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Management Consulting/mba ms 93, Please answer my ques sir


1. How can Entrepreneurial Competencies and Skills be developed through suitable training interaction? Explain.

6. Write short notes on the following:  
(a) Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) 1956 (b) Material Management  (c) Cost and Time Overruns.

I  will send  the balance  asap.

1. How can Entrepreneurial Competencies and Skills be developed through suitable training interaction? Explain.

Entrepreneurship  SKILLS
Entrepreneurs: Key Characteristics
and Skills
If your mind can
conceive it,
and your heart
can believe it,
then you can
achieve it!
Are All Entrepreneurs Alike?
While entrepreneurs have in common certain characteristics and skills,
there is a wide range of individuality among them. In sports, some
athletes do well because they love a sport and are trained to play it.
They have developed their skills. Others are full of natural talent and
require much less special training. Still others simply find their own
successful approach to playing a sport even though they may not have
been trained.
Entrepreneurs are the same way.
Some receive formal training
and skill development. Others
have a natural flair for it. Still
others break every rule or
devise very unusual approaches,
but still succeed. Which do you
think would be your style?
While there is no recipe for be-
coming a successful entrepre-
neur, certain characteristics
are associated with entrepre-
neurial success. Here are
several important ones.

Do What You Love
According to research, one of the most important qualities associated
with successful entrepreneurship is passion. When people feel commit-
ted to what they are doing and when they care deeply about it, they
stand the best chance of being successful at it. The heart must become
an ally of the mind. Think about this popular business saying:
If your mind can conceive it,
and your heart can believe it,
then you can achieve it!
Entrepreneurs typically care more about what they are doing than how
much money they might make. They must earn an income, of course, or
they cannot continue to be entrepreneurs; however, the amount they
earn often is secondary to achieving their goals.
are self-reliant,
focused, willing
to take risks
and thrive on
If I Think I Can . . . I Can!
Another key quality of the successful entrepreneur is
self-confidence. If you are thinking that you
would like to be an entrepreneur, do you have
confidence in your ability to succeed? Every
entrepreneur encounters problems, and you
have to believe you can overcome them.
If you feel you lack self-confidence,
perhaps you’re not fully appreciative of
your past accomplishments. Think about all the things you’ve done.
Have you participated in activities at school like music, art and sports?
Have you held part-time jobs? Do you do chores regularly at home?
When you think about all of the things you have accomplished, you will
find that you have every right to be self-confident. Successful entrepre-
neurs believe not only that they are capable of success but also believe
that they are worthy of success.
Entrepreneurs are self-reliant. They do not wait for others to tell
them what to do. They are self-starters and feel confident making
Entrepreneurs have other qualities as well. To accomplish their goals
and make their vision a reality, successful entrepreneurs must have
drive, persistence, the ability to complete tasks, and be
willing to work hard. Additionally, they are
opportunity-focused and forward-looking.
They are able to set both short- and long-term
goals. They create a vision of what they
want their future to be, and then they
work to achieve it. These are some of
the qualities that help them see
problems as opportunities.
As we discussed earlier, entrepre-
neurs are willing to take a risk.
While most people try to avoid risk,
entrepreneurs understand that risk is a natural part of trying to achieve
goals. Their self-confidence helps them accept the challenges of the
risks they take.
Entrepreneurs tend to thrive on competition. While
they may actively compete with others, they are
more likely to compete against themselves. In other
words, they are constantly trying to improve their
own performance regardless of what others may
be doing.
Although they may not realize it, most entrepre-
neurs are creative. This does not mean they
paint pictures or write poetry (though it can);
rather, it means they find innovative ways to prob-
lem solve. They always look for new and better
ways to do things—ways that have not occurred to others. Believe in
your ability to be creative. Experts tell us that the biggest block to
creativity is thinking you are not creative.
Finally, entrepreneurs are willing to learn. They are information
seekers. They may already know a great deal, yet they recognize that
no one knows everything, and that they can learn valuable information
from others. Entrepreneurs who are not open to learning often compro-
mise the degree of success they will be able to achieve.
Entrepreneurship Is Not for Everybody—Or Is It?
Not everyone has the qualities it takes to be an entrepreneur or even
wants to be an entrepreneur. Even people who possess the necessary
qualities are not necessarily made happy by being entrepreneurs.
