importance to the individual” is an intuitive decision based on a combination of three factors: past demonstrated excellence in using the competency, inner passion for using the competency, and the current or likely future demand for the competency in the individual’s current position or targeted career field.
Although the definition above for “competency mapping” refers to individual employees, organizations also “map” competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies:
1.   Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)
2.   Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets
3.   Position-Specific Competency Sets
4.   Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e. Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)


First stage of mapping requires understanding the vision and mission of the organization.
Second stage requires understanding from the superior performers the behavioural as well as the functional aspects required to perform job effectively.

•   Tool for the first and second stage: BEI/ Structured Interview
Third stage involves thorough study of the BEI Reports/ Structured Interview Reports
a)   Identification of the competency based on competency frame work
b)   Measurement of competency
c)   Required levels of competency for each job family
d)   Development of dictionary which involves detail description of the competency based on the indicators.  Care should be taken that the indicators should be measurable and gives objective judgment.
Fourth Stage requires preparation for assessment.
a)   Methods of assessment can be either through assessment centres or 360 Degree Feedback
b)   If assessment centre is the choice for assessment then tools has to be ready beforehand
i.   Tools should objectively measure the entire competency required.
ii.   Determine the type of the tools for measuring competency
iii.   Prepare the schedule for assessment
iv.   Training to the assessor should indicate their thorough understanding of the competencies and the tools and also as to how the behaviour has to be documented.
Fifth Stage involves conducting assessment centre.  Usually it  is a two day program which would involve giving a brief feedback to the participant about the competencies that has been assessed and where they stands to.  
Sixth stage involves detailed report of the competencies assessed and also the development plan for the developmental areas.
how can it help the overall HR process of an organization?discuss various aspects of competency mapping and critically evaluate its utility for any organization with an example.
COMPETENCY   is  a  vehicle for organizational HR  applications such as:
• Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization
• Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles
• Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization
• Assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles
• Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques

Why Should Individual Employees Map Their Competencies?
A list of compelling reasons includes, at a minimum, the following. An individual:
• Gains a clearer sense of true marketability in today’s job market; once the individual knows how his/her competencies compare to those that are asked for by the job market in key positions of interest.
• Projects an appearance as a “cutting-edge” and well-prepared candidate, who has taken the time to learn about competencies, investigate those in demand, and map his/her own competencies prior to interviewing.
• Demonstrates self-confidence that comes from knowing one’s competitive advantages more convincingly, and from being able to articulate those advantages in specific language.
• Secures essential input to resume development - a set of important terms to use in describing expertise derived from prior career experience.
• Gains advanced preparation for interviews, many of which may be delivered using a competency-based approach called “structured behavioral interviewing” or “behavioral event interviewing.” (See the section below titled “How Does Competency-Based Interviewing and Selection Work?”)
• Develops the capability to compare one’s actual competencies to an organization or position’s required/preferred competencies, in order to create an Individual Development Plan.

Although the definition above for “competency mapping” refers to individual employees, organizations also “map” competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies:
1.   Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)
2.   Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets
3.   Position-Specific Competency Sets
4.   Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e. Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)

Competency Mapping & Assessments is a process designed to consistently measure and assess staff performance as it relates to the expectations of the organization.
A competency map is made up of four areas of competence attributes:
I.   Personal Attributes - The characteristics which enable the employee to attract others to well reasoned and logical points of view, to effectively communicate, and to relate to others. These include:
A.   Insight and Judgment
B.   Integrity and Ethics
C.   Continuous Personal Improvement
D.   Commitment and Performance Stability
E.   Interpersonal Orientation
F.   Project Management Skills
G.   Innovative/Creative Thinking
H.   Presenting/Speaking
I.   Business Writing
J.   Professional Demeanor
II.   Leadership Qualities - The skills that allow the employee to assume a position of influence by assembling and leveraging a variety of resources that address problems and opportunities throughout the organization. These include:
A.   Strategic Thinking and Planning
B.   Facilitating
C.   Negotiating and Persuading
D.   Teamwork
E.   Coaching and Empowerment
F.   Problem Solving
G.   Decision Making
H.   Cross-Functional Perspective
III.   Broad Business Perspective - The body of knowledge that encompasses an understanding of the organization and its industry. These include:
A.   The Organization and Industry Knowledge
B.   Internal and External Consulting
C.   Business Relationships/Partnerships
D.   Current and Emerging Management Practices
E.   Best Practices
F.   Risk Management
G.   Mergers, Acquisitions and Strategic Alliances
H.   Management Accounting
I.   Organizational Systems and Processes
IV.   Functional Expertise - The traditional technical skills that the employee should possess and which form the basis for their unique ability to understand an organization from a perspective that others cannot. For eg. A finance professional should have knowledge in the following:
A.   Financial Analysis
B.   Treasury Management
C.   Cost Management
D.   Human Resources
E.   Taxation
F.   Information Technology
G.   Control Environment
H.   Financial and Statutory Reporting and Accounting Principles
I.   Internal Audit
J.   Budgeting, Forecasting and Business Planning
Once a competency map has been developed and validated, it can be used as a tool to manage, evaluate, and develop employee performance; recruit and select individuals that possess the skills required in the position; and compensate individuals based on their demonstrated performance.
Competency Mapping & Assessments consists of six steps:

