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Question
1.   "As organizations become more global, HRP becomes more important and complex" - Elucidate.
2.   Design a process for promoting internal candidates. How does the process differ from the one used for selecting external applicants. State its impact on the satisfaction level of employees.   
3.   a) As a frontline supervisor, what indicators would you need in order to decide whether a low-performing subordinate was a selection mistake are merely needs training? Illustrate this dilemma with suitable examples.  
b) Many managers describe performance appraisal as the responsibility which they like the least. Why is this so? What could be done to change the perception?  
4.   Should central and state governments be able to legislate minimum wages rather than adopting a laissez-faire attitude that would allow employers operating on a slim profit margin to pay only what they could afford? Discuss.

Answer
HERE  IS  SOME  SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.
SOME  ANSWERS  HELD  BACK  DUE TO  SPACE CONSTRAINT.
PLEASE  FORWARD  THESE  BALANCE  QUESTIONS  TO  MY  EMAIL  ID   
leolingham2000@gmail.com.
I  will send  the balance  asap.
Regards
LEO  LINGHAM
==========================================

1.   "As organizations become more global, HRP becomes more important and complex" - Elucidate.
on a  political  map, country  borders  are clear  as  ever. But on the
competition  map, financial,trading, and  industrial activities  across
national  boundaries have  rendered  that  political borders increasingly
irrelevent.

Not only  firms  that compete internationally  but  also  those whose
primary  markets  is  considered domestic  will be   affected  by
competition  from  around  the  world.



Why Globalization?

To some the word "Globalization" may seem a clichι. To others, it may
appear an end in itself. Competitive pressures are creating the need for
most companies to become Global.

Globalization is one means for
becoming and remaining a world-class competitor — a goal encased in
the mission statements of most corporations.

When developing a globalization strategy, it is clear that the emerging
markets present the greatest opportunity. The growth projections for
Europe, Japan and the United States pale in comparison to some of the
emerging markets.

Emerging Markets
Throughout the emerging markets an unprecedented consumer market
boom is driving up demand for western-style goods and services. The
largest segment of consumers in these markets is a decade short of its
peak spending years. In India alone, sales of consumer goods are rising
at 14% per year, while China is growing at almost 20% per year.
Couple the consumer-spending boom with the still burgeoning need for
infrastructure improvements and you’ll have a range of opportunities that
extends into the trillions of dollars. Projects are planned or underway in
many of these countries to upgrade transportation and
telecommunication systems, explore energy resources, build power
generation facilities and provide health care facilities.


In addition, the privatization efforts are presenting an incredible range of
opportunities for investors, lending institutions, service providers and
manufacturers.


Four key trend  influence  emerging  market potential

There are four key trends that are influencing the emerging market
potential:
1. Demographics:
Overall world population growth is now concentrated in the
developing world. Where industrial nations are facing an
increasingly older population, the emerging markets remain
young. The developed world comprises only 11% of the world’s
population.

2. Governments:
Many countries that once relied on centrally planned economies
are becoming market-driven. Industries that governments
previously restricted to foreign companies are now opening to
foreign investment.

3. Communications:
Access to the emerging markets is increasing due to huge
developments in communications technology such as the Internet
and electronic commerce. Cyberspace represents a profound shift
in the nature of communications as well as our perception of
distance.

4. Urbanization:
As infrastructure improvements are made, urban growth in the
emerging markets will continue to explode.
Estimates indicate that the emerging markets' share of world imports will
double by the year 2010, rising to over 38%. Companies dazzled by the
magnitude of these numbers must be equipped with the appropriate
knowledge, information, and strategy to make its market forays
successful.