People who have entrepreneurial characteristics are often happier
working for someone else. They use their entrepreneurial skills to
advance their own careers without taking the risks associated with
being an entrepreneur. If you recognize that you have some of the
characteristics discussed here but do not feel drawn to becoming an
entrepreneur, you can find ways to further your goals or your chosen
career by putting your entrepreneurial characteristics to work for you.
It may surprise you how much recognition you’ll get for the good
work you do.
who are not open
to learning often
compromise the
degree of success
they will be able
to achieve.
Activity: In your Personal Journal, turn
to page 4 and complete the activity entitled
“Are You a Potential Entrepreneur?
Part 1: Entrepreneurial Characteris-
tics—A Personal Review and Assess-
Some Entrepreneurial Skills You
Must Have for Success
As with any sport, having the right attitudes
and characteristics can carry you only so far.
You also need the skills that will help you
succeed. However, unlike personal character-
istics and attitudes—which can often be hard
or impossible to change—entrepreneurs can
acquire skills if they are willing to learn them. Additionally, they can
hire people to work for them who have the needed skills. Either way, the
following skills are important if the entrepreneur’s business is to succeed.
Ability to Plan: The ability to plan is a key skill for entrepreneurs.
They must be able to develop plans to meet goals in a variety of areas,
including finance, marketing, production, sales and personnel (hiring
and maintaining productive and satisfied employees).
Communication Skills: Entrepreneurs should be able to explain,
discuss, sell and market their good or service. It is important to be able
to interact effectively with your business team. Additionally, entrepreneurs
need to be able to express themselves clearly both verbally and in
writing. They also should have strong reading comprehension skills to
understand contracts and other forms of written business communication.
Marketing Skills: A business’s success or failure is very dependent on
whether the business reaches the market (its potential customers), inter-
ests the market and results in those in the market deciding to buy. Many
entrepreneurs who failed started with an innovative good or service that
with proper marketing could have been very successful. Good marketing
skills—that result in people wanting to buy your good or service—are
critical for entrepreneurial success.
Good marketing
skills—that result
in people wanting
to buy your prod-
uct—are critical for
Activity: Are You a
Potential Entrepreneur?
Part 1: Entrepreneurial Characteristics—
A Personal Review and Assessment
Select the number that best indicates what you believe about each of the following. At the extremes,
“1" means “strongly disagree,” while “10” means “strongly agree.”
I am a person who:
Is passionate, with strong
feelings about things
personally important to me ..................
Is self-confident .................................
Has high self-esteem ..........................
Is capable of accomplishing
whatever I set out to do ......................
Is self-reliant .....................................
Is opportunity-oriented ........................
Is forward thinking.............................
Has vision and goals .........................
Has drive and ambition......................
Is willing to work hard........................
Is willing to take a risk........................
Is competitive, especially
against myself ..................................
Is creative ........................................
Is willing to learn...............................
Chapter 3: Entrepreneurs: Key Characteristics and Skills
Add up your score.
If it is over 100, you are a good candidate to consider entrepreneurship
as a career. But here’s the surprise: If you scored less than 100, you may also be a good candi-
date for entrepreneurship. Remember, there is no set formula for who can or cannot be a successful
entrepreneur. The purpose of this activity is to help you explore your interest in and abilities for
can acquire
skills if they are
willing to learn
Interpersonal Skills: Entrepreneurs constantly interact with people,
including customers and clients, employees, financial lenders, investors,
lawyers and accountants, to name a few. The ability to establish and
maintain positive relationships is crucial to the success of the
entrepreneur’s business venture.
Basic Management Skills: The entrepreneur must be able to manage
every component of a business. Even if entrepreneurs hire managers to
attend to daily details, they must understand if their business has the right
resources and if those resources are being used effectively. They must ensure
that all the positions in their business are occupied by effective people.
Personal Effectiveness: In order to handle the pressures of their busy
lifestyles, entrepreneurs must have the ability to manage time well and to
take care of personal business efficiently. Because first impressions are so
important, entrepreneurs must also pay attention to such things as personal
appearance and telephone skills. For example, think of the difference in
the impression made by someone who answers the phone by saying,
“Yeah?” versus saying, ”Computer Support Services, this is Alex. How
may I help you?” Additionally, entrepreneurs benefit a great deal by
being aware of their own strengths and weaknesses.
