hello sir ,
can you kindly explain me following aspect ?
what mean by role of ethics in behaviour modification ?
role of ethics in behaviour modification
Behavior modification is the application of principles of conditioning to the everyday world. In some sense, all of us are behavior modifiers. But, we may not be aware that we are. For example, suppose you pick up your newborn every time you hear a cry. Soon, you will notice an increase in crying. Why? That child has learned that crying will be reinforced. Parents have to learn to extinguish their infants' crying by not picking them up.
Behavior modification is also the name given to intentional efforts to modify behavior. They can be as simple as placing objects that need to be taken somewhere in a prominent position. For instance, I put all of the materials I will need for a class on the floor in the doorway of my office. Then, when I leave for class, I have to step over them. Stepping over those materials reminds me to take them. Or, they are a discriminative stimulus for my behavior of picking them up. Or, sometimes my chair will give me a note for a student in my next class. I put the note under the clip of my pen on the outside of my shirt. When I get to class someone will ask me why I have a piece of paper attached to my shirt. Then, I deliver the note.
Behavior modification can also be used in schools and other settings to promote or to discourage certain behaviors. For example, giving elementary students a gold star for certain behaviors is behavior modification. The gold star is a secondary reinforcer . A more complicated form of behavior modification is the token economy. A hypothetical set of token economy rules is given in one of the handouts. The tokens are also secondary reinforcers because they can be "cashed in" in for other reinforcers. Certain types of therapy are explicitly based on behavior modification. They include systematic desensitization, flooding, and aversion therapy.
An ethical issue surrounds behavior modification.
That issue revolves around its use with certain groups. For example, few question the right of parents to modify their children's behavior. However, do we have the right to apply behavior modification everywhere and anywhere? If people ask to change, then there is usually no problem. But if we apply behavior modification to people who do not want to change, that is an altogether different situation. For example, prisoners who are asked to volunteer for violence-reduction training may do so because they know it will likely lead to early parole. So, they are not really volunteers but are being coerced. Some, have expressed the fear of government control over people via behavior modification.
Behavior modification is the act of shaping how your employees behave in the workplace. Most managers practice behavior modification by using positive reinforcement to reward those who excel. For example, you might provide a year-end bonus or raise to those who've gone above and beyond. Warnings and suspension of employment are examples of behavior modification through negative reinforcement. If successful, these modification techniques encourage or discourage behaviors in the workplace. Ethical issues come into play when you consider possible adverse effects of behavior modification on other employees in the office and your own ability as a manager to use positive and negative reinforcement objectively.
The ethics of controlling others is perhaps the overarching ethical concern of behavior modification in the workplace. When you perform behavior modification, you are encouraging or even forcing an employee to behave in a way that might not be normal for her. In some instances, you might not see any ethical issues with modification. For example, writing up an employee who's consistently late might not seem to pose any issues. Forcing someone with specialized skills, however, to perform work that's not normal for her might cause unnecessary stress or anxiety, even if it benefits the company in the short term. Behavior modification should bring out the best in your employees as well as benefit the office.
Influencing selfishness or vicious competition among employees is a serious ethical concern in behavior modification. This issue is most obvious when it comes to negative reinforcement. If employees find you scolding or haranguing their co-workers for making mistakes, they might practice this behavior themselves on their colleagues, considering it a part of the workplace culture. Positive reinforcement can potentially cause counterproductive competitiveness, creating a culture of selfishness as opposed to one of altruism and teamwork. Consider rewarding your team as a group to offset these adverse effects.
Even the most well-meaning managers are capable of making decisions based on favoritism or discrimination. Whenever you punish or reward someone in your office, consider your own motives. Ask yourself if you're being fair. For example, if you're about to reward one of your employees with a raise, compare her performance to that of others in the office to prove that she's truly excelled. If you think the decision wouldn't be fair, it might be based on past experiences with similar people or even just a preference for her personality, which isn't relevant to her job performance.
Even if you think that your methods for behavior modification are fair, monitor and confront the perspectives of other women in the office. If you reward an employee with a promotion, others might feel jealous or that you based your decision on favoritism. Use positive and negative reinforcement strategically. In some cases, it might make more sense to be discreet about rewarding or punishing one of your employees to limit the amount of chatter and negative reactions your decision might cause.