Management Consulting/MBA

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Question
Dea Sir,
I am pursuing Distance MBA from NIBM, Chennai and I am working professional and have experience of 5 yrs. I am currently unable to manage the time space for my Case Study Project. So, request you to send the answer at the earliest. Pl. do the needful.

My question is,

The GM (Works) has problems with manufacturing budgets, meeting cost reduction targets, and dealing with new products manufacturing schedules. When an in depth interview (non-directive type) was conducted between the GM (Works) and the Chairman of the Company, the GM (Works) explained that many things are happening in the Company about which he is ignorant, particularly the preparation, new product integration, etc. He agrees to the view that the Company is interested in high-growth and high-profit, but he has never been given an opportunity to review his own scheme of things and explain to the top management. The production culture of the company has never been assessed whereas the stringent rules are being directed by the finance and personnel departments. And sometimes, show cause notices are being served to supervisors and senior employees. The Company is introducing new products without assessing the capability of the manufacturing system and the resources.
(a)   Under the above situation, if you are asked to work as a consultant to show   the perspectives to the Board of Management, what action plans would you suggest?
(b)    Does Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) help in situations like these?

Answer
Organizational Diagnosis
Organizational Diagnosis helps organizations identify the “gaps” between “what is” and “what ought to be.” Once we gain a shared vision of the desired state, we  identify barriers and work toward solutions.
The   Six-Phase approach to organizational diagnosis is tailored to the specific needs of each co:
Phase 1: Define
develop a shared understanding of the task, issue, or problem along with a plan for diagnosis.
Phase 2: Diagnose
examine organizational archival reports/documents and utilize information gathered through interviews, focus groups, questionnaires & surveys, along with objective observations to collect relevant data.
Phase 3: Analyze
After collecting the data, use statistical analysis methods to interpret the data and develop practical recommendations.
Phase 4: Presentation of Findings
This phase involves  determining   an effective intervention strategy.  
Phase 5: Action Planning
We work with key players from the  organization to develop an action plan that:
•   Fits the needs of the  organization
•   Will yield measurable results
•   Will enhance the   organization’s capacity to manage change
•   Is catered to the  organization’s situation, culture, context, and maturational cycle
Phase 6: Reinforce
maintaining a focus on the desired state and helping organizations sustain change initiatives. The reinforce phase ensures effective implementation of our action plan and outlines the next steps to take once the action plan has been implemented.
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2. ORG.ANALYSIS    IS  THE  SECOND  STAGE,   WHERE WE  ANALYSE  THE
INFORMATION   IN  A  SCIENTIFIC   MANNNER   AND  DEVELOP
A  STRATEGY /  ACTION  PLAN.

•   Culture and Climate Analysis
•   Employee Opinion Analysis
•   Market Research  Analysis
•   Competitive Analysis
•   COMPANY  SWOT Analysis
•   Environmental Scan ANALYSIS / Development
•   Skill and Competency Assessment
•   Customer Input or Feedback  ANALYSIS
Group and Individual Assessments,  and 360 Evaluations

FROM   THESE   WE  DEVELOP


Development of Master Strategies
Development of Goals
Development of Objectives
Development of Tactics
Structural Redesign
Change Planning, Implementation Design, and SUPPORT SYSTEMS.
============================================   
THE  problem  with  this  GM  CASE
-lack  of  strategy
-lack  of change  management
-lack  of  communication
Etc  etc.
Change is a process, which progress over a period of time. Whilst change itself always carries with it improbability, the process of change should be managed by an effetive plan, unambiguous rules, processes, protocol and system. Educational researches have defined the change process for both organisations and individuals as :
•        Change is not a single event, it takes time to plan for change, try new practices, and incorporate new programs effectively.
•        Change can energize, act as a catalysts and build a sense of community.
•       The process of change may not be empraced at all conflicts are a natural part of the change process.
•        Change begins with the individuals and will not be manifested in organisation until individuals believe in the change and understand the reason which promted change.
•        Involvement in the change process is individualistic and ultimately the responsibility of each person within the organisation.
•        When individuals have cleased defined goals and expectation along with an understanding that the change can be effective, success and more acceptance of the change process can occur.
Reasons for the process change : (i)     Reengineering:
•        Fundamental rethinking
•        Redical redesign
•       Process
•        Deamatic Improvement
•        Measures
•        Return Risk
(ii) Process:
• Activities
• Customers
• Measusres
• Work ordering
• Time
• Space
• Beginning
• Ending
• Inputs
• Outputs
• Structure
• Action
• Baseline

Reegineering and organisational change :


Indicates the important attached in the BPR paradign to deep and redical change. BPR involves the total creative rethinking of one or more of a company's business processes. The process of reengineering itself has no fixed rules identified common themes found in reengineered process. Some of these include.