Specification Determination - Positions to be mapped are identified. A preliminary project plan is developed during this step to ensure that all the key stakeholders are involved in the process and that the appropriate activities and communication plans are established to support the development of the maps.

Data Collection - Information is gathered to identify the attributes and competencies required for each position. Data is collected to determine the skills, abilities, and personal traits required for success in the position being mapped. This data can be collected through one-on-one interviews with job content experts and their managers, focus groups with incumbents and managers and internal and external customer interviews.

Competency Development - All information gathered in the data collection phase is analyzed. Attributes and competencies are identified and behavioral descriptions are created for each. In addition, optimal areas of performance are identified according to organizational and market requirements. The result of this step is a first draft of the competency map.

Validation - The map is then reviewed to ensure it meets the current and future needs of the organization. Competencies, attributes, and their corresponding descriptions are evaluated for how accurately they describe performance requirements and to ensure they are aligned with and support the organisation’s objectives.

Implementation - After the maps have been validated and finalized, they are presented to the team with an action plan for the implementation and use of the maps. Gaps in competency levels, if any, are identified and appropriate training and learning action plans are evolved for developing those lacking competencies in the employees.
Use of the Tool
The Tool will continually evolve. As needs change and new concepts and practices emerge, the model can be updated to reflect the constantly changing world in which we live and work. The models can be personalized for individual or corporate use. Different attributes may be selected or omitted by the employee based on his or her role in the particular organization. Upon review of the various models, you will find that the first two competency categories (personal attributes, leadership qualities) as well as part of the third competency category (broad business perspective) are common to almost all employees. The competencies within the fourth competency category, functional expertise, vary based on the functional area in which the employee works.
The Tool is to be used
by Employees:
•   to take charge of their careers by focusing attention on skills needed to remain relevant, competitive and forward thinking,
•   to design a personalized career development plan that ensures that they reach their highest professional standing and economic potential,
•   as a guide for selecting educational programs.
by Employers:
•   to assist in identifying qualities and competencies that are relevant to their organization,
•   in conjunction with the self-assessment tool, to identify gaps between employee competencies and employer needs,
•   to design employee career development plans aligned to corporate needs,
•   as a guide for selecting educational programs to close the gaps between competencies and needs.
When  we  conduct  competency  mapping,   we  include
the  total   core  competencies.
Core Competencies anchor the professional and personal competencies. These  core competencies are absolutely essential for every   professional.
Personal Competencies represent a set of attitudes, behaviors, skills and values that enable practitioners to work effectively and contribute positively to their organizations, clients and profession.
Professional Competencies relate to the professional's knowledge , access, technology and management, and the ability to use this knowledge as a basis for providing the highest quality  professional services.

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*warehousing/  transportation
This organizations also “map” competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies:
1.   Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)
2.   Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets
3.   Position-Specific Competency Sets
4.   Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e. Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)
This organization   uses  Competencies to  Relate to MANPOWER  PLANNING.
-1.   Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)
2.   Job Family or Business Unit Competency PROFILE
3.   Position-Specific Competency  PROFILE
4. INDIVIDUAL   profile.

-required  manpower  /  competency  profiles
-current  availability of  manpower / competency  profiles
-estimated   gap  in  manpower  / competency .