MACRO  LEVEL  Industry Globalization
   is  due  to  such  factors  as :

•   Level of international trade
•   Intensity of international competition
•   Worldwide product standardization
•   Presence of key competitors in all key international markets.
•   Intra-firm trade
•   Technological intensity
•   International linkages of value-added activities among countries
•   International integration of value-added activities among countries
•   WORLDWIDE  FREETRADE  AGREEMENTS
•   WORLDWIDE  ECONOMIC  REFORMS
•   WORLWIDE  FINANCIAL  REFORMS
•   REMOVAL  TARIFF  BARRIERS  BY  COUNTRIES
•   REMOVAL  OF  SUBSIDIES  COUNTRIES
•   
•   ETC  ETC
====================================================

THE  PUSH  FACTORS OF   GLOBALIZATION

Market Drivers

•   Per capita income converging among industrial nations
•   Convergence of lifestyles and taste
•   Growth of global and regional channels
•   Establishment of world brands
•   Spread of global and regional media


Cost Drivers

•   Continuing push for economies of scale ( but offset by flexible manufacturing)
•   Accelerating technological innovation
•   Advances in transportation (e.g., use of FedEx to deliver urgent supplies from one continent to another)
•   Emergence of newly industrializing countries with productive capability and low labor costs (e.g., China, India and Indonesia)


Government Drivers

•   Reduction of tariff barriers (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement)
•   Reduction of non-tariff barriers (e.g., Japan’s gradual opening of its markets)
•   Creation of trading blocs (e.g., European Union, and Euro Currency in 1999)
•   Strengthening of world trade institutions (e.g., formation of the World Trade Organization)


Competitive Drivers

•   Continuing increase in level of world trade
•   More countries becoming key competitive battlegrounds (e.g., rise of Japan to become a “lead” country)
•   Rise of new competitors intent upon becoming global competitors (e.g., Japanese firms in the 1970’s, Korean firms in the 1980’s, Taiwanese firms in the 1990’s, Chinese firms in the 2000s, and probably Indian and Russian firms in the 2010’s.


OTHER  FACTORS  WHICH   DRIVES  THE  GLOBALIZATION

•   In a Globalized industry, firms must simultaneously accomplish:
•   Global Scale Efficiency
•   Local Responsiveness
•   World-Wide Learning
=============================================
HOW  GLOBALIZATION   AFFECTS   THE  ENVIRONMENTS,
WHICH  IN  TURN   AFFECTS    THE  HR  ACTIVITIES.

Political (incl. Legal)   [ [Poltical] EST[Environment][Legal] ]

==========================================
-Tax policies
what tax  hinder the business and what  taxes  incentives  are available]

[ if  the  tax  policies are  liberal / incentivated,  businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
-MORE  CHANGE  MANAAGEMENT
-MORE  Organization Development    PROGRAMS
-MORE  Organization culture  change  programs
========================================

-International trade regulations and restrictions
[ does  the  government    encourage  exports / with  high tariffs  on  imports]

[ if  the  exports  policies  are  liberal / incentivated,  businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[ if  the import  policies  are  liberal / incentivated,  local  mfg. businesses  will  
contract ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-less  RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE TRAINING  to improve  efficiency / productivity  

======================================================
-Employment laws]
[ is the  government    encouraging  skilled  immigrants  with  temp. permits]

[if the government  relaxes the  rules on  skilled  migrants,
which  means  the impact  on  HR

-EMPHASIS  WILL  BE   ON FOREIGN   RECRUITMENTS.
-DEVELOPMENT  OF  OVERSEAS  CONTRACTS
-TRAINING  FOR THE  INCOMING  STAFF  ON   LOCAL CULTURE.
-TRAINING  FOR  MANAGERS   TO  MANAGE  DIVERSITY

=======================================================


Economic     [P[Economics][Social]TEL ]

-Economic growth
[  what  is  the economic growth rate  /  what  are  the  reasons ]

[ if  the  economy  is on growth path,  businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
-COMPENSATION  NEEDS  REVISION
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[ if  the  economy  contracts/demand  drops,  businesses  will  reduce
volume ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-less  RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE TRAINING   TO  IMPROVE  EFFICIENCY/PRODUCTIVITY
-MORE INCENTIVATES   FOR   PRODUCTIVITY  GAIN

===================================================
-Interest rates & monetary policies
[ are  the  interest  rates    under control /  is there   a  sound  monetary  policies]

[ if  the  interest  rate  goes down/ the monetary  policies  are liberal,  
as the  demand  goes  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[ if  the  interest  rate  goes  up ,  the demand  will  go  down
 businesses   will  downsize / cut cost  
 which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-less  RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE TRAINING  for   efficiency / productivity  improvements
-EMPHASIS   WILL  BE  FOR  ''PAY  FOR  PERFORMANCE''.