Team Building Skills: Because entrepreneurs usually assemble a
team of skilled people who help them achieve business success, they
must be able to effectively develop and manage the team.
Leadership Skills: One of the most important
leadership skills an entrepreneur must have is the
ability to develop a vision for the company and
to inspire the company employees to pursue that
vision as a team. The expression “people would
rather be led than managed” applies especially
well to an entrepreneurial venture.
Few entrepreneurs possess every skill needed
to ensure business success. For example, they
often look to outside experts for help in areas
such as strategic planning, accounting and
finances, contracts and legal issues, and
specialized marketing.
Think about the skills necessary for successful entrepreneurship. What
are your personal areas of strength? In what areas would you be most
likely to need assistance from
other experts? Entrepreneurs
must have the ability to evaluate
realistically their own skills and
to know when to draw on the
skills of others.
“Are You a Potential En-
trepreneur? Part 2: Entre-
preneurial Skills.—A
Personal Review and
You may also want to find out if people who
really know you well (special friend, family
member, teacher) agree with you on what you
believe are your major strengths and areas for

Entrepreneurial Competencies
1. What are entrepreneurial competencies? Name any three.
Entrepreneurial competencies are the skills necessary for an entrepreneur to
•   venture into an enterprise
•   organize and manage an enterprise ably and competently
•   realize the goal for which the enterprise is established
These competencies help and entrepreneur to successfully venture into an enterprise.
These can be broadly classified under the following categories.(Choose any three of the following competencies)
•   Behavioral competencies
i.   Initiative
ii.   Systematic planning
iii.   Creativity and innovation
iv.   Risk taking and Risk Management
v.   Problem solving
vi.   Persistence
vii.   Quality performance
viii.   Information management
ix.   Persuation and influencing abilities
•   Enterprise launching competencies
•   Enterprise managing competencies.
2. What do you understand from the term Behavioral Competencies?
1.   Behavioral competencies are certain basic competencies to be acquired by the entrepreneur.
2.   The behavioral competencies acquired will determine the type of behavior exhibited by the entrepreneur in performing various tasks in the discharge of his functions.
3.   Some of these competencies are latent in the entrepreneur, which ned to be identified, nurse and nurtured.
4.   Others are acquired through training and practice.
5.   These are basic competencies that need to be acquired by all the entrepreneurs irrespective of the size, location, economic and social dimension.
The behavioral competencies include the following.
i.   Initiative
ii.   Systematic planning
iii.   Creativity and innovation
iv.   Risk taking and Risk Management
v.   Problem solving
vi.   Persistence
vii.   Quality performance
viii.   Information management
ix.   Persuation and influencing abilities
3. Why are behavioral competencies important for an entrepreneur
Behavioral competencies are important for an entrepreneur because of the following reasons.
•   They’re the basic competencies required by an entrepreneur
o   To venture into an enterprise.
o   To organize an enterprise
o   To manage an enterprise
o   Run the enterprise competitively
o   Realize the goals for which the enterprise is established
•   Take the enterprise to the success levels
4. What are entrepreneurial competencies? Name any three.
The following are the various behavioral competencies required by an entrepreneur.
1.   Initiative
2.   Systematic planning
3.   Creativity and innovation
4.   Risk taking and Risk Management
5.   Problem solving
6.   Persistence
7.   Quality performance
8.   Information management
9.   Persuation and influencing abilities
5. Why is speed of performance required on the part of an entrepreneur?
The entrepreneur puts lot of effort and in making a decision to take an initiative.
Once he is decided to take an initiative he has to take the initiative ahead of others.
Speed is an important factor in the success of the enterprise because if the entrepreneur is slow in implementing the initiative, chances are there that someone else will move forward and implement it.
This calls for
•   Alertness
•   Agility
•   and dynamism on the part of the entrepreneur.
Due to these reasons speed of performance is required on the part of the entrepreneur.
6. What is the difference between creativity and innovation?
Creativity   Innovation
1. Creativity is the ability to bring something new into existence.   1. Innovation is the process of doing new things or bring new new ideas or new process or new products or new services into reality.
2. Creativity is pre-requisite for innovation.   2. Innovation is a process that transforms creative ideass into useful realities.