THIS  ORGANIZATION   ALSO  USES  Competency  FOR  Interviewing and Selection.
Competency-based interviewing and selection presupposes that a set of organization-wide, job family/department, or position-specific competencies have been identified by the organization. Interviewers are then trained in the art of Structured Behavioral Interviewing, which has several hallmarks:
A structured set of questions is used to interview all candidates. Each question is designed to elicit behavioral examples from the candidate which demonstrate the use of one or more key behaviors underlying each competency that is accounted for in the interview.
A team of interviewers is usually used and they typically divide the list of competencies among themselves so that each interviewer can focus on asking the related detailed behavioral questions and documenting candidate responses.
Interviewers typically ask open-ended and situation-based questions such as, “Think of a specific time when you faced ____________? How did you handle the situation? How did it turn out?”
Interviewers record evidence of behaviors that the candidate relates, and they ask probing questions to gather complete behavioral evidence that includes details of the circumstance, the actions taken by the candidate, and the results achieved. This process is called the CAR (circumstance, action, results) Model.
At the conclusion of the interview, all interviewers of a particular candidate meet and compare the behaviors they heard from the candidate that support the assertion that the candidate possesses a specific competency. If the candidate did not offer specific examples with relevant behaviors, after additional attempts at rephrasing the question or asking different but related questions, then the determination is made that the candidate does not possess the competency. (The underlying philosophy here is that the best predictor of future performance is past performance that was demonstrated by concrete, observable behavior.
A final hiring decision is made based on the total strength of competencies demonstrated by each candidate, compared with those competencies that are considered essential for success in the position and in the organization, and as compared with the competency strengths of the remaining candidates for the same position.



-training/ development
-performance  management
-career  planning/development
-succession  planning
-human resource development
-human resource  planning
-HR  strategic  planning.

2. What are the generally followed phases in implementing Organization Development programmes in an organization? Are there any conditions which play important role in success of Organization Development in an organization? Explain with relevant examples.

Organization Development
Organizational development (OD) is a term most commonly used when referring to building capacities of an organization. Organization Development is the attempt to influence the members of an organization to expand their candidness with each other about their views of the organization and their experience in it, and to take greater responsibility for their own actions as organization members. The assumption behind OD is that when people pursue both of these objectives simultaneously, they are likely to discover new ways of working together that they experience as more effective for achieving their own and their shared (organizational) goals. And that when this does not happen, such activity helps them to understand why and to make meaningful choices about what to do in light of this understanding.

OD is about managing change in a systematic and planned way. The purpose of change for an organization is to evolve and to increase its positive impact on the lives of vulnerable people. The goal of changing is to become more effective, viable, autonomous and legitimate.

OD helps solve both specific and systemic problems like: unclear vision and strategies causing confusion among the ranks weak or slow implementation of strategies mistrust and recurrent conflict between divisions, levels, teams dissatisfied customers from weak Quality practices and culture inappropriate measures leading to misguided managers and employees too much change too fast (growing pains, restructuring, etc.)
high stress from the board room to the mail room slow decision making processes causing missed opportunities insufficient creativity or synergy in teams to meet challenges effectively management practices not in sync with the organization's stage of maturity low morale and productivity unskilled labor and wasteful processes

I am familiar with Zenith Computers, headquartered in Mumbai, India, is 25 years oldwith a turnover of Rs. 3 Billion. Zenith Computers has 1000 employees spread all over India in its 15 offices and manufacturing plant in Goa.Zenith's 40,000 sq ft, ISO 9001 + 14001 state-of-the-art manufacturing plant in Goa is one of the most comprehensive in the PC industry. Zenith has 800 Authorized Dealers and 350 Exclusive Retail
Showrooms called "Zenith PC World" across India. Phases of OD Programme At Zenith