===================================================
-Government spending
[is  government  spending  is  significant   and  is it   under control ]

[ if  the  government  increases  the  spending  on  infrastructures etc,
the  demand  goes  up  , businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
==================================================
-Unemployment policy
[what  is  the  employment / unemployment  policies  of the government ]
=====================================================
-Taxation
[  has  the  taxation    encouraged  the  industry ]

[ if  the  taxation policies encouraged  the  industry,  businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
=======================================================


-Consumer confidence
[ is  the  consumer  confidence   is   high/ strong and  if  not, why ]

[ as  the  consumer  confidence  goes up, more jobs are created,
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING

==================================================

Social  [ PE[Social]TEL ]

-Income distribution
[is there   balanced   income  distribution   policy ]

[ as  the  income level  goes  up and  income  distribution  improves,  
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
==================================================

-Demographics, Population growth rates, Age distribution
[ what  is   population   growth  and  why ]

[ as  the  population  level  goes  up and  age  distribution  improves,  
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
====================================================

-Lifestyle changes
[ are  there  significant  lifestyle   changes     taking  place--more  modernization/ why  ]

[ as  the  life style   goes  up and  more modernization   improvements,  
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
=========================================================

-Work/career and leisure attitudes
[ are  the  population      career  minded  and  are  seeking  better  lifestyle]

[ as  the  income level  goes  up and   workers  attitudes  changes,  
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
==================================================
-Education
[ what  are  the  education  policies /  is  it  successful ]

[ as  the  education level  goes  up and  income  distribution  improves,  
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
=======================================================

-Living conditions
[ is the  living  conditions   improving  fast  and  spreading  rapidly]

[ as  the  income level  goes  up and  living  conditions  improves,  
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
=========================================================
Technological  [  PES [Technology] EL]

==================================================
Industry focus on technological effort
[are  the   industries    focused  on  using  improved  technology]

[ as  the  industry  focuses  on  technology, more jobs are created,
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
-MORE  TECHNICAL  TRAINING
-MORE  CHANGE  MANAAGEMENT
-MORE  Organization Development    PROGRAMS
-MORE  Organization culture  change  programs

========================================================
New inventions and development
[ are  new  inventions     being   encouraged  for  developments]

[ as  more  inventions are brought  out, more jobs are created,
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
-MORE  TECHNICAL  TRAINING
-MORE  CHANGE  MANAAGEMENT
-MORE  Organization Development    PROGRAMS
-MORE  Organization culture  change  programs

======================================================
Rate of technology transfer
[ is  the  rate  of  technology  transfer  is  speeding  up ]

[ as  the  rate of  technology  transfer  speeds up, more jobs are created,
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
-MORE   TECHNICAL  TRAINING
-MORE  CHANGE  MANAAGEMENT
-MORE  Organization Development    PROGRAMS
-MORE  Organization culture  change  programs

=======================================================
(Changes in) Information Technology
[ is  the   information  technology    rapidly  moving  and  is  there  government  support]

[ as  the  IT  usage  increases, more jobs are created,
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ,  which means  the  impact  on   HR  

-MORE RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION
-MORE  INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
-MORE TRAINING
-MORE  TECHNICAL  TRAINING
-MORE  CHANGE  MANAAGEMENT
-MORE  Organization Development    PROGRAMS
-MORE  Organization culture  change  programs

===========================================================
FOR  EACH  OF  THE  ELEMENTS,  

-I HAVE  SHOWN  THE  POSITIVE   SIDE  OF  THE  POLICIES,
THE  BUSINESS  POSITIVE  IMPACT

-THE  POSITIVE   HR   REACTIONS.


