Management Consulting/ms 23

Advertisement


Question
Hello Sir ,

   please send me the answer of the following question.
MS-23

   Q 3.Explain recruitment purpose,policy and process being followed in any organisation you are familiar with .Describe the methods and techniques of recruitment.

Answer
3. Explain recruitment purpose, policy and process being followed in any organization you are familiar with. Describe the methods and techniques of recruitment.

Recruitment refers to the process of finding right people
for the right job or function, usually undertaken by
recruiters. It also may be undertaken by an employment
agency or a member of staff at the business or organization
looking for recruits. Advertising is commonly part of the
recruiting process, and can occur through several means:
through online, newspapers, using newspaper dedicated to
job advertisement, through professional publication, using
advertisements placed in windows, through a job center,
through campus graduate recruitment programs, etc



THE VARIOUS  STAGES  RECRUITMENT

Stage 1 (Telephone interview/Website enquiry)
During your initial telephone interview the RECRUITER   will check your eligibility. If your telephone interview is successful you will be issued with an application pack. If you are not successful the RECRUITER   will give you appropriate feedback.
Stage 2 (Submitted Application Form)
On receiving your submitted application form the RECRUITER   will check your eligibility and mark your competency questions. If your application is successful you will go on to Stage 3. If you are not successful the RECRUITER  will give you appropriate feedback.
Stage 3 (Assessment Centre)
Two weeks before attending the assessment centre you will be sent background material. You must read this thoroughly and familiarise yourself with the content. At the centre you will be tested on your written English skills, verbal reasoning, oral skills and your mathematical skills.
These will be tested in a number of ways, interview, role-play and written tests. If you are successful you will proceed to Stage 4. Unsuccessful candidates will be provided with feedback on their performance.
Stage 4 (Final Interview)
You will be required to attend an interview with two Senior Managers within the COMPANY .
Stage 5 (Medical and Fitness)
You will be invited to attend a medical and a fitness test. These may be on separate days.
Stage 6 (Background Checks and   Enquiries)
Offers of appointment are subject to references and security checks. The references given in your application will be taken up and a security check will be conducted. Security checks can take a while if you have lived abroad for any period of time
======================================================

AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS
1.PREPARATION AND COMPLETION OF RECRUITMENT
DOCUMENTATION.
-the line manager with vacancy prepares the requistion form.
-the line manager prepares the job description/ job speciifcation
and gives it HR, WHO FINE TUNE THE DATA.
-the line manager also prepares the grading of the position.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT WITH PROPOSED TIMESCALES.
-the line manager / HR prepares the proposed timescales.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.DEVELOPMENT / SUBMISSION OF ELECTRONIC JOB DESCRIPTION
AND PERSON SPECIFICATION.
-the line manager approves the job description/specifications.
-the HR COMPLETES THE SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
REQUIRED.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.ADVERTISEMENT
-the HR PREPARES THE ADVERTISEMENT AND PLACES THE ADs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.RESPONSE HANDLING
-HR sends out the interview packs to the listed candidates.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.SHORTLISTING
-THE HR CONDUCTS ONLINE/ TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS
AND MAKES A SHORT LIST.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.ARRANGEMENT OF INTERVIEW.
-HR sends out the invitations to the SHORT LISTED persons.
-the interviewing panel receives the interviewing packs.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.INTERVIEW
-the panel members individually fill the assessment forms.
-the HR completes the interview outcome.
-this is reviewed by HR AND THE LINE MANAGER
FINALISE THE APPOINMENT.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.POST INTERVIEW
-HR sends out letters to the unsuccessful candidates.
-HR CHECKS REFERENCES.
-HR SENDS OUT OFFER LETTERS TO SUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES.
-THE LINE MANAGERS / AGREE TO THE START DATE
AND INDUCTION PROGRAMME.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.PERSONAL FILE CREATION
-HR CREATES ''PERSONAL FILE ''.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.HANDOVER TO HR / ADMINISTRATION
-THE LINE MANAGER HANDS OVER THE RESPONSIBILITY
FOR PAYROLL ADMIN AND INDUCTION TO HR.
-HR PREPARES WELCOME PACK / EMPLOYEE MANUAL.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12. ARCHIVING OF APPOINTMENT FILES.
-HR ARCHIVES SELECTED CANDIDATES FILE.
-HR DESTROYS UNSUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES FILES
AFTER 6 MONTHS.
THE APPROACH WILL VARY WITH THE COMPANIES/ POLICIES
AND SITUATIONS.




1.   Discuss the procedure of employment and recruitment
FIRST, DRAFT  A  POLICY.
Recruitment Policy of XYZ

Identifying the competitive and reasonable resources by establishing attractive packages and congenial
environment for different levels and stimulating the right people to come and opt

I.   Objective:
•   To streamline the Recruitment process,
•   To ensure that we always hire the RIGHT people at RIGHT role at RIGHT time, and
•   Also to thrive a strong Employer Branding to attract the best talents available in the Industry

II.   Scope:
Covers all the vacant positions across the functions, levels and hierarchy. To enable HR to initiate the hiring process at any point of time during the year, the respective HOD / functional / Regional heads need to follow the below-mentioned steps –
•   Fill-up a ‘Manpower Requisition Form (MRF)’ (Refer Annexure I)

•   Get the MRF approved by the concerned approving authorities

•   Forward the approved MRF to HR

III.   Recruitment Quality Norm:
In today’s knowledge driven business scenario, People are perceived as the most valuable assets of an organization and the optimum utilization of the skill, knowledge, attitude, they posses, are directly instrumental to the growth of any organization.

  Therefore, while recruiting a candidate for any role, position, level, function, it should always be ensured that there is no compromise in the quality of people, we hire.


Besides checking the presence of role-specific key competencies & the behavioral attributes required to perform a job, few basic eligibility criteria should be considered, even before a candidate is called for the Initial rounds of Interviews -

•   Academic Qualification: Minimum Graduate (Recognized university) for all positions and there should not be any unjustified gaps in education.

