Managing a Business/Pls help for my assignments
1.Study and compare the performance appraisal system in a manufacturing sector and service sector and evaluate the reasons for their success/ failures in the respective sectors.
2.Analyze and appraise the quality circle movement in a service organization and suggest methods for its enhancement.
3.Discuss which brands of mobile do you feel successfully targeted the group “Generation Y”. Which brands do not? What could they do better?
4.Examine the problems encountered by the exporters while exporting herbal products to European countries. Also recommend suitable suggestions to overcome such issues.
5.Discuss the role of ADB and World Bank during financial crisis of a nation.
6.“Project manager is a risk bearer”. Assign yourself as a project manager for metro rail projects in India. List out various feasibility studies to be conducted to avoid risks during the implementation of project.
7.A company wants to start a additional plant to manufacture a new product line in fertilizers. Assume a location of your choice and explain the steps of feasibility study applicable to start the plant.
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2. Study and compare the performance appraisal system in a manufacturing sector and service sector and evaluate the reasons for their success/ failures in the respective sectors
performance appraisal system in a manufacturing UNIT
For: Staff and Officers (S & M Level)
Appraisal period: July _____ June _______
Name of Employee: ___ ________________________Designation:__________________________ Ecode________
Grade :___________ DOJ________________ Qlfn: ___________________ Location_________________________
Name and Designation of Appraiser: _____________________________________________________________
Nature of Relationship: ________________________________________________________________________
Purpose of this evaluation is to make Appraisee understand his strengths, weaknesses and areas of improvement. The Appraisee must be briefed about the expectations of the management and mutually agreed upon. The methodology and evaluation must be unbiased and based on the facts and merits alone.
Any specific achievement and outstanding contribution may be supported by your remarks and justification in a separate sheet. For statements that do not apply to the person being evaluated, please mark “Not Applicable” (NA). Comments should be specific (including examples) and explanatory. If your evaluation and recommendations cannot be adequately covered in the space provided, you should prepare an attachment to this appraisal form.
Performance for each category is graded into the following:
Outstanding 5 points Performance is exceptional and far exceeds expectations. Consistently demonstrates excellent standards.
Very Good 4 points Performance is consistent and exceeds expectations.
Good 3 points Performance is consistent. Clearly meets job requirements.
Fair 2 points Performance is satisfactory. Meets minimum requirements of the job.
Improvement 1 point Performance is inconsistent. Meets requirements of the job occasionally.
Unsatisfactory 0 point Performance does not meet minimum requirements of the job.
PERFORMANCE OF KPAs FOR THE PREVIOUS YEAR
SL.NO KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS % ACHIEVED REASON
Signature of Appraisee Signature of Appraiser
PART I CUSTOMERS Outstanding Very
Good Good Fair Needs Improvement Unsatisfactory Not
1. Follows instructions to the satisfaction of superiors
2. Aims to develop good relations with internal and external customers
4 3 2 1 0
PART II EMPLOYEES
3. Able and willing to work effectively with others in a team
4. Communicates effectively to share information and/or skills with colleagues
PART III SOCIETY
5. Uses practices that save company resources and minimize wastage
PART IV JOB KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS Outstanding Very
Good Good Fair Needs Improvement Unsatisfactory Not
6. Possesses knowledge of work procedures and requirements of job
7. Shows technical competence/skill in area of specialization
8. Shows the power of logical analysis, perceives inter connections and identifies cause and effect relationships
9. Displays commitment to work
10. Plans and organizes work effectively
4 3 2 1 0
11. Is proactive and displays initiative
4 3 2 1 0
12. Has a sense of urgency in acting on work matters
13. Displays a willingness to learn 5
4 3 2 1 0
Quality of Work
14. Is accurate, thorough and careful with work performed
Quantity of Work
15. Is able to handle a reasonable volume of work
16. Ensures careful work habits that comply with safety requirements
17. Seeks to continually improve processes and work methods
18. Ability to bring new ideas, introducing new approaches and techniques 5 4 3 2 1 0 NA
PART V MANAGEMENT ( to be completed for staff with supervisory duties only)
19. Helps resolve staff problems on work-related matters
20. Handles problem situations effectively
Supervision/ Motivation of Staff
21. Is a positive role model for other staff
22. Effectively supervises work of subordinates
4 3 2 1 0
PART VI FAIRNESS
23. Has good attendance
24. Is punctual 5
4 3 2 1 0
25. Is able to work with limited supervision
26. Is trustworthy, responsible and reliable
27. Is adaptable and willing to accept new responsibilities
4 3 2 1 0
Sum of Scores X 100 %
No of Questions Answered X 5
Grading ( √ )
95% - 100% Exceptional Performance and exceeds Expectations
80-94% Performance is consistent, and exceeds expectations in all situations.