3. A creative individual may just have a vision but may not have the necessary resources or the drive to convert the idea into action.   3. An innovator may have the right ability to transform the ideas into products and services, but may suffer from shortage of creative thoughts and ideas.
7. A good entrepreneur combines the quality of a creative individual and an innovator – Justify the statement.
•   In many cases, a good entrepreneur adopts new ideas or services so that he will be the first to implement them.
•   The entrepreneur may not have new and creative ideas. He might only use the creative ideas and innovative products and services to meet the challenges of a situation. He might take advantage of the utility of an idea or a product to create wealth.
•   He uses the ideas and services only to solve the problems on the hand to achieve the objective.
•   Competency in creativity and innovation are sometimes basic traits of certain individuals and help in achieving the goals.
Thus we can say that a good entrepreneur combines the quality of a good entrepreneur and an innovator.
8. What are the areas involving risk in creating and managing an enterprise?
The following are the areas involving risk in creating and managing an enterprise.
•   The design of the product or service and its acceptability.
•   The resources availability.
•   The availability of market.
•   The variance in consumer expectations.
•   The speed of change in the types and patterns of the products and services.
•   The demand-supply situation.
•   The finance flow in the market.
•   The performance of tools and equipment.
•   The social and political climate for sustainability of the products.
9. In taking and managing a risk, the entrepreneur does not behave like a gambler – Do you agree?
While venturing into new ideas and services, the entrepreneur treads into areas of uncertainty. Thus the entrepreneur is exposed to risk. Hence risk taking and risk management are important aspects of entrepreneurial competencies. There are several areas and elements which throw potential challenge to the entrepreneur. Therefore, he has to take crucial risk-prone decisions in the process of discharging his responsibilities.
However, unlike gamblers, an entrepreneur takes a calculated and perceived decision in the light of the facts and circumstances available at his disposal. So, we can say that, in taking and managing a risk, the entrepreneur does not behave like a gambler.
10. What are the general practices an entrepreneur should adopt to acquire the skills of risk management?
The following are the general practices an entrepreneur should adopt to acquire the skills of risk management.
1.   Analysis of various policies, programs and situations
2.   Identification of roadblocks in the road map of the enterprise
3.   Consideration of alternatives
4.   Plan of action for alternatives
5.   Crisis management
6.   Possibility of the new ideas or services being hijacked by other powerful individuals or systems.
11. What are the standard problem solving competencies required for an enterprise?
The following are the standard problem solving competencies required for an enterprise.
a.   Acquiring the necessary mindset which will help to understand that the problems are part of the process and start working on the problems in the context of the process to which the problems belong to.
b.   Basic understanding of the phenomenon that normally problems are always caused.
c.   Clear understanding of the fact that every problem has a solution and one must seek for the solution.
d.   Decision making capability to choose the relevant, contextual and pragmatic solution, among the available multiple solutions for a problem.
e.   Explore the alternate strategies till the solutions for the imminent problems are found.
f.   Find or look for resources that would help to solve the problems in an amiable way.
g.   Generating new ideas, products, services, visions so that the problems of the similar type do not occur in future.
12. Dicision-making skills are crucial for a successful entrepreneur – What are those skills?
The following are the decision-making skills that are crucial for a successful entrepreneur.
a.   Absolutely complete knowledge of the entire system of the enterprise.
b.   Broad understanding of the software, hardware and human-ware of the sytem.
c.   Complete knowledge of the types of resources involved and their flow and mobility.
d.   Different types of speed breakers in the flow of the operations, their magnitude and direction.
e.   Expert leve understanding of the urgency, the time and the impact of the decisions.
f.   Futuristics of the decision.
g.   General impact of the decisions taken on the clients and the society in which the enterprise servives.
13. Why is persistence important for an entrepreneur?
In general, entrepreneur pursuits are new and need very close attention. So, it calls for appropriate climate building and acceptability and required intense perseverance on the part of the entrepreneur.
The entrepreneurship is a complex activity covering various parameters of the society. So, it is very difficult for any enterprise to be successful in the first attempt. Therefore, the failures or roadblocks to success and achievement should not deter the entrepreneur. He needs to have the quality of perseverance. Behavioral skills to persist even when the failure is visible are one of the qualities of a successful entrepreneur. The ability of persistence is indicative of the confidence of the entrepreneur in his system, tools and techniques.
Thus we can say that persistence is important for an entrepreneur.