•   Psychometric / General Intelligence test: All the short-listed candidates should be run through a Psychometric / General Intelligence test and candidates qualifying this test, would be eligible for the next rounds of tests / interviews.

•   Reference check: Reference check is MUST for all recruitments across the country and HR should always ensure that Reference check is done before extending the offer to a selected candidate.

a.   Candidates selected after rounds of tests/Interviews would be asked to provide the names & contact details of at least 3 persons as his/her Professional References, and

b.   HR would contact these references and the comments & remarks of the referees would be documented and preserved for future records.

c.   HR in some of the critical cases may also carry out an Independent Reference Check through the respective Placement consultants (who had sourced the CV of the concerned candidate), who would check with at least 2 referees (one each from 2 different organizations) whom the concerned candidate had worked with in the past.

IV.   Internal Recruitment:

•   As a conscious focus of the organization to nurture high potential talents by providing them suitable career growth opportunities within the organization, efforts would always be made to fill in specific vacancies from it’s existing human resource pool.

•   The entire process would be done through Internal Job Posting (IJP) and communication including the job profile, candidate profile, eligibility (who can apply), application deadline etc. would be made available by HR

•   Employees possessing necessary skills, knowledge, and experience matching with those required for the job may apply through the appropriate communication channels as prescribed in the IJP.

V.   Recruitment Sources:

To ensure a steady in-flow of quality candidates for all the existing vacant positions, with an aim to select the best within a stringent recruitment deadline, HR would always focus to develop a robust database of CVs searched from the following sources –
•   Existing CV data base ( Created & maintained by HR)
•   Vacancy Advertisement in Newspapers
•   e-Recruitment Portals( CV data base access and regular job postings)
•   Market Intelligence, Personal Network and Head hunting
•   Hiring Consultants ( Mostly for Senior and middle level critical positions)

VI.    Hiring consultants:
Considering the large volume of recruitments to be done within a small span of time, it is necessary to identify and engage Professional hiring consultants to help HR to source quality candidates for middle & senior level positions.
A.   Process guidelines (To engage a new Hiring Consultant):
•   HR would identify the Consultants in all the regions, based on their current client’s distribution, database size, past performance records & industry feedback.
•   Regional heads at branch/regional level can also identify a Consultant and the details need to be sent to HR for further discussion & approval.
•   HR will negotiate the Terms & Conditions with all the identified consultants and will get a one-time approval (from the Director) before rolling out the formal agreement with them.

B.   Quality Expectations from the Hiring Consultants:
•   Minimum Turn-around time (TAT): Once a requirement is placed, the consultant should forward at least 6 CVs within the next 72 hrs.
•   Strong Conversion Rate (6:4:2): Out of the 6 CVs forwarded by a consultant, 4 have to be short-listed (after initial screening by HR) and at least 2 of them have to be selected.

An Annual Evaluation of the services provided by the existing consultants across the country would be done to create a list of preferred consultants, who would be treated as priority CV sources for critical positions in future.





VI.   Compensation Proposals, Negotiation & issuing the offer letters:

•   HR prepares the compensation proposals based on the below-mentioned critical attributes and gets those approved in writing by the Director before extending to the candidates -

i.   Academic & Professional qualification of the respective candidates
ii.   Experience Profile
iii.   Existing Compensation & benefits
iv.   Market synergy
v.   Internal Role-wise compensation study to maintain the equity

•   HR extends the proposals to the candidates who get selected after final round of Interviews and negotiates to close those.

•   Once the candidates agree to the proposals &n intimate their acceptance, HR sends out the formal offer letter, duly approved & signed by the concerned authority.

•   Offer letter check list -

HR should make sure that all the below-listed documents are received & checked thoroughly before issuing the formal offer letters –

i.   Approved Manpower Requisition form (MRF)
ii.   Resume (hardcopy) of the candidate
iii.   Interview Assessment sheet (Filled up with specific recommendations by the concerned Interviewers)
iv.   Reference checks details (documented in the specified format)
v.   Compensation Proposal (Existing package & the proposed plan, duly approved by the concerned Authority)


VIII   Recruitment Cycle Time:

To bring in more dynamism and effectiveness in the recruitment process, HR would follow a   specific project deadline of 30days (from the day it had received the approved Manpower Requisition) to hire a new employee.  

The process specific schedule break-up is mentioned below –


Phase   Activities   Time frame
I   Role Identification, JD, competency mapping & CV Sourcing   12ays
II   Initial HR screening / short-listing   2 days

  Organizing the Preliminary Interviews   4 days
  Organizing the Final Interviews   4 days
  De-briefing sessions to take the final decisions   2 days
III   Preparing the Salary Proposal, Negotiate with the selected candidates & offer closure   6 days



Recruitment Process:


Phase – I: Pre-Selection























Phase – II: Selection





























De-briefing & final decision
(Interviewers discuss amongst themselves & with HR to take a final selection decision)