70-79% Performance is consistent. Clearly meets essential requirements of job.
60% - 69% Performance is satisfactory. Meets requirements of the job.
50 - 59% Performance is inconsistent. Meets requirements of the job occasionally. Supervision and training is required for most problem areas.
< 49% Performance does not meet the minimum requirements of the job.
Signature of Appraisee Signature of Appraiser
(This need not be discussed with the Appraisee and must be done separately by Appraiser and Reviewer)
Can be promoted to next Grade
Extend increment as per above Grading
Growth and Development
(i) List the appraisee’s strengths
___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _
(ii) List the areas for improvement
Training and Development
(i) What specific plans of action, including training, will be taken to help the appraisee in their current job or for possible advancement in the company?
__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________
(i) Describe the appraisee’s areas of additional responsibilities and/or other work-related achievements
__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________
(Mention achievement of KRAs, Outstanding Contribution, if any during the appraisal period)
Any other Remarks:
KEY PERFORMANCE AREAS (FOR THE YEAR _____________)
Sl.No KRAs (Description) Target
(Attach a separate sheet if required)
Signature of Appraisee Signature of Appraiser
HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT’S USE
Date of Last Increment: ______________ Present Salary:* ____________Date of Last promotion: ______________
MANUFACTURING SECTOR—CRITICAL PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
1) Reduce lead times
2) Speed time-to-market
3) Cut operations costs
4) Exceed customer expectations
5) Manage the global enterprise
6) Streamline outsourcing processes
7) Improve business performance visibility
Traditional PMs// Innovative PMs
cost/efficiency based // based on valuetrade-off betweenperformances//performance compatibilityprofit orientation customer orientation//short-term oriented long-term orientedindividual measuresprevalence//team measures prevalencefunctional measuresprevalence//transversal measuresprevalence//evaluation with standard development monitoringaim at evaluating// aim at evaluating andinvolving
1. Simplified organization structure.
2. Consolidation of business operations
3. Technical changes to the entire
4. Real time data processing
5. Improving economies of scale
6. Cost saving
Simplified Organization Structure: One of the
business objectives of implementing ERP systems
is to simplify the organization structure ,.
The efficiency of an organization depends on the
quick flow of information across the organization.
This can be done by having simple organization
structure and rich functionality across all areas
like sales, accounts receivable, engineering,
planning, Inventory Management, Production,
purchase, accounts payable, quality management,
distribution planning and external transportation.
Consolidation Of Business Information: More and
more companies are becoming global and
focusing on downsizing and decentralizing their
business. For these companies to manage their
business efficiently, ERP systems need to have
extensive multi-site management capabilities. It is
necessary to have centralized or decentralized
functions with complete flexibility to consolidate
corporate information. The ERP stops treating the
corporate information. The ERP stops treating the
different functions in an organization as separate
and stand-alone activities but considers them as
building blocks that make up a business . The
implementation of a new ERP solution would
bring all operating plants to a common platform,
provide the opportunity for consolidating the
common business functions and information, and
reduce the dependence and cost of operating the
business in a decentralized state.
Technical Changes in the Entire Organization:
Many organizations use the ERP systems as a
mode for improving the technology of the
organization . Owens Corning, for example
used ERP systems as a technology driver to
enhance the technology in their organization. .
IT infrastructure improvements (i.e. networks,
servers, data management, skills management) are
frequently the objective for companies to undergo
Real time data processing: At the core of an
Enterprise system is a single comprehensive
database. The database collects data from and
feeds data into modular applications supporting
virtually all of a company’s business activitiesacross
functions, across business units, across the
world. When new information is entered in one
place, related information is automatically
updated. Thus an ERP system provides real time
data. One of the business drivers for company’s
installing ERP systems is the availability of real
time data. An ES streamlines a company’s data
flow and provides management with direct access
to a wealth of real time operating information. For
many companies, these benefits have translated
into dramatic gains in productivity and speed.