14. What is the persistence of an entrepreneur indicative of?
The persistence of an entrepreneur is an indicative of the following.
•   The faith of the entrepreneur in the system.
•   The exactitude of the tools used in the system.
•   The confidence in the quality of the product or the service.
•   The understanding of the entrepreneur about the market.
•   The conviction of the entrepreneur to succed.

Skill as basic ability is the means by which man adjust to life. A person’s attitude and work functions are required and necessary antidotes suggesting the suitable skills performance and acquisition of same by going through a given work sample. In the work place, skill is what the workers give in exchange for numeration. If the skill (or the cluster of skills popularly referred to as aptitudes) given is satisfactory, the worker gets satisfaction and the employer gets satisfactoriness in correspondence. This process, if sustained culminates in promotion, retaining and prolonged tenure that leads to productivity . On retirement from active working life, man’s repertoire of skills will no longer be relevant to help him to adjust to life. He needs new skills on how to enjoy his leisure and adjust in his new way of life. This situation is the same for a handicapped person, a widow or indeed any person whose way of life has changed radically. Hence man’s rehabilitation in these contexts requires new skills with special consideration to his aptitudes and work functions. In this case of youth, whole adjustment in the world of work will rest solely on skill developed and used first at school and later at work; the economic, moral and political time of the nation will in time to come and depend on it and these will from time to time determine its survival . In a classroom situation, skill is the ability to perform some tasks creditability. Up to a point, the more practice in the doing of specific task the faster and better they can be done. It is associated with know-how while speed and accuracy are some of its traits and characteristics. Children who love to paint with crayon and water color often develop unusual perspective and excellent representation of nature
six scales and eighteen skills that can be sorted grouped to describe various aptitudes in children for placement, when the promotion and remediation is a highly treasured experience which every good teacher must possess. Acquisition and reinforcement of skills and aptitudes through science laboratories and workshop practice and other curricular and extracurricular activities represent the most natural ways of stimulating science education and real life work which lead to high productivity. These considerations underscore the need to focus skill development and assessment in our teacher education and in-service training programmes, more especially in the science based teaching subject areas of physics, chemistry, biology, integrated science, agricultural science, introductory technology, wood work, metal work, electrical electronics, home economics, clothing and textiles etc.
DEFINITION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILL Skill is thought of as a quality of performance which does not depend solely upon a person’s fundamental, innate capacities but must be developed through training, practice and experience. Although skill depends essentially on learning, it also includes the concepts of efficiency and economy in performance. Modern concepts of skill stress the flexibility with which a skilled operator reaches a given end on different occasions according to precise circumstances. However, it must be reiterated that even though basic human capacities are not sufficient to produce skills, they form the necessary basis of their development; skills represent particular ways of using capacities in relation to environmental demands, with human being and external situation together forming a functional system. There are many fields on what make someone an entrepreneur and what an entrepreneurial skill is. An entrepreneur can be defined the one who organizes, manages and assumes the need of a business enterprise. It can be defined as a person who have decided to take control f his/her future and becomes self employed whether by creating his own unique business or working as a member of a team at a multi level vocation. He is a person who has possession of an enterprise or venture and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome. He is an ambitious leader who combines land, labour and capital to create and market new goods or services . Therefore, entrepreneurial skills are skills needed to have to succeed in business, most especially in teaching. Entrepreneurial skills are the basic skills necessary to enable you start, develop, finance and succeed in your home enterprise. Surprisingly, intimately related to classroom activities as the concept of skill may be and necessary as its measurement, assessment and general evaluation may be to the affairs of the school system, little is done about it in science teacher education while its records are seldom kept in continuous assessment in schools. Whereas, the national policy on education  enjoins teachers to make instruction concept-centered, activity based and work related. This fact underlines the needs to focus on acquisition of entrepreneurial skills in school instruction for the benefit of school and society. When examining the vast literature on skills, various definitions of entrepreneurial skills emerge. Here are some samples: Entrepreneurial skill can be defined as the ability to create something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychic and social risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence . Entrepreneurial skill is the ability to of an individual to exploit an idea and create an enterprise (Small or Big) not only for personal gain but also for social and developmental gain . Formal descriptions/definitions characterize entrepreneurial skills as ability to have self-belief, boldness, tenacity, passionate, empathy, readiness to take expert advice, desire for immediate result, visionary and ability to recognize opportunity states that the array of possible entrepreneurial skills encompasses the perception of economic opportunity, technical and organizational innovations, gaining commands over scarce resources, taking responsibilities for internal management and for external advancement of the firm in all aspects (of teaching enterprise)