1: Recognition: Recognition of a need for change can be brought about by many different events. An updated disaster assessment, a budget analysis, or periodic audits may reveal problems which must be dealt with. It is important that managers identify sources of feedback so that an information system can be developed and the need for change can be identified promptly.
2: Diagnosis of Problems: Before appropriate action can be taken, the problem is defined and all its aspects are examined. To diagnose the problem: identify the problem; determine what must be changed to resolve it; and determine what objectives are expected from the change (and how they can be measured).
3. Planning for Change: When the real problem of the organization is identified, OD consultant plans the various courses of action in the light of these problems. Since there are many techniques involved programme, attempts are made to transform diagnosis of the problems into proper action plan involving over all goals for OD, determination of the approach suitable for attaining goals, and sequence for implementing the approach.
4. Intervention in the System: After the techniques for OD programme and time sequence are determined, OD consultant attempts to change the organization and its people. It is a long affair and hence a gradual process. For example, most OD programmes begin with training the people in the light of the proposed organizational
change. Gradually intervention may be attempted at all the three level – individual, group and organization.
5. Evaluation and Feedback: OD work must include a high degree of accountability for results. Processes, results, successes and failures should be measured and documented. Progress of implementation as reflected in data associated with indicators should be monitored and adjustments should be made as needed. Careful monitoring and evaluation of the results of OD programmes provide feedback regarding what is going on. When any discrepancy appears between what is intended and what is happening, the change agent goes back almost to the first step, that is problem identification and diagnosis, though in this case, work involved may be slightly different. In the very beginning of problem identification and diagnosis, emphasis is more on data collection and its analysis; at this stage, emphasis may be more on analysis of OD programme techniques themselves. Moreover, feedback can be used as an energizing factor which will indicate what further action is necessary. Most common techniques for getting feedback are critique sessions, systematic appraisal of change efforts, and analysis of pre-training and post-training behavioural patterns based on actual operation.

Benefits of OD
adapt to the accelerating rate of change brought about by market forces embrace the demands of new technologies and processes make long-range comprehensive transformations vs. quick fixes initiate and manage change, particularly, complex change foster employee alignment and commitment to new ways of working expand everyone's ideas, beliefs, and behaviors to solve problems develop the organization's fitness for continuous innovation and renewal.


Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change. Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values, strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment.
Organization Development (OD) is the process of improving organizations. The process is carefully planned and implemented to benefit the organization, its employees and its stakeholders. The client organization may be an entire company, public agency, non-profit organization, volunteer group - or a smaller part of a larger organization.
The change process supports improvement of the organization or group as a whole. The client and consultant work together to gather data, define issues and determine a suitable course of action. The organization is assessed to create an understanding of the current situation and to identify opportunities for change that will meet business objectives.

OD differs from traditional consulting because client involvement is encouraged throughout the entire process. The ways in which people communicate and work together are addressed concurrently with technical or procedural issues that need resolution.

Organizational development (OD) is an application of behavioral science to organizational change. It encompasses a wide array of theories, processes, and activities, all of which are oriented toward the goal of improving individual organizations. Generally speaking, however, OD differs from traditional organizational change techniques in that it typically embraces a more holistic approach that is aimed at transforming thought and behavior throughout an entity. Definitions of OD abound, but they are all predicated on the notion of improving organizational performance through proactive activities and techniques. It is also worth noting that organizational development, though concerned with improving workforce performance, should not be mistaken for human resource development.
"Organization development is the planned process of developing an organization to be more effective in accomplishing its desired goals,"  "It is distinguished from human resource development in that HRD focuses on the personal growth of individuals within organizations, while OD focuses on developing the structures, systems, and processes within the organization to improve organizational effectiveness."
Organizational Development Basics
Although the field of OD is broad, it can be differentiated from other systems of organizational change by its emphasis on process rather than problems. Indeed, traditional group change systems have focused on identifying problems in an organization and then trying to alter the behavior that creates the problem.  
OD initiatives focus on identifying the behavioral interactions and patterns that cause and sustain problems. Then, rather than simply changing isolated behaviors, OD efforts are aimed at creating a behaviorally healthy organization that will naturally anticipate and prevent (or quickly solve) problems.
OD programs usually share several basic characteristics. For instance, they are considered long-term efforts of at least one to three years in most cases. In addition, OD stresses collaborative management, whereby managers and employees at different levels of the hierarchy cooperate to solve problems. OD also recognizes that every organization is unique and that the same solutions cannot necessarily be applied at different companies—this assumption is reflected in an OD focus on research and feedback. Another common trait of OD programs is an emphasis on the value of teamwork and small groups. In fact, most OD systems use small teams—or even individuals—as a vehicle to implement broad organizational changes.
The catalyst—whether a group or individual—that facilitates the OD process is known as the "change agent." Change agents are often outside consultants with experience managing OD programs, although companies sometimes utilize inside managers. The advantage of bringing in outside OD consultants is that they often provide a different perspective and have a less biased view of the organization's problems and needs. The primary drawback associated with outside change agents is that they may lack an in-depth understanding of key issues particular to the company. In addition, outside change agents may have trouble securing the trust and cooperation of key players in the organization. For these reasons, some companies employ an external-internal team approach, which seeks to combine the advantages of internal and external change agents while minimizing the drawbacks associated with the two approaches. "Are change agents necessary for organizational development to take place?" "Once we recognize that organizational development involves substantial changes in how individuals think, believe, and act, we can appreciate the necessity of someone to play the role of change agent. But who should play the role? Existing managers? New managers? Or individuals hired specifically for that purpose? Depending upon the situation, any of these can be called upon to orchestrate the organizational development process. The point is that the role of the change agent is necessary for organizational development to occur."
how can they be more effective in the long term development of an organization.
what are the limitations?"