Improving economies of scale: For multinational
companies, enterprise systems help to introduce
more consistent operating practices across their
geographically dispersed units and enjoy
economies of scale. By imposing common
operating processes on all units, they are able to
achieve tight coordination throughout their
business. They can rapidly shift sourcing,
manufacturing, and distribution functions
worldwide in response to changing patterns of
supply and demand. This allows them to utilize
their excess capacity and achieve economies of
Cost saving: There are mainly two types of cost
savings when companies plan to implement ERP.
They are the hard savings typically include
reduction in procurement cost, inventory,
transportation cost, promotion administration cost,
increased manufacturing throughput and
productivity improvements. The soft savings
typically include general and administrative
expense reduction, revenue growth, margin
enhancement and sales and other productivity
4. Analyse and appraise the quality circle movement in a service organization and suggest methods for its enhancement
A commercial enterprise that provides work performed in an expert manner by an individual or team for the benefit of its customers. The typical service business provides intangible products, such as accounting, banking, consulting, cleaning, landscaping, education, insurance, treatment, and transportation service.
Quality Circles are (informal) groups of employees who voluntarily meet together on a regular basis to identify, define, analyze and solve work related problems.
Usually the members of a particular team (quality circle) should be from the same work area or who do similar work so that the problems they select will be familiar to all of them. In addition, interdepartmental or cross functional quality circles may also be formed.
An ideal size of quality circle is seven to eight members. But the number of members in a quality circle can vary.
Informal Groups ====
• Employees meet near water cooler and gossip.
• Five salesmen from marketing department meet once a month for lunch to discuss mutual concerns and to seek relief from tedious aspects of their job.
• Four computer programmers form a jogging club that meets three days per week at lunch time to run two miles.
• All employees of a section meet and discuss how to improve and beautify office layouts.
• Seven workers of a production shop floor meet once a week to solve their technical problems.
• Maintenance department staff meet regularly to maintain machines in a better way.
Objectives of Quality Circles===============ok
• Promote job involvement
• Create problem solving capability
• Improve communication
• Promote leadership qualities
• Promote personal development
• Develop a greater awareness for cleanliness
• Develop greater awareness for safety
• Improve morale through closer identity of employee objectives with organization's objectives
• Reduce errors.
• Enhance quality
• Inspire more effective team work
• Build an attitude of problem prevention
• Promote cost reduction
• Develop harmonious manager, supervisor and worker relationship
• Improve productivity
• Reduce downtime of machines and equipment
• Increase employee motivation
Quality Circle Meetings====ok
• Meetings are important part of quality circle's working.
• Meetings are attended by all the members of the quality circle.
• In general, meetings take place once a week or once in a fortnight.
• Each meeting lasts for approximately one hour, though variations are possible.
• Apart from the frequency of the meetings, what is important is the regularity of the meetings.
What Takes Place During Quality Circle Meetings?=======ok
Any of the several activities may occur during a meeting such as:
• Identifying a theme or a problem to work on.
• Getting training as required to enable members to analyze problems.
• Analyzing problem(s).
• Preparing recommendations for implementing solution(s).
• Follow up of implementation of suggestions.
Prepare for a presentation to the management
What Quality Circles are Not? (Misconcepts)====ok problems
• Quality Circles do not tackle just quality problems.
• Quality Circle is not a substitute or replacement for task forces, product committees, joint plant councils or works committees, quality assurance department, suggestion schemes.
• Quality Circles do not change the existing organizational structure or the chain of command.
• Quality Circles are not a forum for grievances or a spring board for demands.
• Quality Circles are not a means for the management to unload all their problems.
• Quality Circles are not just another technique.
• Quality Circles are not a panacea for all ills.