Phase – III: Post-Selection










































Phase – IV: Post-joining








































DEVELOP  THE PROCESS
1.PREPARATION AND COMPLETION OF RECRUITMENT
DOCUMENTATION.
-the line manager with vacancy prepares the requistion form.
-the line manager prepares the job description/ job speciifcation
and gives it HR, WHO FINE TUNE THE DATA.
-the line manager also prepares the grading of the position.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT WITH PROPOSED TIMESCALES.
-the line manager / HR prepares the proposed timescales.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.DEVELOPMENT / SUBMISSION OF ELECTRONIC JOB DESCRIPTION
AND PERSON SPECIFICATION.
-the line manager approves the job description/specifications.
-the HR COMPLETES THE SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
REQUIRED.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.ADVERTISEMENT
-the HR PREPARES THE ADVERTISEMENT AND PLACES THE ADs.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
5.RESPONSE HANDLING
-HR sends out the interview packs to the listed candidates.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.SHORTLISTING
-THE HR CONDUCTS ONLINE/ TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS
AND MAKES A SHORT LIST.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7.ARRANGEMENT OF INTERVIEW.
-HR sends out the invitations to the SHORT LISTED persons.
-the interviewing panel receives the interviewing packs.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
8.INTERVIEW
-the panel members individually fill the assessment forms.
-the HR completes the interview outcome.
-this is reviewed by HR AND THE LINE MANAGER
FINALISE THE APPOINMENT.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
9.POST INTERVIEW
-HR sends out letters to the unsuccessful candidates.
-HR CHECKS REFERENCES.
-HR SENDS OUT OFFER LETTERS TO SUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES.
-THE LINE MANAGERS / AGREE TO THE START DATE
AND INDUCTION PROGRAMME.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.PERSONAL FILE CREATION
-HR CREATES ''PERSONAL FILE ''.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11.HANDOVER TO HR / ADMINISTRATION
-THE LINE MANAGER HANDS OVER THE RESPONSIBILITY
FOR PAYROLL ADMIN AND INDUCTION TO HR.
-HR PREPARES WELCOME PACK / EMPLOYEE MANUAL.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12. ARCHIVING OF APPOINTMENT FILES.
-HR ARCHIVES SELECTED CANDIDATES FILE.
-HR DESTROYS UNSUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES FILES
AFTER 6 MONTHS.
THE APPROACH WILL VARY WITH THE COMPANIES/ POLICIES
AND SITUATIONS.
======================================
HOW   TO  IMPLEMENT  THE
RECRUITMENT  AND  SELECTION  PROCESS
IN  AN  ORGANIZATION


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROCESS   ELEMENTS        FOR  ALL  POSITIONS       
---------------------------------------------!------------!----------------------
STEP  1

PREPARING  JOB ANALYSES
PREPARING JOB  DESC          
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  2

PREPARING JOB SPECS          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  3

DECIDING TERMS AND          
CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT
[ MEETS  ALL GOVERNMENT  REGULATION  ON EMPLOYMENT CONDITIONS]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  4

ADVERTISING          
[COPY/MEDIA PLAN]          except  for senior positions [ head hunting]
[ MUST REFLECT TRUTH, NO  FALSE  INFORMATION,
 NO  GENDER  BIAS, NO DISCRIMINATION,NO AGE BAR, ETC]

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP 5

INTERNAL APPLICANT          
EXTERNAL APPLICANT          except for tech [ outsourcing ]
ONLINE APPLICANT          and senior positions [ head hunting]  
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  6

SIFTING APPLICATIONS          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  7

PERSONAL INTERVIEW
-INDIVIDUAL PER TO PER          
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  8

-PANEL INTERVIEW          
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------          
STEP  9

-SELECTION BOARD          only for  senior positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  10

TESTING [ BEHAVIORAL]
-PSYCHOLOGICAL     procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-PERSONALITY          procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-ABILITY          procedural element for all positions  except senior position          
-APTITUDE          procedural element for all positions except senior position          
-PSYCHOMETRIC          procedural element for all positions          
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  11

TESTING [ TECHNICAL ]        only for  tech. positions
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  12

ASSESSMENT CENTRE        only  for   senior  positions          
-POTENTIAL
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  13

OBTAINING REFERENCE        procedural element for all positions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  14

CHECKING REFERENCE        procedural element for all positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  15

MAKING DECISION          procedural element for all positions    
[ NO  DISCRIMINATION, NO COLOR BAR, NO SEX DISCRIMINATION,
PURELY  ON  MERIT ]

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  16

OFFERING  EMPLOYMENT    procedural element for all positions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP   17

PREPARING EMPLOYMENT       procedural element for all positions    
LETTER
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  18

-HR  sends  out  letters  to  the  unsuccessful  candidates.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  19

-HR  CHECKS  REFERENCES.

[ ABIDE  BY  LAW ]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  20

-HR  SENDS  OUT  OFFER  LETTERS  TO  SUCCESSFUL  CANDIDATES.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  21

-THE  LINE  MANAGERS  /  AGREE  TO  THE  START DATE
AND  INDUCTION  PROGRAMME.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  22

PERSONAL FILE  CREATION

-HR  CREATES  ''PERSONAL  FILE ''.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  23

HANDOVER  TO  HR /  ADMINISTRATION
-THE  LINE  MANAGER  HANDS  OVER  THE  RESPONSIBILITY
FOR  PAYROLL  ADMIN  AND  INDUCTION  TO  HR.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  24

-HR  PREPARES   WELCOME  PACK / EMPLOYEE  MANUAL.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STEP  25

ARCHIVING  OF  APPOINTMENT  FILES.

-HR  ARCHIVES  SELECTED  CANDIDATES  FILE.

-HR  DESTROYS  UNSUCCESSFUL   CANDIDATES  FILES
AFTER    6  MONTHS.

[ BY  LAW,  ALL  OLD  FILES  MUST  BE  DESTROYED  ]
=======================================================
This procedure is intended to give staff and management  of
organisations clear and straightforward guidance on recruiting potential
employees on a fair and equitable basis. It will help you to:

*recruit and select the best candidate for every vacancy;
ensure that access to employment opportunity is based on fair, objective
and consistent criteria;
*identify discriminatory practices;
*monitor and measure the effectiveness of your recruitment practices, and
*increase your overall professionalism in the recruitment & selection
process.

==================================================

This procedure complies with:

Equal Opportunities

Equal opportunities is about far more than simply making sure the employer
does not fall foul of anti-discrimination legislation. Discrimination is most
simply defined as treating a person less favourably because the person belongs
to a particular group.