ACQUISITION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS Two fundamental issues are raised when a new skill is to be acquired. The first is the conditions which promote acquisition and the second is the change that will occur when the skill is acquired. The initial conclusion of early researchers was that skill is best acquired through S.R learning theory proposed by Pavlov and Thorndikee “But recent thinking is that such a theory would predict the development of relatively stereotyped chain of response instead of the flexible pragmatic behavior that characterizes skilled performance (Legge, 1970). Pragmatism in skill learning demands that organisms more often learn guiding principles and programmes rather than specific responses. The stimulus response theory no doubt, provides the best description of learning in simpler organisms but in an emphasis on planning and strategy would appear more appropriate”. When an adult human being sets out to learn a new skill, he usually begins with a communicable program of instruction. Another person either verbally or by exemplification, communicates what he is supposed to do. Valid as the argument that mere knowledge of strategy does not guarantee successful performance a learner of a new skill does not jump into operation without first receiving the necessary verbal instruction. Skilful elaboration and execution of the instruction serves to get the act safely done. The instruction, perhaps given in bits, units, modules or stages, must be fused together to form a skilled performance. To acquire an entrepreneurial skill, a hierarchy of behavioral units needs to be constructed. This idea was pointed out as far as 1897 by Bryan and Harter (when they demonstrated the successive levels of skill involved in telegraphy. The rate at which skill is acquired is a function of knowledge of result i.e. feedback (Holding 1965). The feedback can be intrinsic or artificial with the artificial being either concurrent or terminal. The concurrent and the terminal feedback can be immediate or delayed with each being either verbal or non verbal. The process of acquisition and development of entrepreneurial skill is concerned with four maim stages and these are : 1. To objectively analyze and identify the current and foreseeable skills needs to the business, in terms of management, administrative and technical skills and the relative importance of these. 2. To identify the entrepreneur’s own personal goal and objectives and accurately analyze and evaluate his or her own skills and resources in relation to these. 3. To produce a realistic personal development plan for the potential entrepreneur. 4. To monitor the on-going performance of the entrepreneur once the business has started and progress made towards developing the new skills that had been previously identified as necessary for the success of the business. This applies both to the entrepreneur’s personal needs and to the process of assisting employees to develop new skills that will also benefit the business. TEACHER AS AN ENTREPRENEUR IN SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT It is important for any one preparing a business or an enterprise to remember that he should not just look at those skills which are needed just only in the classroom setting but also that which will be required for societal growth at large. Hence for a teacher to operate successfully as an entrepreneur in teaching enterprise, the following entrepreneur traits/skills are essential. • He must have requisite technical knowledge and expertise. • The wisdom to seek out and listen to the advice of those who know what he/she doesn’t know. • Ability to learn from his mistakes. • Self discipline. • Ability to make quality decision: The talents to analyze complex situation and draw conclusions that will make the business succeed. • Hard work: being capable of doing the work and enjoying it. • Concentration: sticking it out through distraction to get the work done. • Technical ability: the expertise to produce the goods and services of your business. • Communication skills: the ability to express yourself and to understand others so that ideas can be shared. • Motivation: the mental and physical drive to succeed, to accomplish chosen tasks on your own terms. • Organizational skills • Decision making skills • Financial skills • Students management skills • Publicity/marketing skills • Supervision/management skills From the ongoing therefore, science teacher must possess the following must-have skills to function properly as an entrepreneur and thereby developing to this globalized education market that is highly competitive and ever changing. The science teachers will need a broad array of entrepreneurial skills to succeed in today science education market. They must possess basic skills necessary to enable them function effectively and thereby increase the employability level of their school products. There are a number of qualities and skills they need to have, including personal attributes, educational skills, business skills and management capabilities. Why they may not have all of them right now, there are five basic skills they really must have t function effectively as an entrepreneur in and outside the school environment. These five skills are: • Sales and marketing skills: they are the most important skills teachers must have in their day to day activities. They must be keen to think on how to reach their audience using the best teaching approach and the organization who will eventually employ their products. This