Several Jobs are combined into one :
Work normally performed by a number of specialists in different functional departments can now be performed by one individual or team. Through shared databases and decision support systems this generalist had access to all the required information and expert systems make a sound decisions.
Workers make real decisions :
They have full grasp of the entire process and can tak responsibility if a customer is dissatified. Creativity, ability to work independently and a sense of responsibility are required attributes of this new worker. Managers act more as coaches than bean counters."
Work is performed where it makes the most sense :
A product development development team, for example, instead of being spread out over multiple locations and departments is now under one roof or group. When a team member makes design changes those changes are immediately propagated to other team members for review.
Checks and controls are reduced, reconciliation and the associated over-head is minimized:
For example in the case of ford motor company invoices are no longer reconcilied with what is shipped because a shipment is not received unless it agrees with the orginal invoice. Further, suppliers are not paid until their parts are actually used in production, thus forcing the supplier to deliver, quality and to be in tune with ford's production schedules.
A case manager provides a single point of contact:
When a customer calls with a complaint, one person is responsible and takes ownership for the resolution of tht complaint. BPR involves significant organisation change and that managing the change process must therefore be critical to the success of such undertaking with all its major implications.
Cultural Change :
Many of the BPR writers of commentators address the cultural illues in more than one way. The social scientists, see culture, or at least the neglect of people, as an inhibitor to effective implementation of BPR.
Changing Role of Empployees :
Reengineering alos needs change in the behavior of employees, their mindset, attitudes etc. BPR change their behaviour and are self managed. They also advocate for empowering staff, encouraging team working and developing a communications programme.
Changing Role of Leaders :
Despite a reduction in managerial layers there is still a role for leaders.
Our experience about the change process that our organisation with which has undergone a large-scale restructuring programme. I will stress more on TQM because if the quality is good then management also works. Any quality approach used by an organzation must be treated as an organisation change success in implementing TQM and receiving a return on investment depends upon understanding positioning and managing and managing TWM as a large-scale organisation change. TQM does impact management. TQM is an organisational strategy with accompanying techniques that deliver quality products and/or services to customers. TQM is also defined as "an integrated organisational approach : TQM methods which need large-scale organizational changes : (i) Desing of Experiments (DoE) (ii) Purpose
(iii)   Quality Function Deployment (QFD) (iv)    Just in Time (JIT) (v)    Zero Defects (vi)    Concurrent Engineering (CE)
ISO 9000 series were developed by international organisation for standardisation (ISO) a specilised international agency for standerdisation composed of the national standard of 91 countries in the year 1987. It ensures consistent quality for customers ISO 9000 certifications indicates that a company perform a minimum level of quality.
(a)     Management responsibility.
(b)     Quality System.
(c)     Contract review
(d)     Design control
(e)     Document contorl
(f)     Process control
(g)     Quality records
(h)    Internal quality audits
(i)     Training
(j)      Servicing
(k)     Statistical techniques





Scope of change management

This tutorial provides a summary of each of the main areas for change management based on Prosci's benchmarking research with more than 3400 organizations over the last 15 years.  

The purpose of defining these change management areas is to ensure that there is a common understanding among readers. Tools or components of change management include:  
•Change management process   
•Defining change management
•Readiness assessments   
•Communication and communication planning   
•Coaching and manager training for change management   
•Training and employee training development   
•Sponsor activities and sponsor roadmaps   
•Resistance management   
•Data collection, feedback analysis and corrective action
•Celebrating and recognizing success
 


Change management process

The change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change management team or project leader would follow to apply change management to a project or change. Based on Prosci's research of the most effective and commonly applied change, they have created a change management process that contains the following three phases:

Phase 1 - Preparing for change   (Preparation, assessment and strategy development)

Phase 2 - Managing change (Detailed planning and change management implementation)

Phase 3 - Reinforcing change™   (Data gathering, corrective action and recognition)





Figure 1 - Prosci 3-Phase Change Management Process
 


The Prosci 3-Phase Process is available in two Do-It-Yourself options for immediate access to the methodology and tools:
    -  Change Management Pilot Professional: online option, $489 - order |  learn more
    -  Change Management Toolkit: hardcopy option, $389 -  order |  learn more
Also presented in Prosci's acclaimed 3-day Certification Program:  brochure |  see schedule




Defining change management

It is important to note what change management is and what change management is not, as defined by the majority of research participants.

•Change management is not a stand-alone process for designing a business solution.


•Change management is the processes, tools and techniques for managing the people-side of change.


•Change management is not a process improvement method.


•Change management is a method for reducing and managing resistance to change when implementing process, technology or organizational change.


•Change management is not a stand-alone technique for improving organizational performance.


•Change management is a necessary component for any organizational performance improvement process to succeed, including programs like: Six Sigma, Business Process Reengineering, Total Quality Management, Organizational Development, Restructuring and continuous process improvement.


•Change management is how we drive the adoption and usage we need to realize business results.
 


Prosci's definition of change management: Change management is the application of a structured process and set of tools for leading the people side of change to achieve a desired outcome.
 


Readiness assessments

Assessments are tools used by a change management team or project leader to assess the organization's readiness to change. Readiness assessments can include organizational assessments, culture and history assessments, employee assessments, sponsor assessments and change assessments. Each tool provides the project team with insights into the challenges and opportunities they may face during the change process.

•Assess the scope of the change, including: How big is this change? How many people are affected? Is it a gradual or radical change?


Assess the readiness of the organization impacted by the change, including: What is the value- system and background of the impacted groups? How much change is already going on? What type of resistance can be expected?


•Assess the scope of the change, including: How big is this change? How many people are affected? Is it a gradual or radical change?


•Assess the readiness of the organization impacted by the change, including: What is the value- system and background of the impacted groups? How much change is already going on? What type of resistance can be expected?


•Assess the strengths of your change management team.


•Assess the change sponsors and take the first steps to enable them to effectively lead the change process.
 



Communication and communication planning

Many managers assume that if they communicate clearly with their employees, their job is done. However, there are many reasons why employees may not hear or understand what their managers are saying the first time around. In fact, you may have heard that messages need to be repeated 6 to 7 times before they are cemented into the minds of employees. That is because each employee’s readiness to hear depends on many factors. Effective communicators carefully consider three components: the audience, what is said and when it is said.  