IN   THE   SAME  MANNER,

-ALL   NEGATIVE   SIDE OF  THE  POLICIES,  WILL HAVE
THE  BUSINESS  NEGATIVE  IMPACT

WHICH  MEAN  HRM   WILL  HAVE  TAKE   RATIONAL
ACTION PLAN  TO  SUIT   THE  SITUATIONS,  WHICH  COULD  INCLUDE

-downsizing  of  employees  nos.
-restructuring  of  the  organization
-re training
-multiskilling
-jobs   re  organization
-more  skill  training
-pay  for  performance
etc   etc   etc.

========================================
THESE  ARE  SOME  OF  THE  CHALLENGES  FACING   HR
DUE  TO GLOBALIZATION .
=======================================
THE  MAIN FOCUS  will  be  --
The key to creating a consistent corporate culture across multiple
locations is maintaining the critical balance between a strong
corporate culture and local cultural differences.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

THE NEED  IN SUCH  SITUATIONS --  A  HRM  STRATEGIC APPROACH

Strategic human resources  management  approach  is largely about integration and adaptation.
Its concern is to ensure that:
(1) human resources (HR) management is fully integrated with the strategy and the strategic needs of the firm;
(2) HR policies cohere both across policy areas and across hierarchies; and
(3) HR practices are adjusted, accepted, and used by line managers and employees as part of their everyday work.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STRATEGIC   HR  PRACTICES  

The  following  identified as  seven practices that are consistently considered strategic HR practices.
These are
-(1) internal career opportunity
-(2) formal training systems  
-(3) appraisal measures
-(4) profit sharing
-(5) employment security
-(6) voice mechanisms
-and (7) job definition.
There are other SHRM practices that might affect organizational performance.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SOME  MAJOR  FEATURES  OF  HR  IN  FUTURE  DIRECTIONS

- creating a  global mind-set within the HR group, creating
practices that will be consistently applied in different
locations/offices while also maintaining the various
local cultures and practices, and communicating a
consistent corporate culture across the entire
organization.
-------------------------------
considering  the HR function not as just an
administrative service but as a strategic business
partner.
Companies are  involving  the human resources
department in developing and implementing both
business and people strategies.
----------------------------------------------------
creating   a consistent corporate
culture:

- Communicate  to all locations about a common
corporate culture.
- Allow   local cultures to maintain their identity
in the context of the corporate culture.
- Establish   common systems (e.g., accounting,
marketing, MIS).
- Provide   management with education outlining
how the company does business.
- Create  an organizational mission with input
from all locations.
- Create a written strategy outlining the
corporate culture.

------------------------------------------------------


HR  TOP PRIORITIES   CURRENTLY  /  IN  FUTURE

- leadership development as a top priority.

- Recruiting high-quality employees

- Employee retention
----------------------------------------------------------

CURRENT  BEST  PRACTICES   /  FUTURE  REQUIREMENTS


- Developing  a long-term HR plan to ensure
alignment of HR strategies/objectives with
corporate objectives.
- Creating   centralized reporting relationships
around the globe.
- Standardizing   assessment, development, and
compensation practices.
- Introducing   practices to regions around the globe
and allowing   the HR function in each region the
autonomy to do [its] job.
- Creating   global policies/processes for data
management, performance management,
compensation, education, and development.
- Tying  regional accountability to performance
management.
-Sharing   HR best practices used in certain
locations with all other locations.
- Developing   a   strategic   HR mission statement.
--------------------------------------------------------------------

HR'S  ROLE   WILL  CHANGE  SIGNIFICANTLY
IN THE COMING  YEARS
AND  THE  CHALLENGE  /  DEMAND  WILL  BE  ON THE  FOLLOWING
AREAS

*EMPLOYMENT  SECURITY
-is  a  sign of longstanding  commitment by  the  company.

*SELECTIVITY  IN  RECRUITMENT
-right people  in the right  way  to  meet competitive  success.

*HIGH  WAGES
-right  package  for outstanding  talents.

*INCENTIVE  BASED PAYMENT
-profit  sharing/ productivity  based  payments.

*EMPLOYEE  INFORMATION  SHARING
-well  informed employees  for  successful   results/ competitive  advantage.

