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Write a brief note on the important elements of communication dimensions namely Purpose, Audience, Media, Message, Time, Place and Cost

The purpose of communication is to send your message effectively to the receiver/readers. Communication links people who believe in a common cause, together with a view to strengthen relationships
Communication allows people or groups to better understand each other and connect. Communication is the means in which information is disseminated.

Communication is also the transduction of emotions and or thoughts from one to another. The purpose is to intentionally create harmony or dissonance with the sender and receiver.
Audience is who the communication is targeted at. The recipient.
Every piece of communication has an audience. The audience is the person or persons who are to receive the communication and therefore interpret the purpose.
Here are some examples of audience:
•  Project manager
•  Senior manager
•  Developer
•  Tester
•  Test Manager
•  Friend
•  Partner
The list could continue. There may be more than one audience. These multiple audiences may be compatible, they may be at odds with each other. It can often be the case that the audience is confused or contradictory to the other; perfect material for a keen software tester. What is the audience of that function? Module? Feature? Button? Document?
If you know or can work out the audience then you are in a good place to make better decisions about the communication. You are also much better placed to find the real audience and find out more about them.
When you are communicating yourself, you also need to be wholly aware and clear of what the audience of the communication is. This will mean your communication is direct, powerful and reaches it's target audience in the first instance.
Media (singular medium) are the storage and transmission channels or tools used to store and deliver information or data. It is often referred to as synonymous with mass media or news media, but may refer to a single medium used to communicate any data for any purpose.
The communication media acts as a communication channel for linking various computing devices so that they may interact with each other.

Contemporary communication media facilitate communication and data exchange among a large number of individuals across long distances via teleportation, email, teleconferencing, Internet forums, etc. Traditional mass media channels such as TV, radio and magazines, on the other hand, promote one-to-many communication.

A message (verbal or nonverbal--or both) is the content of the communication process.

•   Verbal and Nonverbal Content
"A message may include verbal content (i.e., written or spoken words, sign language, e-mail, text messages, phone calls, snail-mail, sky-writing, etc.) and will include nonverbal content (meaningful behavior beyond words: e.g., body movement and gestures, eye contact, artifacts and clothing, vocal variety, touch, timing, etc.). Intentionally or not, both verbal and nonverbal content is part of the information that is transferred in a message. If nonverbal cues do not align with the verbal message, ambiguity is introduced even as uncertainty is increased."

•   Communicating Messages
"Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages. However, communication is effective only when the message is understood and when it stimulates action or encourages the receiver to think in new ways."
Workplace Communication: Timing is Everything
In workplace communications, timing can make or break the effectiveness of the communication process. Your message may be important, but if it is delivered too late, it will be irrelevant. Likewise, if you try to deliver a message at a time that the audience is not receptive, your efforts may be wasted.
 Since timing is such an important element of effective communication, be sure to time your communications so that they are delivered:
•   When you have the attention of the person to whom you are speaking. If you try to communicate with someone who is in the middle of doing something or surrounded by distractions, your message is unlikely to be heard.
•   When the person is most receptive. Trying to communicate with employees when they’re rushing out the door at the end of the day or on their way to lunch isn’t likely to produce positive results. Pick a time when they will be able to focus exclusively on your message.
•   When you are prepared to answer questions. Remember that good communication is interactive. You should always be prepared to answer questions and clear up any issues that are unclear to your listener. Timing matters for the communicator as well as the recipient.

The above components of communication promote shared meaning when they operate together to effectively deliver a message. The work environment in which those components take place, also affects the communication and whether the communication is received.
In a work environment that stresses open communication, employee involvement, and shared goals, communication more frequent and more effective. But, the expectation for significant communication sets the bar higher in these best workplaces. So, even in high morale, employee focused work environments, employees complain that they don’t know what is going on.
Because of all of the components and the overall environment of an individual workplace, communication remains challenging. The age old questions about who needs to know what and when do they need to know it, is never fully answered to just about anyone’s satisfaction.


Poor communication costs business mil¬lions of dollars every single day. Most executives and managers understand this, yet they don’t realize how big a part they play in this miscommunication.
Communication is vital to the success of your organization. To be most effec¬tive, communication must circulate and reach all levels, not just the core.

Different forms of poor communication. Here are but a few:
Long, unproductive, numbing meet¬ings without a clear purpose or agen¬da, often reaching no conclusions, re¬sult in lost productivity as well as the collective time of everyone attending.

Uninspired selling skills and anemic sales presentations showing no inter¬est or understanding of a prospect’s needs, result in missed opportunities and lost sales.
Rambling, cryptic, and incoherent emails that are misunderstood or ig¬nored, result in wasted time. Often (up to 50% of the time) an email’s tenor is incorrectly perceived, simply because body language cannot be analyzed and tone of voice not perceived; this results in hurt feelings, ill will, and inaction.♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Distracted managers who simply do not or cannot truly listen alienate staff and lower morale. Staff members who realize they are not being listened to and simply patronized, themselves stop communicating.

Poor communication squanders time, wastes effort, erodes loyalty, and loses business.
Squandering time. Poor communica¬tion simply takes longer to process and understand, if understanding can be at-tained. Unnecessary questions are asked, discussions are needlessly lengthy, the communication is recreated, only to be foisted again on a wary audience.
Here’s an example of an email re¬ceived by a colleague: “The company may need the more accurate methodology since it’s the standard approach employed of the more approximate method that may result in an estimate that underesti¬mates and not on-target estimates.” After a lengthy conversation with the sender, my colleague’s client rewrote the email. Final squandered time for one email: six hours.

Wasting effort. My bank’s CEO recent¬ly sent every customer a letter explain¬ing the bank’s checking account over¬draft policy: five dense paragraphs. The policy was more onerous than the cur¬rent overdraft protection plan. Many cus¬tomers didn’t appreciate the change and called to protest, inundating the bank. The customer service representatives explained why the letter was mislead¬ing and inaccurate. As a result, the CEO planned to rewrite and resend the letter. The CEO’s effort fell prey to the 30% of business letters that initially fail.♦ ♦
Eroding loyalty.
Losing business. The presentation was wonderful, beautiful slides, expertly delivered—all about the expertise of the company who was leading the proposal. Unfortunately, the state agency wanted to know how the company would solve the agency’s problem and support their budget. Instead, the agency got egotis¬tical fluff. The agency, rightly, awarded the contract to another firm; the compa¬ny came in “second”.


Managing a Business

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Leo Lingham


In Managing a business, I can cover all aspects of running a business--business planning, business development, business auditing, business communication, operation management, human resources management , training, etc.


18 years of working management experience covering such areas
as business planning, business development, strategic planning,
marketing, management services, personnel administration.


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing, product management, training, business coaching etc.




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