An organisation committed to equality will want to be clear that it recognises
and welcomes diversity amongst the workforce, and that the workforce itself is
reflective of the population from which it is drawn and the geographical area in
which service is delivered.

DISCRIMINATION
Current law prohibits discriminating on the grounds of sex, race, colour, marital
status, nationality, ethnic origins, disability and working time (i.e. part time
workers must receive equal treatment to full time staff). Employers who fall
foul of the law should appreciate that the financial penalties can be unlimited. It
will be an inadequate defence for employers to say they did not mean to
discriminate.

Legal requirements aside, many employers are taking a broader view and are
including statements to the effect that discrimination will not occur in relation to
age, sexual orientation, or religious groupings.

Discrimination can either be direct or indirect.

Direct discrimination occurs where the employer makes assumptions about the
characteristics and abilities of a person belonging to a particular group. For
example, a business, which deliberately avoided recruiting women to work in its
maintenance squad on the assumption that women would not be strong enough,
would be guilty of direct discrimination. Direct discrimination is almost always
unlawful.



Indirect discrimination can be harder to recognise. It is found in situations
where employers apply conditions to various people, but these have a
disproportionate effect on members of a particular group. For example it would
be likely be indirect discrimination were an employer to insist that support for
staff training costs is only to be available to employees with ten years unbroken
service. Again taking women as an example, it could be argued that they would
be less likely to be able to achieve this given their greater likelihood to take
career breaks to have and raise children.

In specific circumstances the employer may be able to justify indirect
discrimination so as to make it lawful, as long as the employer can satisfy two
tests:
That there was a solid reason for the discriminatory criteria applied
That the reason the criteria were introduced was not related to sex or race
of the employee concerned.
These tests are interpreted strictly and employers should avoid any attempt to
construct circumstances in order to justify discrimination that has occurred.

SEX
Sex discrimination law protects both men and women and the scope of
legislation is often interpreted fairly widely. Any less favourable treatment,
which cannot be justified, on grounds of sex is discriminatory and thus
unlawful.
A few obvious exceptions, known as .Genuine Occupational Qualifications. are
written into this legislation to cover situation where consideration of decency
and privacy might arise. For example care staff in single sex hostels offering
high-level support to residents may need to be drawn from members of the same
sex. Again these criteria are very tightly enforced and should not be introduced
frivolously in order to get round discrimination claims.

Whilst protecting married people against discrimination,  law does not offer
similar protection to single persons. Notwithstanding this the  Equal
Treatment Directive does include single people and it would therefore be good
practice for employers to treat single people similarly and ensure, for example,
that any benefits of employment available to spouses are similarly open to
partners.

RACE
Protection under legislation covers all racial groups and so white people are
afforded the same cover as those from black, Asian and other groups. Both
direct and indirect discrimination is covered under this legislation and both are
prohibited with racial harassment being seen as direct discrimination.
Some aspects of indirect discriminatory practice may be, for example, an
employer insisting on a dress code that is at odds with dress requirements of a
group covered such as Sikhs and the wearing of headgear.

DISABILITY
This more recent piece of legislation makes it unlawful to discriminate against
people with disabilities. In an employment context it only applies to
organisations with 15 or more staff.
Under the legislation disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment,
which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on a person.s normal dayto-
day activities. Substantial is taken to mean more than trivial or minor, and
long term means having lasted or likely to last 12 months or more.
Disability discrimination law differs from Race and Sex in that there is no use
of the two concepts of direct and indirect discrimination. Instead it is unlawful
to offer less favourable treatment to disabled people . unless it can be justified.
There also falls upon employers a duty to consider making reasonable
adjustments in order to assist people with disabilities gain equal access to all
employment benefits that are available to the general body of staff.


POLICY COVERAGE
Equal opportunities complaints most commonly arise at the recruitment stage.
However organisation should ensure that a framework of equal opportunity is
actively designed into all its employment policies and that commitment to such
principles is featured in the Job Descriptions of its senior managers.
There are three statutory bodies that are happy to offer advice to employers:
The Equal Opportunities Commission
The Commission for Racial Equality
The Disability Rights Commission