For example, the first step in managing change is building awareness around the need for change and creating a desire among employees. Therefore, initial communications are typically designed to create awareness around the business reasons for change and the risk of not changing. Likewise, at each step in the process, communications should be designed to share the right messages at the right time.  

Communication planning, therefore, begins with a careful analysis of the audiences, key messages and the timing for those messages. The change management team or project leaders must design a communication plan that addresses the needs of front-line employees, supervisors and executives. Each audience has particular needs for information based on their role in the implementation of the change.
 


Sponsor activities and sponsor roadmaps

Business leaders and executives play a critical sponsor role in change management. The change management team must develop a plan for sponsor activities and help key business leaders carry out these plans. Sponsorship should be viewed as the most important success factor. Avoid confusing the notion of sponsorship with support. The CEO of the company may support your project, but that is not the same as sponsoring your initiative.  

Sponsorship involves active and visible participation by senior business leaders throughout the process. Unfortunately many executives do not know what this sponsorship looks like. A change agent's or project leader's role includes helping senior executives do the right things to sponsor the project.
 


Coaching and manager training for change management

Supervisors will play a key role in managing change. Ultimately, the direct supervisor has more influence over an employee’s motivation to change than any other person at work. Unfortunately, supervisors as a group can be the most difficult to convince of the need for change and can be a source of resistance. It is vital for the change management team and executive sponsors to gain the support of supervisors and to build change leadership. Individual change management activities should be used to help these supervisors through the change process.  

Once managers and supervisors are on board, the change management team must prepare a coaching strategy. They will need to provide training for supervisors including how to use individual change management tools with their employees.
 


Training and training development

Training is the cornerstone for building knowledge about the change and the required skills. Project team members will develop training requirements based on the skills, knowledge and behaviors necessary to implement the change. These training requirements will be the starting point for the training group or the project team to develop training programs.
 


Resistance management

Resistance from employees and managers is normal. Persistent resistance, however, can threaten a project. The change management team needs to identify, understand and manage resistance throughout the organization. Resistance management is the processes and tools used by managers and executives with the support of the project team to manage employee resistance.
 


Data collection, feedback analysis and corrective action

Employee involvement is a necessary and integral part of managing change. Managing change is not a one way street. Feedback from employees is a key element of the change management process. Analysis and corrective action based on this feedback provides a robust cycle for implementing change.
 


Celebrating and recognizing success

Early successes and long-term wins must be recognized and celebrated. Individual and group recognition is also a necessary component of change management in order to cement and reinforce the change in the organization.  

The final step in the change management process is the after-action review. It is at this point that you can stand back from the entire program, evaluate successes and failures, and identify process changes for the next project. This is part of the ongoing, continuous improvement of change management for your organization and ultimately leads to change competency.
 


Summary

These eight elements comprise the areas or components of a change management program. Along with the change management process, they create a system for managing change. Good project managers apply these components effectively to ensure project success, avoid the loss of valued employees, and minimize the negative impact of the change on productivity and a company's customers. The Prosci Change Management Certification Program is a great option for hands-on learning about these eight elements and other tools for managing change.

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Change is not single event, it takes time to plan for change for change, try new practices and incorporate new programs effectively. Change is a process, which progress ones a period of time. Whilst change itself always carries with it improbability, the process of change should be managed by an effective plan, unambiguous rules, processes, protocol and system. Educational researchers have defined change agent for organisartions and individuals as :

(i) Change can enegize, act as a catalyst.
(ii) Build a sense of community.
(iii) Process of change may not be embraced by all.
(iv) Conflicts are a natural part of the change process.
(v) Involvement in the change process is individualistic and ultimately the responsibility of
each person with in the organisation, (vi) When individuals have clearly defined goals and expectations along with an understanding that the change can be effective, success and more acceptance of the
change process can occur.

Reasons for the change agent:
(i) Technological Advanchement the new technologies basically CRM, e-business and knowledge management technology is now considered as a strategic tools, an automation tool in the past. This necessitates upgrading of the existing skill sets of employees change as well. The advancement in the information technology requires organisations to.

(ii) Be able to develop an IT strategy that fully supports and enables the business strategy to develop and grow.

(iii) Listen to business needs and traslate them into technology requirements.

(iv) Make the common database availabel to all in customer service management.

(v) Use easy access to a knowledge management approach and technology to turn individual knowledge into comnpany wide knowledge speedily and effectively.

Following are ones about what three was most agreement.
• Regards organisations as open socio technical systems that must constantly adapt in an integrated way in order to improve cutomer service.
• Adopt a process-oriented process view of how the business operates.
• Unlearn part habits of thinking and adopt new ways.
• Encourage greates team working in which each members has multiple skills.

The process to manage the change :
Implementation of the above processes bring large scale organisational changes which must be managed properly employees must strive to appraise the situation so as to identity major barriers and evolve strategies to deal with the new situation. Implementing the change process is as immense as the challenge of creating innovative business process solutions but change brings destruction as wel. Incorporation of both these hard and soft skills will help to win widespread support for process changes and methodologies to execute the solution effectively.

As a change agent in my organisation or an organisation I am referring to. (i) Sensitivity Training : Sensitivity Training refers toi a method of changing behaviour through unstructured group interface T-groups aim at the following :
• Understanding one's own behaviour and how one's behaviour affets others
• Understanding why people behave the way they do.
• Encouraging ont to try out new ways of interacting with people and receiving
feedback.
• Understanding group processes.
• Developing tolerance for other people's behaviour.