entails understanding the concept of marketing in changing the perception of their students towards science education as a big enterprise. • Financial of know how: the teachers should develop their ability to make money as teaching is a big business. Therefore the most important skill he must have is ability to handle money well. Hence, the teacher should teach the students how best to be self employed to the best of their ability. • Self motivation skill: as an entrepreneur, the teacher does not have the luxury of the bosses to tell him what he needs to be done. He should be motivated and see himself as manager of his class and resources at his disposal. He needs to be smart enough to know when he needs to go ahead and when to stop hi day to day activities. Therefore science teachers must have the extra drive and commitment to ensure that he is taking necessary steps to make his dream a reality as a manager of a teaching enterprise. • Time management skill: the ability to plan your day and manage time is particularly important for a school business. Simply put, science teachers must be a good time manager and prioritize task as an effective entrepreneur. • Administrative skills: if you can hire an assistance that will organize your office space, file your papers and mails, then you are lucky. However, most start up entrepreneurs cannot afford such luxuries. Hence as a science teacher you need to possess a great deal of administrative skills to succeed as a manager of human resources. SCIENCE TEACHERS AND ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS The impact of modern science in the society and business world has raised the problem of acquainting science teachers/students with the social implications of science teaching. The science teachers of modern world need to understand and appreciate the dependence of a modern society in science and the changes in the social structure that have been brought about by the achievement of science and technology. They should not only be able to appreciate and wonder at the modern marvels of science in business world but should also understand the social use of entrepreneurial skills in their day to day science affairs in the classroom, outside the classroom and in the society at large. This in a nut shell is what a science teacher can do and must do with entrepreneurial skills. The science teachers are not necessary to open schools or any business related to science education but need to understand and acquire the basic entrepreneurial skills that will make them function effectively in the school setting (Das, 2006). Of course, teaching science is a dynamic enterprise and so any teaching procedures centre around three pivotal factors; the pupils, the teachers and the subject. enterprise/ business, the raw materials are the pupils (science students), the factory is the school environment, the teachers are the managers/entrepreneur of resources using a specified blue print (science curriculum). The interaction among these three major factors justifies why the science teacher must possess requisite entrepreneurial skills that will facilitate transactions in the classroom business climate. The outcome is to bring out a refine and discipline product (i.e. science graduates) at any level. Based on this, science teachers need some essential entrepreneurial skills that will increase their efficiency and effectiveness in knowledge delivery and management of resources in the school environment. These include: instructional leadership skills, management skills, communication skill, collaboration skill, vision development skills, change management skills, analysis skills, process skills, evaluation skills and parsimony/economy skills. Also there is a little debate about the fact that good science teachers must also be a good manager of resources in the learning environment- hence, there is an urgent need to ensure they possess minimum entrepreneurial skills to enable them function effectively in the classroom, laboratories and general school settings. Again, with the acquisition of entrepreneurial skills, science teachers will know more about finance administration and be able to navigate successfully through difficult political water filled with competing interests and demand for resources especially in Nigeria
What are the pedagogical strategies needed to promote entrepreneurial skills in teacher education? PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGIES REQUIRED IN PROMOTING ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION In the journal of psychology of teaching several pedagogical strategies could be used but in this article, pedagogical strategies are discussed. These include • Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATS):  stresses the use of ongoing classroom assessment as a way to monitor and facilitate students' entrepreneurial skills. An example of a CAT is to ask students to write a "Minute Paper" responding to questions such as "What was the most important thing you learned in today's class? What question related to this session remains uppermost in your mind?" The science teacher selects some of the papers and prepares responses for the next class meeting. This strategy if well utilize is capable of developing entrepreneurial skill such as risk taking, as it will empower student to try new methods as oppose to the traditional approach they as used to in learning situation. This is because the use of novel teaching approach such as programmed instruction in developing country such as Nigeria is risk taking. This is because there is no guarantee of appreciable success most especially as there is no regular power supply, acute water shortage and so on. • Cooperative Learning Strategies: The proponents of this strategy argue that putting students in group learning situations is the best way to foster the development of entrepreneurial skills. "In properly structured cooperative learning environments, students perform more of the active, entrepreneurial