===================================================
############################


2. Examine the techniques of making selection decisions



A. Explain Employee Tests
B. Describe Job Interviews
C. Employment Tests
D. Administration of selection tests:

A personnel testing is a valuable way to measure individual characteristics. Hundreds of tests have been developed to measure various dimensions of behavior. The tests measure mental abilities, knowledge, physical abilities, personality, interest, temperament, and other attitudes and behaviors. Evidence suggests that the use of tests is becoming more prevalent for assessing an applicant’s qualifications and potential for
success. Tests are used more in the public sector than in the private sector and in medium-sized and large companies than in small companies. Large organizations are likely to have trained specialists to run their testing programs.
• Advantages and disadvantages of using tests:
Selection testing can be a reliable and accurate means of selecting qualified candidates from a pool of applicants. As with all selection procedures, it is important to identify the essential functions of each job and determine the skills needed to perform them.
• Potential Problems Using Selection Tests
Selection tests may accurately predict an applicant’s ability to perform the job, but they are less successful in indicating the extent to which the individual will want to perform it. Another potential problem, related primarily to personality tests and interest inventories, has to do with applicants’ honesty. Also there is the problem of test anxiety. Applicants often become quite anxious when confronting yet another hurdle that might eliminate them from consideration.
II. Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests
Properly designed selection tests are standardized, objective, based on sound norms, reliable and—of
utmost importance—valid.
1. Standardization: Refers to the uniformity of the procedures and conditions related to administering tests. It is necessary for all to take the test under conditions that are as close to identical as possible.
2. Objectivity: Achieved when all individuals scoring a given test obtain the same results.
3. Norms: Provide a frame of reference for comparing applicants’ performance with that of others. A norm reflects the distribution of scores obtained by many people similar to the applicant being tested. The prospective employee’s test score is compared to the norm, and the significance of the test score is determined.
4. Reliability: The extent to which a selection test provides consistent results. If a test has low reliability, its validity as a predictor will also be low. To validate reliability, a test must be verified.
5. Validity: The extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure. If a test cannot indicate ability to perform the job, it has no value as a predictor.
• Types of Validation Studies
There three main approaches that may be followed to validate selection tests: criterion-related validity, content validity, and construct validity.
a. Criterion-Related Validity
It is determined by comparing the scores on selection tests to some aspect of job performance. A close relationship between the score on the test and job performance suggests the test is valid.
b. Content Validity
It is a test validation method whereby a person performs certain tasks that are actually required by the job or completes a paper-and-pencil test that measures relevant job knowledge.
c. Construct Validity
It is a test validation method to determine whether a test measures certain traits or qualities that are
important in performing the job. However, traits or qualities such as teamwork, leadership, and planning or organization ability must first be carefully identified through job analysis.
III. Types Of Employment Tests
Individuals differ in characteristics related to job performance. These differences, which are measurable, relate to cognitive abilities, psychomotor abilities, job knowledge, work samples, vocational interests, and personality. Various tests measure these differences.
a. Cognitive Aptitude Tests
It measures an individual’s ability to learn, as well as to perform a job. Job-related abilities may be classified as verbal, numerical, perceptual speed, spatial, and reasoning.
b. Psychomotor Abilities Tests
This type of test is used to measure strength, coordination, and dexterity. It is feasible to measure many abilities that are involved in many routine production jobs and some office jobs.
c. Job Knowledge Tests
This sort of test is designed to measure a candidate’s knowledge of the duties of the position for which he or she is applying.
d. Work-Sample Tests (Simulations)
It identifies a task or set of tasks that are representative of the job. The evidence concerning these tests, to date, is that they produce high predictive validity, reduce adverse impact, and are more acceptable to applicants.
e. Vocational Interest Tests
It indicates the occupation in which a person is most interested and is most likely to receive satisfaction.
f. Personality Tests
It is a selection tools, personality tests have not been as useful as other types of tests. They are often characterized by low reliability and low validity. Because some personality tests emphasize subjective interpretation, the services of a qualified psychologist are required.
g. Drug and Alcohol Testing
Basic purpose of the drug-testing programs contends that it is necessary to ensure workplace safety, security, and productivity.
h. Genetic Testing
As genetic research progresses, confirmed links between specific gene mutations and diseases are emerging.
Genetic testing can now determine whether a person carries the gene mutation for certain diseases, including heart disease, colon cancer, breast cancer, and Huntington’s disease.
i. Honest Test/Polygraph Tests
For many years, another means used to verify background information has been the polygraph, or lie detector, test. One purpose of the polygraph was to confirm or refute the information contained in the application blank. Special tests have been constructed to measure the orientation of the individuals toward the issue of the honesty and personal integrity. Honesty tests are the most frequently used psychological tests in industry. These tests contain questions regarding such situations as whether a person who has taken company merchandise should be trusted in another job that involves handling company money. Anindividual’s response to the test statements indicates the individual’s attitudes towards theft, embezzlement, and dishonest practices. Extensive research has shown that some of these instruments not only produce reliable information that validly predicts dishonest behavior, but that they also are free from biases of age, race, and sex. These honesty tests represent a valuable selection tool for choosing employees who willoccupy positions that involve handling company money.


j. Internet Testing
The Internet is increasingly being used to test various skills required by applicants.
B. Job Interviews
THE EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW: Interview is a goal-oriented conversation in which the interviewer and applicant exchange information. The employment interview is especially significant because the applicants who reach this stage are considered to be the most promising candidates.
I. Interview Planning
Interview planning is essential to effective employment interviews. The physical location of the interview should be both pleasant and private, providing for a minimum of interruptions. The interviewer should possess a pleasant personality, empathy and the ability to listen and communicate effectively. He or she should become familiar with the applicant’s qualifications by reviewing the data collected from other selection tools. In preparing for the interview, a job profile should be developed based on the job description.


II. Content of The Interview
The specific content of employment interviews varies greatly by organization and the level of the job concerned.
1. Occupational experience: Exploring an individual’s occupational experience requires determining the applicant’s skills, abilities, and willingness to handle responsibility.
2. Academic achievement: In the absence of significant work experience, a person’s academic background takes on greater importance.
3. Interpersonal skills: If an individual cannot work well with other employees, chances for success are slim. This is especially true in today’s world with increasing emphasis being placed on the use of teams.
4. Personal qualities: Personal qualities normally observed during the interview include physical appearance, speaking ability, vocabulary, poise, adaptability, and assertiveness.
5. Organizational fit: A hiring criterion that is not prominently mentioned in the literature is organizational fit. Organizational fit is ill-defined but refers to management’s perception of the degree to which the prospective employee will fit
in with, for example, the firm’s culture or value system.
III. Types of Interviews
Interviews may be classified in two types by the degree to which they are structured.
a. The Unstructured (Nondirective) Interview
Unstructured interview is an interview where probing, open-ended questions are asked. This type of interview is comprehensive, and the interviewer encourages the applicant to do much of the talking.
b. The Structured (Directive Or Patterned) Interview
An interview consisting of a series of job-related questions that are asked consistently of each applicant for a particular job is known as structured interview. A structured interview typically contains four types of questions.
1. Situational questions: Pose a hypothetical job situation to determine what the applicant would do in that situation.
2. Job knowledge questions: Probe the applicant’s job-related knowledge.
3. Job-sample simulation questions: Involve situations in which an applicant may be actually required to perform a sample task from the job.
4. Worker requirements questions: Seek to determine the applicant’s willingness to conform to the requirements of the job.
c. Behavior Description Interviewing
A structured interview that uses questions designed to probe the candidate’s past behavior in specific situations. It avoids making judgments about applicants’ personalities and avoids hypothetical and self evaluative questions. Benchmark answers derived from behaviors of successful employees are prepared for use in rating applicant responses. Questions asked in behavior description interviewing are legally safe because they are job related.
IV. Methods of Interviewing
Interviews may be conducted in several ways.
a. One-On-One Interview
In a typical employment interview, the applicant meets one-on-one with an interviewer. As the interview may be a highly emotional occasion for the applicant, meeting alone with the interviewer is often less threatening.
b. Group Interview
Several applicants interact in the presence of one or more company representatives.
c. Board Interview
One candidate is interviewed by several representatives of the firm.
d. Stress Interview
Intentionally creates anxiety to determine how an applicant will react to stress on the job.
V. Realistic Job Previews
RJP Conveys job information to the applicant in an unbiased manner, including both positive and negative factors
VI. Legal Implications of Interviewing
Because the interview is considered to be a test, it is subject to the same validity requirements as any other step in the selection process, should adverse impact be shown. For the interview, this constraint presents special difficulties.
VII. How To Avoid Common Interviewing Mistakes
Snap judgments
a. Snap Judgments:
This is where the interviewer jumps to a conclusion about the candidate during the first few minutes of
the interview. Using a structured interview is one way to help avoid this, as well as properly training the interviewers.
b. Negative Emphasis:
When an interviewer has received negative information about the candidate, through references or other sources, he or she will almost always view the candidate negatively. The best way to avoid this is to keep  references or other information from the interviewer. If possible, have different people do the reference checks and the interviews and not share the information until afterwards.
c. Poor Knowledge of Job:
When interviewers do not have a good understanding of the job requirements, they do not make good selections of candidates. All interviewers should clearly understand the jobs and know what is needed for success in those jobs.