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Diagnostic Methodologies, Factors Consideration for diagnosis, Managing Change in Organisations,

(ii) The formal group Diagnostic Meeting: The formal group diagnostic meeting allows a group to be its own in order to identify its strengths and problem areas. It accourages every group member to contribute and generate ideas. The data collected during the meeting serves the foundation for future actions.

(iii) Team Building Activities : A team is a group of individuals who tend to work interdependently to satisfy organisational as well as their own individual objectives teams as different from other gorups by
(1) Participative leadership.
(2) Shared responsibility.
(3) Aligned on purpose.
(4) High communication
(5) Future Focussed
(6) Task Focussed
(7) Creative Talents
(8) Rapid response

In my organisation I have to assess the team empowerment. Think of a team that have been member of in a work setting. Respond to each statement below by indicating the degree to which agree or diagree with it in terms of the team.
(i) Potency items
(ii) Meaningfulness items
(iii) Autonomy items,
(iv) impact items.


Techniques and exercise used in team building :
(i) Role Analysis Technique (RAT)
(ii) Role Negotiation Technique.
(iii) Interdependency Exercise.
(iv) Appreciative Inquiry
(v) Responsibility charting
(vi) Visioning.
(vii) Perocess consultation : Feedback to groups during process analysis or regular work time, feedback to individuals after meetings or after data gathering,
(viii) Coaching or counselling of individuals,
(ix) Rertaining to group membership,
(x) Communication or interaction Patterns,
(xi) Agenda review and testing procedures,
(xii) Meeting devoted to interpersonal processand allocation at work.
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Organisational Culture, Organisational Examples, Managing Change in Organisations,

ORG   CULTURE
What is organisational culture? Describe how organisational culture change takes place by citing organisational examples. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

Culture should be reserved for the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization. The culture of the factory is its customary and traditional way of thinking and of doing things, culture in this sense convers a wide range of behavioure the methods of production, job skills and technical knowledge attitudes towards discipline and punishment the customers and habits of managerial behaviour, the objectives of the concern, its way of doing business the methods of payment, the values placed on different types of work beliefs in domocratic living and joint consultation and the less conscious conventions and taboos. The making of relationships, is governed by the extent to which the individuals concerned have each absorbed the culture of individual for handling his relationships and on which has depends for making his way among, and with, other members and groups change are expressed through three main areas the market itself, the technology to meet market demand competitively the organization of resources and the enterprise to achieve success.

Types of change :

(a) Organizationl Culture Organizational Structure.
(b) Market-Led issues
Customer market orientation New productrs Reduction to core Internationalize Quality emphasis.
(c) People issuesCommunication/Participation.
People matters
Reward Development
Emphasis on training and development
New work practices
Teams/group/task forces.
(d) Technology
(e) Entreprenencial Creative
Innovation Entrepreneueship
(f) Economics
Costing culting Staff reductions Productivity
(g) Crises change: Change is basically required to meet danger or toavoid impending disaster

Corporate change cannot be achieved by one man alone, and even the active support of all the managers in a company is no more than the first crucial step. It means touching the organisation on actually exists. It does not exist in balance sheets, building or computers seeking to improve results do something about the organisational structure and culture issues together head the types of change recorded in the as heidge data. Organization is a matter of structuring the way in which resources are brough and kept together in order to achieve objectives. These resource include people, places, money, materials, machines and so on for a number of tese may actually be neded in any particular type of change organisation and culture modification is not on the resources themselve not on people as individuals, but on the way in which they are interlined and mobilized, where the resoures are positioned how coordination is ensured and the resources include people, places, money material, machines and so on, for the number of these may actually be needed in any particular type of change.

(i) The market, quzlity and change
(ii) People and change
(iii) Taining and development.
(iv) Involvement
(v) Qualit and improvement circles
(vi) Technology
(vii) Imgination
(viii) Managing the beforemath
(ix) Looking Back from the future.
(x) Creting the future.

The organisation which I refer to is that the importance of organizations for man and society can hardly be once-estimated from the life to death one or other organisation plays a role in the life of the individual and impact on societies nations and communities, be it political, religions, culture, eductional, Judicial, economic indurtrial or sport organisations etc, organisation is the vehicle through which groups, collectives and individuals, work to achieve their goals, aima and objectives in my organisation the movement of people from a current state to a defined state, different improved and desired new state through a set of planned and integrated interventions. The organisational culture could one of the key ingredients in determine effectiveness and efficiency in understanding benchmarking in becoming a world-class business and organisation.

The Factors that influenced our organisational culture is
•   History and ownershilp.
•   Size
•   Technology
•   Leadership and Mission.
•   Stories.
•   Routines.
•   Rituals
•   Symbols
•   Control System
•   Power Structures.

Organisational strctures who reports to whoim on a formal basis and who have an informal relaationships. Who makes the decisions, who influences the decisions how when. Higher level of work motivation and performance among organisational members relative to previously established standards, organisational effectiveness with repect to human resource management.
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Turn Around Management, Applying Turn Around Management, Managing Change in Organisations,

TURNAROUND  MANAGEMENT
What is turn around management? Explain in detail how turn around management can be applied in your organisation or an organisation you are familiar with. Describe the organisation you are referring to.

Turn around is when weak company is acquired it is rapidly subjected to turnaround management. Also when a sound and profitable company has been purchased, it is subjected to some form of turnaround management, to realize the synergies so as to increase profits and shareholders value which goes with a major acquisitions. Peripheral noncore activities are often sold out to concentrate on the organisation core business to enable the comany to increase its market share. Turnaround is also confused with the downsizing are restructuring downsizing might be part of a turnaround plan, it does not, by itself, constitute around a turnaround downsizing cannot guarantee a sick company survival and prosperity. The term turaround management primarily refers to companies or other organisations in distress. Organisations are normally sick when measured on different criteria. They often display life threating symptoms and the urgent need for restoring them to health through a whole battery of inteventions-both hard and soft. Arpi and mejke defined turnaround management as the systematic and rapid implementation of a range of measure to correct a seriously unprofitable situatios. It might include dealing with a financial disaster or measure to avoid the highly likely occurrence of such a disaster.