skills with continuous support and feedback from other students and the teacher" . This will invariably develop entrepreneurial skills in the teaching and learning of science in both teachers and students by giving them ample opportunity to seek out wisdom from their colleagues and to listen to the opinions of those know some basic Adeyemo / TÜFED-TUSED/ 6(3) 2009 63 science concepts and principles. Again it will develop in them ability to learn from their mistakes. • Case Study /Discussion Method: this approach involves a science teacher presenting a case (or story) to the class without a conclusion. Using prepared questions, the teacher then leads students through a discussion, allowing students to construct a conclusion for the case. This strategy will develop entrepreneurial skill in science teachers and their students as it will give them opportunity to: evaluate all reasonable inferences, consider a variety of possible viewpoints or perspectives, remain open to alternative interpretations, accept a new explanation, model, or paradigm because it explains the evidence better, is simple, or has fewer constituencies or covers more data, accept new priorities in response to a re-evaluation of the evidence or reassessment of our real interests and do not reject unpopular views out of hand. • Using Questions: this strategy identifies ways of using questions in the classroom: o Reciprocal Peer Questioning: Following lecture, the teacher displays a list of question stems (such as, "What are the strengths and weaknesses of...). Students must write questions about the lecture material. In small groups, the students ask each other the questions. Then, the whole class discusses some of the questions from each small group. o Reader's Questions: Require students to write questions on assigned reading and turn them in at the beginning of class. Select a few of the questions as the impetus for class discussion. • Conference Style Learning: The teacher does not "teach" the class in the sense of lecturing. The teacher is a facilitator of a conference. Students must thoroughly read all required material before class. Assigned readings should be in the zone of proximal development. That is, readings should be able to be understood by students, but also challenging. The class consists of the students asking questions of each other and discussing these questions. The teacher does not remain passive, but rather, helps "direct and mould discussions by? • Posing strategic questions and helping students build on each others' ideas" . • Use Writing Assignments: Screen (1976) sees the use of writing as fundamental to developing skills. "With written assignments, an instructor can encourage the development of dialectic reasoning by requiring students to argue both [or more] sides of an issue. • Dialogues: Odubunmi (1983) identify two methods of stimulating useful discussions in the classroom: • Written dialogues: Give students written dialogues to analyze. In small groups, students must identify the different viewpoints of each participant in the dialogue. Must look for biases, presence or exclusion of important o Evidence, alternative interpretations, misstatement of facts, and errors in reasoning. Each group must decide which view is the most reasonable. After coming to a conclusion, each group acts out their dialogue and explains their analysis of it. o Spontaneous Group Dialogue: One group of students are assigned roles to play in a discussion (such as leader, information giver, opinion seeker, and disagree). Four observer groups are formed with the functions of determining what roles are being played by whom, identifying biases and Adeyemo / TÜFED-TUSED/ 6(3) 2009 64 errors in thinking, evaluating reasoning skills, and examining ethical implications of the content. • Ambiguity: Scott (1998) advocates producing much ambiguity in the classroom. Don't give students clear cut material. Give them conflicting information that they must think their way through. The usefulness of each method under each of the groups will depend on the teacher’s ability to make appropriate selection for a lesson topic. Generally, the following factors should guide the science teacher when choosing a method for a lesson. • The experience and competency of the teacher. • The previous experience, maturity and ability of the students. • The availability of the teaching aids, instructional materials and equipments. • Time available for preparation and for workshop practice. However, the teachers should master the purpose which each method serves in a learning situation in order to know when best to employ each. CONCLUSION Understanding and acquisition of essential entrepreneurial skill are necessary strategies and tools in science teacher education and these will improve stimulating factors for the development of managerial competencies in teachers. Nothing in life is more important to an individual than developing the key leadership and personal management skills that are keys to being an entrepreneur in teaching enterprise. Teachers as decision makers should understand while students have had problems in being entrepreneurial and what economic, educational and political changes in order to foster the development of entrepreneurial skills of students. Students in schools have to realize that in order to succeed in the work places of the future; they have to prepare themselves for the entrepreneurial path ahead regardless of their chosen discipline in teacher education colleges or faculties. In effect, teachers have to be able to find out for themselves whether they act entrepreneurially, where their strengths and weaknesses regarding entrepreneurial skills are and what they themselves can do to improve them in globalised teaching enterprise. This will automatically increase the employability level of our products in science teacher education colleges and institutions.


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Leo Lingham


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