d. Pressure to Hire:
Anytime an interviewer is told that he or she must hire a certain number of people within a short time frame, poor selection decisions may be made. This type of pressure should be avoided whenever possible.
e. Candidate Order
(Contrast) Error: When an adequate candidate is preceded by either an outstanding, or a poor candidate, by contrast he or she looks either less satisfactory or much better. This can be countered through interviewer training, allowing time between interviews, and structured interviews with structured rating forms.
f. Influence of Nonverbal Behavior:
Candidates who exhibit stronger nonverbal behavior such as eye contact and energy level are perceived as stronger by the interviewers. This can be minimized through interviewer training and structured interviews.
VIII. Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
1. Plan the interview.
2. Establish rapport.
3. Ask questions.
HR in Practice gives do’s and don’ts of interview questions.
4. Close the interview.
5. Review the interview.
Key Terms
Standardization: Refers to the uniformity of the procedures and conditions related to administering tests.
It is necessary for all to take the test under conditions that are as close to identical as possible.
Objectivity: Achieved when all individuals scoring a given test obtain the same results.
Norms: Provide a frame of reference for comparing applicants’ performance with that of others. A norm
reflects the distribution of scores obtained by many people similar to the applicant being tested. The
prospective employee’s test score is compared to the norm, and the significance of the test score is
determined.
Reliability: The extent to which a selection test provides consistent results. If a test has low reliability, its
validity as a predictor will also be low. To validate reliability, a test must be verified.
Validity: The extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure. If a test cannot indicate ability to
perform the job, it has no value as a predictor.
Snap Judgments: This is where the interviewer jumps to a conclusion about the candidate during the first
few minutes of the interview.
Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests

1. Standardization:
Refers to the uniformity of the procedures and conditions related to administering tests. It is necessary for all to take the test under conditions that are as close to identical as possible.
2. Objectivity:
Achieved when all individuals scoring a given test obtain the same results.
3. Norms:
Provide a frame of reference for comparing applicants’ performance with that of others. A norm reflects the distribution of scores obtained by many people similar to the applicant being teste
d. The prospective employee’s test score is compared to the norm, and the significance of the test score is determine
d.
4. Reliability:
The extent to which a selection test provides consistent results. If a test has low reliability, its validity as a predictor will also be low. To validate reliability, a test must be verifie
d.
5. Validity:
The extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure. If a test cannot indicate ability to perform the job, it has no value as a predictor.
See below for more information.
====================================
Application Forms
Application forms are a means of collecting written information about an applicant's education, work and non-work experiences, both past and present. Almost all organizations request applicants to complete an application form of some type. Application forms typically request information on an applicant's home address, last employer, previous work experience, education, military service, and other information pertinent to employment, such as names and addresses of references. The application form also serves as a guide for the employment interview.
############################
3. Explain how you would carry out a selection interview