Turnaround management includes an element of crisis management. In medical parlance the term company needing turaround management has usually reached a highly crucial and dicisive moment in its life, which could either be for better or for worse. The trnaround management usually reached a highly crucial and decisive moments in its life, which could either be for better or for worse. The turnaround management is simply there to make sure that the turning point it for the better. Turnaround activities are also triggered by acquisitions, mergers and privatization. The activities most commonly initiated of late are.

(a) When a smaller company has been acquired.
(b) When two companies in the the same industry are merged.
(c) When a state hold company just been privatized.

The turnaround management can be applied in my organistion and the organisation which I refer are as following :

There is a broad spectrum of turnaround situations, which might occue. The anture situations, which might occur. The nature and urgency of the situation in often influenced by certain key parameters which include.
(a)     the ownership structure of the company.
(b)    The urgency of the crisais.
(c)     Whether the company must be radically cost reduced.
(d)    the management team presently in place.
(e)     whether the turnaround manager would be the long term CEO or not.
(f)     whether he is assisted by other or not
(g)    the degree of freedom given to him.
(h)    the time available to decide on priorities and actions.
(i)     the suitability of networks and tools used.
(j)     whether it is a trading company or services or manufacturing company.
(k)      which industry it represents.
(1)       The product structure
(m)     the size in market share.
(n)      reputation of the company.
(o)      the competitor profile and position.

Step involved in turnaround management.
(i)       Discussions before accepting the turnaround assignment is extremely important.
(ii)      If the distressed company is not in the middle of a life and death fight.
(iii)     The annual reports.
(iv)     Accounting on other published material on the organization can be scanned through
for a good insight.
(v)      Establishing numerical benchmarks based on performance standard,
(vi)     Cash is the first concern,
(vii)    Cash flow.
(viii)   Projections for the next one year,
(ix)     Learning by systematically following a cross functional trail for business re engineering becomes crucial,
(x)      Business missions.
(xi)     Blueprint for the future company would be arrived at based on the work done,
(xii)    Future core business, one or more mission statements with a target description and strategy document. The action plans are also spell out in the process,
(xiii)   Gaining acceptance. Formal approval,
(xiv)   Turnaround plans fall in the next steps,
(xv)    Implementating the plan,
(xvi)   Designed bluepring with a full approval,
(xvii) The implementation phase would have a capable CEO a well designed blueprint with a full approval.
(xviii) Monitoring
(xix)   Monitoring the action plans are also spelt out in the process.
Inaddition to these factors and parameters influencing the fturnaround situation organisations usually experience situations which could be described as given below :
(a)      Many turnaround managers would be their homework first in a situation which faces an immediate cash crisis.
(b)      There is no time for extensive homework.
(c)      An unprofitable subsidiary may also lead to a turnaround situations (SBUs) are keenly looked tfor turnaround situations before implementing any strategic changes in the company.
(d)      Organisations also face situations where cost cutting and downsizing va volume
improving or marging improving marketing solutions arise in the company. Cost cutting is not the way to improve the profits, new profit.
(e)      Leadership crisis is one of the often repeated kinds of turnaround that organisation.
(f)      Existing turnaround literature is very scare. The practice could be traced t the US. European turnaround also reflects a distinct turnaroud situation.





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approaches and methods of evaluating change