*PARTICIPATION  AND  EMPOWERMENT
-increase  employee participation to  improve employee satisfaction.
-empower  to broaden  participation/ control  their  work/workload.

*MULTISKILLING: CROSS -TRAINING AND  CROSS UTILIZATION.
-for  effective teamwork.

*PROMOTION  FROM   WITHIN
-to retain talent.

*MEASUREMENT  OF  PRACTICES
-more  use  of  metrics.

*WORKLIFE  BALANCING
-programs to  manage  work/life better.

====================================================
OTHER  AREAS,  WHERE   HR  ACTIVITIES  WILL  BE  MONITORED
ARE

-curbing  absenteeism.

-recruiting   for  retention.

-loyalty  through  motivation.

-managing   employee  flexitime.

-managing  employee  staggering  hours

-managing  shift  swapping.

-managing  self-rostering.

-managing  annualized  hours

-managing  job sharing.

-managing  telecommuting.

-managing  workplace  flexibility.

etc  etc.


====================================
AS  THE  GLOBALIZATION  SETTLES,  THE  HR  EMPHASIS  WOULD  BE   ON

1. ideas and practices   that might be considered more widely include:

• initiatives connecting company  and industry policies so that training implications are considered as a matter of course
• initiatives which consider the implications for the company  of the innovations they are supporting , e.g. industry clusters
• initiatives incorporating collaboration across COUNTRY  borders
• efficient use of the worldwide web to disseminate information and collect data
• initiatives which demonstrate learning from previous experience
• attention to resourcing issues
• initiatives which enable company  staff to increase their expertise in new areas
• initiatives which build on established expertise in the  company, and
• initiatives which seek to develop new specialisations in the  company.


2. Technology-related skills
• Skills in identifying new applications of technologies
• Skills in developing new technologies, or advancing existing technologies
• Skills in identifying technological solutions to problems


3. Management skills
• Skills in identifying which innovation outcomes are appropriate for commercialisation
• Skills in knowing when and how to market a new product, tool or process (or other innovation outcome) successfully
• Skills in securing intellectual property rights over innovation outcomes
• Skills in setting up efficient manufacturing processes for new products
• Skills in negotiating appropriate training provision with education and training providers


4. Operative/Technical skills
• Skills in operating new tools or equipment, or applying new methods/processes
• Skills in applying new processes or tools to existing work
• Skills in installing and maintaining new products, and
• Skills in manufacturing new products.

If new and changed skill needs are to be met, access to appropriate education and training is essential. Access must also be provided in a timely fashion so that the skills required for an innovation to be implemented effectively are available when needed. An enterprise will not gain the benefits from installing new equipment if its workers do not have the skills to operate it properly. Finding or providing the right training, in time, can present a challenge. The difficulties some employers are facing in finding effective ways of keeping workers up to date with technological changes – especially the ‘convergence of technologies’


It is  useful  if   the  HRM   SYSTEM   adopt an Innovation  Policy aimed at driving innovation by:
Building an educated and highly skilled workforce.
Becoming a leader in knowledge creation and innovation.
Developing linkages, clusters and networks to become a more integrated and networked local economy.
Fostering high levels of enterprise formation and business growth.
Becoming a globally focused and internationally integrated economy.
Creating a business environment and infrastructure base that facilitates business success.
establishing a culture of innovations. Based on these building blocks it provides support for a range of initiatives under the headings:
Co-operative Research Centres
Knowledge and Technology Diffusion
Technology, Research Parks and Precincts
Education
Commercialisation
Awareness and Promotion         
=========================================================
###########################

Managing a Business

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Leo Lingham

Expertise

In Managing a business, I can cover all aspects of running a business--business planning, business development, business auditing, business communication, operation management, human resources management , training, etc.

Experience

18 years of working management experience covering such areas
as business planning, business development, strategic planning,
marketing, management services, personnel administration.

PLUS

24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing, product management, training, business coaching etc.

Organizations
BESTBUSICON   Pty Ltd--PRINCIPAL

Education/Credentials
MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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