Managing Change Through Organizational Development
Organization development initiatives do not automatically succeed. The benefits of effective OD programs are myriad, as many executives, managers, and business owners will attest. But OD interventions that are pursued in a sloppy, half-hearted, or otherwise faulty manner are far less likely to bring about meaningful change than those that have the full support of the people involved. Several conditions that had to be present if an OD intervention could have any meaningful chance of bringing about the desired change:
1   Ownership and all involved personnel needed to be genuinely and visibly committed to the effort.
2   People involved in OD have to be informed in advance of the nature of the intervention and the nature of their involvement in it.
3   The OD effort has to be connected to other parts of the organization; this is especially true of such areas as the evaluation and reward systems.
4   The effort has to be directed by appropriate managers and guided by change agents (which, if used, must be competent).
5   The intervention should be based on accurate diagnosis of organizational conditions.
6   Owners and managers should show their commitment to OD at all stages of the effort, including the diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation.
7   Evaluation is key to success, and should consist of more than asking people how they felt about the effort.
8   Owners and managers need to show employees how the OD effort relates to the organization's goals and overriding mission

The following ten FACTORS   ARE  USEFUL.

1.Be clear about what you are trying to accomplish.

2.Evaluators need good diagnostic skills to work on this task prior to any discussion of assessment. Good evaluation will also look for goals from various stakeholders as well as unintended consequences, but formal goals are a necessity, especially when the program is externally supported. The process is likely to be a cyclical one since goals are refined through evaluation of progress.

3.Link theory of the intervention to outcomes. Evaluators need to help  define theories of change that underlie their operations - that is, the relationships among their assumptions, resources, program activities and expected results. The evaluators can help the program staff determine how important these alliances are in producing the desired program outcomes, as well as monitor the resources and activities devoted to them. Explicating these theories of change, or logic models as they are sometimes called, is often a very useful formative evaluation task in itself since it helps identify gaps among resources, activities and outcomes. This is a first step toward building a shared understanding in the organization and provides a framework for dialogue about evaluation findings and continuous improvement of the project. This is a compelling need in nearly every organizational setting, and a skill that evaluation and OD professionals should share.

4.Setting the stage properly.
It is important to clarify why the evaluation is being done at a particular point of time and how that information will be used. These issues need to be dealt with early on and revisited continually throughout an evaluation. The evaluator needs good brokering skills to work  interested parties to regularly clarify expectations about the purposes of evaluation.

5.Pay attention to stakeholders. It is important that key stakeholders are involved in the process - to determine the important questions that need to be addressed and how success will be measured. Evaluators can start by asking  stakeholders what challenges or dilemmas they are facing in their work. In this way, evaluation has a higher likelihood that the stakeholders will cooperate with the evaluation and that the results will be used.

6.Integrate evaluation into the program. The stakeholders  need to build in at the outset the expectation that evaluation should be done and also the resources to do it well. Too often, the thought for evaluation comes once a program is finished with the result that useful baseline data and resources are missing to make evaluation meaningful and reliable.