The aim of many  innovation networks is to realize a system innovation. With system innovation,
whole production and consumption systems change, including social relationships, division of roles, formal
rules and values, and the technical artefacts and infrastructure. This type of innovation takes place when
stakeholders learn from each other in a process of thinking and acting together. In order to get to grips with
these learning processes, it is increasingly common to use monitoring and evaluation methods. What are the
methods that can be used, what are the most significant differences between them and to what degree are
the methods from the different approaches of use in evaluating and managing innovation projects
In the world of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) three approaches
can be identified: result-oriented, constructivist and reflexive . Every approach includes principles, methods and tools
that can be used for projects that have the ambition to contribute
to (system) innovation. But they differ widely in their vision on reality,
the on-going processes and their results and how to support,
manage or adjust these processes. Deciding which method is the
best depends heavily on the nature of the project, its context, and
the monitoring and evaluation objectives. In practice, it may be
desirable to use a selection of methods from the different
approaches in order to combine their strong points.
>> Result-oriented approach
The emphasis on result-oriented monitoring and evaluation lies in
“measuring”: to what degree have the original project objectives
and subsequent interventions been achieved? In other words: what
are the results?.
Result-oriented approaches are often used to provide an accountability
trail for the investment in the project, whenever financiers
and their backers have to or want to see what has been done with
their money. Planning methods which match this type of M&E are
LogFrames or Logic Charts or the more flexible Theory of Change.
These methods are based on assumptions and expectations of
causality and linearity: ‘If we do this in the project, then this will
happen and this or that change will take place; to put it another
way, the project can plan for change and then measure it.’ The
strength of result-oriented methods lies in strategy and planning.
They force project managers and participants to consider carefully
what they want their contribution to be and how they think they
should act to achieve this. In other words, they support the development
or explication of the intervention strategy. By developing
an intervention strategy the project managers and participants
can assess what works and what doesn’t work at specific times.
If necessary, the strategy can be modified along the way. As well
as that, the result-oriented methods can be useful in monitoring
the progress of the projects, the so-called operational process.
Result-oriented methods are powerful instruments but they have
their limitations in (system) innovation processes. An example
of a well known intervention strategy in system innovation is the
stimulation of unforeseen contacts in order to trigger surprising
new insights and initiatives. During the implementation of a resultoriented
M&E, project managers and the participants will want
answers to a number of questions. In the short term, to what
degree they are successful in stimulating unforeseen contacts (output).
Further in the process, they will want to know to what degree
these contacts have lead to surprising new initiatives (outcome).
In the long term, they will want to gain an insight into the degree to
which the initiatives have contributed to, for example, a more sustainable
agricultural sector (impact). The strength of result-oriented
methods lies in asking these pointed questions, but they can often
only provide part of the answer. Collective learning and innovation
processes do not evolve in a linear way but are unpredictable. As
a consequence, cause and effect relations are not easily traceable.
Result-oriented methods do not address the value of collective
learning and the development of a shared understanding of the
project and/or its context.
>> Constructivist approach
The constructivist M&E approach assumes that people are the motor
behind the development of novelties and societal change processes.
They achieve this through interaction and negotiation (Guba and
Lincoln, 1989). Mutual understanding and exchange of experiences
support collective learning, improvement and change. Constructivist
methods focus heavily on monitoring and evaluation of the progress
of the collective learning process. They do not so much define (the
“what” question) but highlight more how successful collective learning
processes are initiated and prolonged (the “how” question).
A central activity is sharing experiences from different perspectives
by different people. An analysis of the most important issues is made
on the basis of individual stories and together with the story-tellers,
the group reflects on possible further steps. Related M&E methods
are Learning Histories (Kleiner and Roth, 1997), see Networks
Learning from Learning Histories, p.34, and Responsive Evaluation
(Abma and Widdershoven, 2005). A method like Most Significant
Change (Davies and Dart, 2005) also falls under this approach.
The strength of constructivist methods is that they stimulate the
exchange of perspectives. They ensure a good insight into how
processes evolve. These insights are of value for the learning
process itself and the relationships within the project or network are the results? .
Result-oriented approaches are often used to provide an accountability
trail for the investment in the project, whenever financiers
and their backers have to or want to see what has been done with
their money. Planning methods which match this type of M&E are
LogFrames or Logic Charts or the more flexible Theory of Change.
These methods are based on assumptions and expectations of
causality and linearity: ‘If we do this in the project, then this will
happen and this or that change will take place; to put it another
way, the project can plan for change and then measure it.’ The
strength of result-oriented methods lies in strategy and planning.
They force project managers and participants to consider carefully
what they want their contribution to be and how they think they
should act to achieve this. In other words, they support the development
or explication of the intervention strategy. By developing
an intervention strategy the project managers and participants
can assess what works and what doesn’t work at specific times.
If necessary, the strategy can be modified along the way. As well
as that, the result-oriented methods can be useful in monitoring
the progress of the projects, the so-called operational process.
Result-oriented methods are powerful instruments but they have
their limitations in (system) innovation processes. An example
of a well known intervention strategy in system innovation is the
stimulation of unforeseen contacts in order to trigger surprising
new insights and initiatives. During the implementation of a resultoriented
M&E, project managers and the participants will want
answers to a number of questions. In the short term, to what
degree they are successful in stimulating unforeseen contacts (output).
Further in the process, they will want to know to what degree
these contacts have lead to surprising new initiatives (outcome).
In the long term, they will want to gain an insight into the degree to
which the initiatives have contributed to, for example, a more sustainable
agricultural sector (impact). The strength of result-oriented
methods lies in asking these pointed questions, but they can often
only provide part of the answer. Collective learning and innovation
processes do not evolve in a linear way but are unpredictable. As
a consequence, cause and effect relations are not easily traceable.
Result-oriented methods do not address the value of collective
learning and the development of a shared understanding of the
project and/or its context.


Result-oriented approach
Constructivist approach
Reflexive approach



Methods LogFrames, Logic Charts, Learning Histories, Responsive Reflexive Monitoring in Action/
Theory of Change Evaluation, Most Significant Reflexive Process Monitoring /
Change Interactive Learning Approach
Objective Accountability and managing Learning from each other and Learning, change of practices
modifying processes and their institutional setting
Agenda setting
Paradigm Reality exists and can be Reality is constructed through Reality has to be reconstructed/
measured/defined objectively interaction and negotiation. a new reality has to be developed
Focus Results/predefined objectives Meanings and values, based Calling existing practices and
or procedures on negotiations institutional settings into question