The employment interview is a vehicle for information exchange between applicant and interviewer regarding an applicant's suitability and interest in a job the employer seeks to fill. Information provided in an applicant's application for employment can be probed more deeply in the interview, and other information relevant to an applicant's qualifications can be elicited. Since interviews can be rather flexible, any missing pieces of information about an applicant can be collected at this time.
Interview problems.
As a selection method, interviews are problematic. Research shows that interviews have good test-retest reliability (same interviewer twice) and good internal consistency reliability, but low inter-rater reliability (between different raters). The reason for low inter-rater reliability is that interviews are apt to be unstructured and subjective. A number of problems result from the unstructured nature of employment interviews. These include: (1) rater error; (2) talkative interviewer hampers collection of job-related information; (3) variance in questions asked of applicants during interview; 4) interviewer asks "trick" questions; (5) interviewer asks inappropriate questions relating to an applicant's race, religion, sex, national origin, and age.
Rater Error in Interviewing
Central tendency errors result in most applicants being rated as average. Leniency and strictness errors, on the other hand, result in most applicants being given either uniformly high or uniformly low ratings. The halo effect has the result of an applicant being seen as generally good or bad because one characteristic of the applicant overshadows all others. Contrast effects may occur if an average applicant is rated more highly than he or she deserves because he or she is interviewed after several poor applicants. Stereotyping is the tendency to compare applicants with one's stereotype of the "ideal" applicant.
Improving employment interviews.
The value of the employment interview as a selection method will increase if these guidelines are followed:
1. A structured interview guide containing questions for applicants should be used to increase the reliability of interviews.
2. Interviewers should be given complete job descriptions and job specifications for each job for which they are interviewing. This tends to reduce interviewer bias because actual requirements are spelled out in detail.
3. Interviewers should be trained in interviewing and know how to avoid errors such as talking too much and making hasty judgments.
4. Interviewers should be trained to deal with all applicants, regardless of level of qualifications, since the interview is also a public relations vehicle.
5. Interviewers should receive special instructions in properly and legally interviewing women and minorities.
Tests of Abilities, Aptitudes, and Skills
Tests used for screening applicants on the basis of skills, abilities, and aptitudes can be classified as either paper and pencil tests or job sample tests. Both kinds are scored, and minimum scores are established to screen applicants. The "cut-off" score can be raised or lowered depending on the number of applicants. If selection ratios are low, the cut-off score can be raised, thereby increasing the odds of hiring well-qualified employees.
Tests should be selected only after thorough and careful job analysis. For example, examination of a job description for an auto mechanic would probably show that manipulation of parts and pieces relative to one another and the ability to perceive geometric relationships between physical objects were required. These abilities are a part of a construct called mechanical aptitude. Various parts of mechanical aptitude can be measured using either paper and pencil or job sample tests.
Job sample tests, which require applicants to demonstrate specific job duties, can also be used to measure mechanical ability. For example, applicants for a mechanic's job could be asked to locate and fix a number of things wrong with a car or truck. Organizations can develop their own job sample tests. Closely related to job sample tests are job simulation exercises that place an applicant in a simulated job situation to see how well he or she can cope.
Personality Test
People often believe that certain jobs require unique personalities or temperaments. For example, an accountant may be thought of as conservative, meticulous, and quiet, while a used-car salesman may be pictured as aggressive, flashy, and smooth talking. While it is probably true that some "types" of people occupy certain jobs, there is little evidence that people must have a specific personality type to be successful at a particular type of job. It is more common that the job itself shapes the job holder's behavior, and people stereotype others by their job behavior.
Nonetheless, there are two general types of personality test which are sometimes used in selection decisions. These are self-report personality tests and projective techniques. These personality measures have been used most often in the selection of candidates for managerial positions. They are also frequently used as part of assessment centers, which are a popular method of identifying potential managerial talent.
Personality measures are not likely to be useful selection instruments for a number of reasons. First, it is difficult to demonstrate that personality characteristics are job relevant. Job specifications usually focus on skills and abilities needed for a job rather than on personality traits. Personality measures are designed to measure specific personality constructs, not typical behavior patterns associated with a job. Second, personality tests are generally less reliable than ability tests. Although an applicant's low ability may allow an interviewer to conclude with certainty that the applicant could not perform a job, one can almost never reach such a conclusion based on a low score on a personality measure.