7.Integrate evaluation into daily work. Evaluation activities can be integrated into routine work such as assessing needs at  staff level, although the information processing demands on employees represent a significant challenge to keep in mind. The point here is to take advantage of relevant and accessible data rather than requiring additional work for information gathering. Evaluators who are sensitive to workload and workplace dynamics can be helpful in this process.

8.Identify just a few things to evaluate. Pick the fewest indicators that provide the most information about program assumptions, resources, activities and outcomes. Evaluators who are knowledgeable about information overload in organizations will obviously be helpful in this process, as will well developed theories of change to identify key information needs.

9.Coordinate evaluation reports with internal decision-making. Findings need to be presented on a timely basis to inform learning and action and throughout a program's life - not just at the end. Evaluators need skills in understanding organizational power, budgeting, decision-making and culture that will attune them to how and when findings can be useful.

10.Use evaluation as a process not simply as a report. Stakeholders  and  staff get more out of the evaluation process than its final report. Regular feedback and opportunities for varied interpretations of findings strengthen a program as well as any evaluation of it. Methods other than written reports, such as video, photos, and human-interest stories, can serve as effective communications tools within the program as well as with  stakeholders.

Do evaluation only when an organization is ready. Clear goals and theories of change are important for effective evaluation, but other conditions are also essential. As documented from the field of OD, evaluation is truly useful when there is a commitment to and resources for candid feedback.
Implementing OD Programs

OD efforts basically entail two groups of activities: [1] "action research" and [ 2 ]"interventions."
1. Action research is a process of systematically collecting data on a specific organization, feeding it back for action planning, and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data. Data gathering techniques include everything from surveys and questionnaires to interviews, collages, drawings, and tests. The data is often evaluated and interpreted using advanced statistical analysis techniques.
Action research can be thought of as the diagnostic component of the OD process. But it also encompasses the intervention component, whereby the change agent uses action plans to intervene in the organization and make changes, as discussed below. In a continuous process, the results of actions are measured and evaluated and new action plans are devised to effect new changes. Thus, the intervention process can be considered a facet of action research.

2. OD interventions are plans or programs comprised of specific activities designed to effect change in some facet of an organization. Numerous interventions have been developed over the years to address different problems or create various results. However, they all are geared toward the goal of improving the entire organization through change. In general, organizations that wish to achieve a high degree of organizational change will employ a full range of interventions, including those designed to transform individual and group behavior and attitudes. Entities attempting smaller changes will stop short of those goals, applying interventions targeted primarily toward operating policies, management structures, worker skills, and personnel policies. Typically, organization development programs will simultaneously integrate more than one of these interventions.
Various OD interventions

Planned Change –
Many Specific Interventions

The many types of interventions can
include a variety of specific practices

Various specific practices are usually
highly integrated into action plans

Practices include, eg, team building,
conflict management, training,
coaching, facilitating, organizational
analysis, organizational restructuring,

Types of Interventions
Human process, eg:
Process consultation
Team building
Search conference (a large-scale

Technostructural, eg:
Work/job design
Quality circles

Human resource management, eg:
Performance management (employee)
Employee wellness
Reward systems
Diversity management

Strategic, eg:
Organizational transformation
Cultural change
Self-designing organizations
Strategic management

Profitability, productivity, morale and quality of work life are of concern to most organizations because they impact achievement of organization goals. There is an increasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employees. Jobs that previously required physical dexterity now require more mental effort. Organizations need to "work smarter" and apply creative ideas.

The work force has also changed. Employees expect more from a day's work than simply a day's pay. They want challenge, recognition, a sense of accomplishment, worthwhile tasks and meaningful relationships with their managers and co-workers. When these needs are not met, performance declines.

Today's customers demand continually improving quality, rapid product or service delivery; fast turn-around time on changes, competitive pricing and other features that are best achieved in complex environments by innovative organizational practices.

The effective organization must be able to meet today's and tomorrow's challenges. Adaptability and responsiveness are essential to survive and thrive.

There are seven characteristics of OD:

Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees .

Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together.

Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture.

Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research.

Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.

Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change.

Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.





-org. learning
-e learning
-management  development
-career planning /development.
-performance management
etc etc

Management Consulting

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Leo Lingham


management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc


18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc


24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
human resource management, management training, business coaching,
counseling etc




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