can be strengthened using the results of monitoring and evaluation.
In particular, constructivist methods can help collective learning
when the outcomes of an intervention are unpredictable, the process
of change is intangible involving multiple pathways and interrelated
factors, and the actors involved have different perspectives
on the central problems and their causes, a common phenomenon
in innovation projects. This type of learning can increase support
for the project. One weakness of this method is that the insights
are not easily transferable or exchangeable with the people who
have not taken part in the M&E process. One trap can be that there
is so much focus on the exchange of perspectives that the intention
of a project to contribute to actual change is forgotten.
>> Reflexive approach
We call the most recent approach in M&E-country reflexive . Reflexive methods focus on both a collective learning
process (in groups of actors and in networks) as well as on the
results in terms of learning and institutional change. The reflexive
approach has a constructivist basis but goes further. Project or
network participants not only exchange their personal viewpoints
and motives but they also debate their presumptions and underlying
values and norms and the institutional context in which they operate.
In this way, they can arrive at diverse agreements about possible
joint actions. Reflexive monitoring assumes that system innovation
can only take place if the institutions (laws, regulations, culture,
etc.) which have until now perpetuated the current (non-sustainable)
practices change as well (Mierlo, 2010a). The leading question in
reflexive monitoring is whether the activities in an innovation project
stimulate precisely those learning processes that can lead to a
change in current practices of interdependent parties.
The strength of this approach is that it is based on thinking in
terms of systems; current practices are questioned and the aim
is to change a complete system. For this reason, the approach is
promising for projects where the ambition is to contribute to system
innovation. Because reflexive monitoring has not yet been
implemented in practice very often, there are few people with
knowledge and experience of it. It requires sincere commitment
and intensive effort; self-monitoring is not or hardly possible.
Related methods are the Interactive Learning Approach (Regeer et
al., 2009), Reflexive Process Monitoring and Reflexive Monitoring
in Action. Reflexive Monitoring in Action (RMA) has mainly been
conducted in the context of agriculture in the Netherlands;
================
A theory of change that adequately describes the actions, the desired change, and the underlying assumptions or strategy is essential for monitoring and evaluating programmes and projects.  The theory of change will help program staff and evaluators understand what the project is trying to achieve, how, and why.  Knowing this critical information will enable staff and evaluators to monitor and measure the desired results and compare them against the original theory of change.
Hot Resource! Theories of Change and Logic Models: Telling Them Apart by Helene Clark and Andrea A. Anderson
Using theories of change during the monitoring stage of project implementation provides feedback on whether a project, programme or strategy is ‘on track’ to accomplish the desired change and if the environment is evolving as anticipated in the project or programme design.
While monitoring our assumptions is a critical step of implementation, it is not widely practised.  Nevertheless, the utility of such monitoring should not be discounted.  As our assumptions are monitored, data and perspective can illuminate whether all the design components were adequately taken into account.  This is particularly important in complex environments, where there are a myriad of factors working with and against our attempts to bring about change.  For instance, staff can ask themselves did we consider the right factors and dynamics in the initial analysis?  Has anything unexpected occurred in the environment that was not foreseen, and why wasn’t it foreseen?  Are there gaps in our strategy to bring about change?
The power of using theories of change in evaluation enables evaluators to ask hard questions about why certain changes are expected, the assumptions of how the change process will unfold, and which outcomes are being selected to focus on and why.  When an evaluation incorporates a theory of change review, each theory should be critically reviewed for its relevance, efficacy and effectiveness as part of the evaluation and covered in the evaluation’s findings, conclusions and lessons learned.  Such analysis will help contribute to an understanding of approaches that work in addressing the underlying factors contributing to violence or working against peace.  
Through an analysis of the accuracy of its underlying theory or theories of change, a programme or project can identify whether a false or incomplete theory may be a key explanatory factor for a programme, project or policy’s failure—and why that theory was false or incomplete.  In contrast, good theories, where the assumptions that underpin them are validated, and where they have guided effective and predictive actions, demonstrate how theories of change can be an essential part of contributing to our understanding of successful interventions seeking to address issues of peace and conflict.
Theories of Change in Evaluation
There are many approaches to evaluation and some lend themselves more readily to the examination of theories of change.1  Listed below are seven potential approaches to evaluation that either emphasize or include an assessment of theories of change.
Theory-based Evaluation – Theory-based Evaluation helps assess whether underlying theories of change or assumptions of a programme are correct by identifying the causal linkages between different variables.  In a broad definition, any evaluation uncovering implicit or explicit assumptions, hypotheses or theories can be categorized as theory-based evaluation.  This approach is particularly useful for learning and accountability as it allows for identifying whether the success, failure or mixed results of the intervention was due to programme theories and assumptions, or implementation.
Most Significant Change – Most Significant Change (MSC) is a participatory monitoring and evaluation technique that provides information on impact and outcomes of an intervention that can be used to assess the performance of the intervention as a whole.  The essence of the MSC approach is a systematic identification and investigation of observed significant changes in the environment.  What differentiates the MSC approach from conventional evaluation approaches is that it uses an inductive approach, whereby intervention participants ‘make sense’ of events after they have happened, while conventional approaches would use predetermined indicators, based on prior conceptions or theories, for the explicitly intended change.
Developmental Evaluation – Developmental Evaluation (DE) supports the process of innovation within an organization and its activities by pairing an evaluator with a programme throughout the project cycle for continuous monitoring and evaluation for programme improvement.   It “emerged in response to the need to support real-time learning and adaptation in complex and emergent situations”, and is specifically “designed to capture system dynamics and surface innovative strategies and ideas.”2  Within DE, theories of change can be reconstructed when the evidence suggests that the theory is not working as thought in the design phase.  By comparing older models of change to newer ones within the same programme, one can gain valuable information and insights about how theories and the environment have evolved.
Outcome Mapping – Outcome Mapping (OM) “recognizes that [change] is essentially about people relating to each other and their environment.”  It therefore shifts away from assessing the impacts and/or products of a programme to focusing on changes in behaviour, relationships, actions and activities in the people, groups, and organizations it works with directly (i.e., outcomes).  OM suggests that in order to bring about impact, there must be changes in the behaviour, relationships, actions and activities in the people, groups, and organizations that the intervention works with directly.     
Impact Evaluation – There are several definitions of impact evaluation in the field of development.  The most common definition relates to the OECD DAC criteria:  “Impact evaluation is the systematic identification of the effects—positive or negative, intended or unintended—on individual households, institutions, and the environment caused by a… program or project.”3  It can be an experimental or quasi-experimental design with a mixed methods approach, but frequently emphasizes quantitative data.  An impact evaluation that includes theory of change review (i.e., theory-based impact evaluation) seeks to identify why the change occurred, rather than just if the intervention had an impact.  Six key principles for theory-based impact evaluation are: 4
1.   Map out the causal chain (programme theory)
2.   Understand context
3.   Anticipate heterogeneity
4.   Rigorous evaluation of impact using a credible counterfactual
5.   Rigorous factual analysis
6.   Use mixed methods
Impact Evaluations can also be defined as an evaluation that takes place several months and years after a project has been concluded.  The purpose of conducting an evaluation post-implementation is to determine which changes have become sustainable and produce long-term impact on a complex environment. It seeks to determine “the change in the conflict (or crime) catalysed by the project.”5  This type of approach enables the evaluator to make recommendations on which theories of change in complex environments contributed to the resolution of the conflict or problem and helped to bring about peace.
Empowerment Evaluation – “Empowerment evaluation aims to increase the probability of achieving program success by 1) providing program stakeholders with tools for planning, implementation, and self-evaluation of their program, and 2) mainstreaming evaluation as part of the planning and management of the program/organization.”6  It aims to help improve organizations achieve results by improving their capacity to do evaluation and use evaluation results to improve strategies.  It is a learn-by-doing process that aims for an organization to be able to evaluate its strategies without the assistance of an external empowerment evaluator.  Empowerment evaluation can, therefore, include theories of change at the discretion of the organization utilizing the approach.  A particular potential strength of empowerment evaluation and theories of change is the emphasis on developing internal organizational capacities for conducting future evaluations.   In-house evaluators, technical DME units within INGOs, and donors could conduct evaluations analyse the different components of theories of change.
Whatever approach to evaluation is taken, however, it can be helpful to articulate other, or alternative, theories of change for a programme or project.  The process of identifying other reasons for the change to have occurred or to not have occurred opens up new avenues to explore the theory of change’s validity or lack thereof.  This process can help in assessing and attributing results.
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(b) Does Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) help in situations like these?
ROLE  OF  business Process reengeineering   IN  OPERATION  MANAGEMENT