PREPARE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
The aim of any interview is to collect as much information as possible from the candidate to allow the appointing committee to assess their suitability for the role.
Prior to the interview taking place the appointing committee should meet and agree
•   The questions that each member of the appointing committee will ask and the order in which they asked, so that the interview is structured and there is no duplication
•   The weighting of each element of the selection process, based on the further particulars
•   The areas of each individual application that need to be explored in more detail during the interview
The basis of the interview should be a series of core questions that should be asked of all applicants and there will be more general questions covering non-specific areas.
Some example core questions might be:
•   Why did you apply for this position?
•   Why do you want to work at the University of Stirling?
•   What key skills and experience can you bring to this position?
Some example questions designed to probe areas of skill and expertise might be:
•   Can you give me an example of a situation where you have had to work unsupervised?
•   Can you tell me about a team that you had to lead and what was the most challenging part of that role?
If the role for which has been identified as requiring pre-employment medical checks to be undertaken and the person specification has been written accordingly, question(s) should be asked as to whether the candidate has any medical conditions that would prevent them from undertaking any of the duties. For further information please see the guidance on pre-employment medical checks.
Interview Questioning Techniques
It is important that the questions you ask at interview have been prepared beforehand. This ensures that there is no duplication and also that there is consistent information gathered on each candidate to allow a platform from which to make a selection decision. Questions should be designed to clarify and investigate information provided in the application form and CV, and should be directly related to the criteria already used in the further particulars and the short list exercise. When phrasing questions try to ensure that the candidates give evidence based answers.
You should aim to use the following questioning techniques:
•   Open questions: these questions encourage the candidate to give a detailed response. Generally you would introduce a question using words such as “why”, “how”, “please explain” and “can you describe”.
•   Probing questions: these questions allow you to gather more information on specific points in more detail. An example might be “When you were managing your team what aspects of this role did you most enjoy and why?”
•   Analytical questions: these questions try to elicit evidence of the candidate’s ability to assess situations in an analytical way. An example might be “How did you assess the priority?”
•   Closed/factual questions: these questions can be used to get specific information. An example might be “How many times a year did you hold team meetings?”
You should avoid using the following questions:
•   Leading questions: these are questions where you encourage the candidate to answer in a certain way. An example might be “I see that you have recently completed a leadership course. Did you do it to help you move into a management role?”
•   Multiple questions: this is where you ask several questions at once. These can be confusing and make the candidate uncomfortable, as they cannot remember everything that was asked. An example might be “Can you tell me when you started being responsible for teams and what you found the most challenging part of that role?”
•   Hypothetical questions: this is where the interviewer describes a made up situation and asks the candidate to describe how they would behave in that situation. The candidate may not be able to imagine the situation and their answer is not likely to be how they would really behave.
•   Discriminatory questions: any questions about personal and domestic circumstances or childcare are potentially discriminatory. An example might be “I see that you have two children, will the shift work be a problem for you?” If you have a role that has a pattern outside the standard one, you should explain the requirements to all candidates to make sure that they are aware of it.
The Recruiting Manager is responsible for:
•   Make the offer of employment to the successful candidate – the initial offer can be verbal with the formal offer being made in writing by the HR and OD Department
•   Ensuring that all unsuccessful applicants receive written communication and feedback, if requested. If appropriate, consult with your HRP before giving feedback
•   Authorising expenses submitted by interview candidates
•   Completion and Authorisation of Staff Appointment Form
•   Liaising throughout the process with the HR and OD Department
•   Updating Talentlink
ENSURING THE SUCCESSFUL CANDIDATE IS/WILL BE ELIGIBLE TO CARRY OUT THIS WORK
Work Permits
If the recruiting department wishes to appoint a candidate that is a national of a non-EEA country, a Certificate of Sponsorship may be required. The department will be issued with a form to complete that will provide HR with information regarding the candidate and the recruitment process with written justification for employing a non-EU national, i.e. why all EU candidates were not appointable. The criteria for issuing a Certificate of Sponsorship are as follows:
•   The job is in a ‘designated shortage’ occupation
•   It passes the Resident Labour Market Test (RLMT)
•   The job is at NVQ3 level or above
•   Minimum salary levels are met
It is essential to the application that the vacancy has been advertised
•   nationally and through the JobCentre for a minimum of a month.
Applicants cannot apply for a work permit on their own behalf; a Certificate of Sponsorship will be applied for by HR, on behalf of the University. If a Certificate of Sponsorship is approved, the individual must then apply for entry clearance/ leave to remain through the UK Border Agency and provide personal evidence of competence in English and ongoing maintenance.
The process can take up to three months and staff cannot under any circumstances be employed until permission is given. Successful candidates already in the UK should be advised not to make any travel arrangements while the work permit application is being considered.
Once the successful candidate has both a work permit and entry clearance, he/she may travel to the UK to take up employment.
For more detailed information about current immigration regulations please go to the UK Border Agency
Nationality Check
Under the Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Act 2006, the University has a legal responsibility to ensure that all employees are eligible to live and work in the UK. Under sections 15-25 of the Act employers are required to make document checks on every person they intend to employ.
Therefore, before the successful candidate commences work, the University must confirm their eligibility to live and work in the UK. To confirm eligibility candidates should be asked to bring certain original documents to their interview and a copy will be taken. Departments should be satisfied that the potential employee is the rightful holder of the documents presented and the documents allow them to do the work that is offered. The following steps should be taken;
You must carry out the following reasonable steps when checking all of the documents presented to you by a potential employee:
•   check any photographs, where available, to ensure that you are satisfied they are consistent with the appearance of your potential employee;
•   check the dates of birth listed so that you are satisfied these are consistent with the appearance of your potential employee;
•   check that the expiry dates have not been passed;
•   check any United Kingdom Government stamps or endorsements to see if your potential employee is able to do the type of work you are offering;
•   if your potential employee gives you two documents from List 2 which have different names, you should ask them for a further document to explain the reason for this. The further document could be a marriage certificate, divorce document, deed poll, adoption certificate or statutory declaration.
•   You should make a photocopy of the following parts of all documents shown to you:
•   the front cover and all of the pages which give your potential employee’s personal details. In particular, you should copy the page with the photograph and the page which shows his or her signature; and
•   any page containing a United Kingdom Government stamp or endorsement which allows your potential employee to do the type of work you are offering.
You should keep a record of every document you have copied and pass to HR Services in order for this to be out on the employee's file. By doing this the Immigration Service will be able to examine your right to the defense if they detect anyone working illegally for you:
Once you have checked and copied documents, you should write on them ‘copies of original documents seen by [Name] on [Date]’ before they are placed on the individuals file.
All offers of employment are made subject to verification of eligibility to work in the UK.
If the successful candidate is not already eligible to live and work in the UK, and they meet government set criteria, the University of Stirling may offer to apply for a Certificate of Sponsorship (previously Work Permit). The UK Border Agency will then consider this application alongside the person’s ability to meet other requirements and they will determine their eligibility to live and work in the UK.
INFORMING UNSUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES
At the short listing meeting you will identify candidates who don’t meet the criteria outlined in the further particulars document. These candidates should be notified as soon as possible that they have been unsuccessful in their application through Talentlink.
The standard regret email on Talentlink is short and does not give detail of reasons for not appointing, although this information should be supplied if subsequently requested. For internal applicants it is good practice to advise the reasons for not appointing.
If an unsuccessful applicant requests feedback on the reasons for no selection at shortlist or interview stage, they should be advised to put this request in writing and receive a response in writing to avoid misinterpretation of content.
All panel members must agree on the feedback given, and where appropriate your HRP can review the feedback before it is sent out. Feedback will normally be provided by the Chairperson.
The feedback must be accurate, unbiased and relate to the criteria that have been advertised in the advert and further particulars and used for the selection grid. The feedback should identify the areas where the candidate did not demonstrate the skills, knowledge or experience required for the role and what areas might be improved to gain more experience in relation to the selection criteria.
Never feed back on points that were not discussed during the selection process and on points that are not linked to the defined criteria.
Candidates have the right to access information recorded about them during the selection process including notes kept at the interview process.
############################  

Management Consulting

All Answers


Answers by Expert:


Ask Experts

Volunteer


Leo Lingham

Expertise

management consulting process, management consulting career, management development, human resource planning and development, strategic planning in human resources, marketing, careers in management, product management etc

Experience

18 years working managerial experience covering business planning, strategic planning, corporate planning, management service, organization development, marketing, sales management etc

PLUS

24 years in management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing , product management,
human resource management, management training, business coaching,
counseling etc

Organizations
PRINCIPAL -- BESTBUSICON Pty Ltd

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

©2016 About.com. All rights reserved.