Business process reengineering (BPR) is,  an approach aiming at improvements by means of elevating efficency  and effectiveness of the business  process  that exist within and across organizations. The key to BPR is for organizations to look at their business processes from a "clean slate" perspective and determine how they can best construct these processes to improve how they conduct business.
Business process reengineering is also known as BPR, Business Process Redesign, Business Transformation, or Business Process Change Management. It is the radical redesign  of an organization's  processes , especially its business processes . Rather than organizing a firm into functional specialties (like production, accounting, marketing, etc.) and considering the tasks that each function performs; complete processes from materials acquisition, to production, to marketing and distribution should be considered. The firm should be re-engineered into a series of processes.
Business process reengineering is one approach for redesigning the way work is done to better support the organization's mission  and reduce . Reengineering starts with a high-level assessment of the organization's mission, strategic goals, and customer needs. Basic questions are asked, such as "Does our mission need to be redefined? Are our strategic goals aligned with our mission? Who are our customers?" An organization may find that it is operating on questionable assumptions, particularly in terms of the wants and needs of its customers. Only after the organization rethinks what it should be doing, does it go on to decide how best to do it.
Within the framework of this basic assessment of mission and goals, reengineering focuses on the organization's business processes--the steps and procedures that govern how resources are used to create products and services  that meet the needs of particular customers/ markets. As a structured ordering of work steps across time and place, a business process can be decomposed into specific activities, measured, modeled, and improved. It can also be completely redesigned or eliminated altogether. Reengineering identifies, analyzes, and redesigns an organization's core business processes with the aim of achieving dramatic improvements in critical performance measures, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.
Reengineering recognizes that an organization's business  processes   are usually fragmented into subprocesses and tasks that are carried out by several specialized functional areas within the organization. Often, no one is responsible for the overall performance of the entire process. Reengineering maintains that optimizing the performance of subprocesses can result in some benefits, but cannot yield dramatic improvements if the process itself is fundamentally inefficient and outmoded. For that reason, reengineering focuses on redesigning the process as a whole in order to achieve the greatest possible benefits to the organization and their customers. This drive for realizing dramatic improvements by fundamentally rethinking how the organization's work should be done distinguishes reengineering from process improvement efforts that focus on functional or incremental improvement.
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Seven principles of reengineering to streamline the work process and thereby achieve significant levels of improvement in quality, time management, and cost:
1. Organize around outcomes, not tasks.
2. Identify all the processes in an organization and prioritize them in order of redesign urgency.
3. Integrate information processing work into the real work that produces the information.
4. Treat geographically dispersed resources as though they were centralized.
5. Link parallel activities in the workflow instead of just integrating their results.
6. Put the decision point where the work is performed, and build control into the process.
7. Capture information once and at the source.


Methodology   in  BPR

Envision new processes
Secure management support
Identify reengineering opportunities
Identify enabling technologies
Align with CORPORATE   STRATEGY

Initiating change
Set up reengineering team
Outline performance goals

Process diagnosis
Describe existing processes
Uncover pathologies in existing processes

Process redesign
Develop alternative process scenarios
Develop new process design
Design HR architecture
Select IT platform
Develop overall BLUEPRINT  and gather feedback

Reconstruction
Develop/install IT solution
Establish process changes

Process monitoring
Performance measurement, including time, quality, cost, IT performance
Link to continuous improvement

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