Pitfalls and Problems=======ok
• Lack of faith in and support to Quality Circle activities among management personnel
• Lack of interest or incompetence of leaders/facilitator
• Apathy, fear and misunderstanding among middle level executives
• Delay or non-implementation of Circle recommendations
• Irregularity of Quality Circle activities
• Non-application of simple techniques for problem solving
• Lack of or non-participation by some members in the Circle activities
• Circles running out of problems
• Inadequate visibility of management support
• Non-maintenance of Quality Circle records
• Too much facilitation or too little
• Language difficulty in communication
• Communication gap between Circles and departmental head
• Change of management
• Confusing Quality Circle for another technique
• Resistance from trade unions
How Do Quality Circles Operate?=====ok
• Appointment of a steering committee, facilitator and QC team leaders.
• Formation of QCs by nomination/voluntary enrolment of QC members.
• Training of all QC members (by an expert consultant).
• Training of non-participating employees (by an expert consultant).
• Problem data bank and identification of problems for QC work.
• QC problem resolution by QCs through standardized techniques.
• Presentation of QC solutions to management.
Evaluation of award/recognition
Structure of Quality Circles Program====ok
What is required
Six Basic Elements
• Circle participants or members.
• Circle leaders/deputy leaders.
• Program facilitator.
• Steering/advisory committee.
• Top management.
• Potential members and non-participating management/members.
Roles and Responsibilities of Various Elements
Roles of Members
• Focus on organizational objectives through the theme(s) selected for one's quality circle
• Theme/problem should be related to work.
• Do not bring in the personal issues or problems as the themes of quality circles.
• Demonstrate mutual respect.
• Take training in all the aspects of quality circles.
• Acquire the necessary skills in various quality circle tools and techniques.
• Participate wholeheartedly in problem-solving process by giving ideas and views voluntarily and suggesting the solutions.
• Attend all the meetings of quality circle. When unavoidable to attend the meeting, seek prior permission of the quality circle leader.
• Participate in implementing the finalized solutions.
Roles of Leaders
• Decide date and time of each quality circle meeting and inform to all the members.
• Ensure maximum attendance of all the members in the meetings.
• Conduct the meetings effectively.
• Motivate the members for their full participation in the proceedings of quality circle meetings and related activities.
• Facilitate the members in data collection.
• Maintain the records of quality circles meetings and other related activities.
• Interact with other quality circle leaders.
• Interact with the quality circle facilitator frequently.
• Make presentations of solutions to the management. Involve the members in making the presentations.
• Seek management approvals of the solutions.
• Ensure implementation of the approved solutions with the active involvement of the members.
• Arrange first time training and later on, the refresher training of the members and self in the quality circles group process, tools and techniques.
Roles of Facilitators
• Act as an effective link between the quality circles and the management.
• Coordinate the work of several quality circles through their respective leaders.
• Act as a resource person for the quality circles being facilitated.
• Arrange for obtaining necessary expertise from other agencies and quality circles.
• Keep the motivation and morale level of all the leaders and members at the highest level.
• Review the progress of each circle periodically and lead them appropriately.
• Continually update the knowledge and skills pertaining to the working of quality circles by studying the relevant literature and attending the training programs.
• Transfer the knowledge and skills to the leaders and the members.
• Arrange for additional training to the leaders and members as required.
• Arrange for necessary monetary budgets and keep the required records.
• Facilitate and guide the quality circle leaders and members to make the management presentations.
Roles of Steering Committee (Management)
• Formally announce the launching of quality circle initiative in the organization.
• Provide full support and encouragement to quality circle movement in the organization.
• Provide leadership and guidance to develop the quality circle models, structure and policies.
• Design the opportunities for presentations by the quality circles.
• Facilitate the approval and implementation of the solutions presented by quality circles.
• Sanction the necessary monetary budgets for smooth working of quality circles.
• Provide the logistic support as needed (presentation venues, meeting rooms, time, finance, training facilities etc).
• Plan out and execute various training programs for the existing and prospective quality circle facilitators, leaders and members.
• Give due recognition to quality circles, their members and their work by way of prizes, felicitations and other means.
• Develop guidelines for measuring the effectiveness of quality circles and also the quality circle initiative as a whole.
• Review the performance and progress of quality circles periodically.
Code of Conduct for QCs
• Attend all meetings and be on time.
• Listen to and show respect for the views of other members.
• Make others feel a part of the group.
• Criticize ideas, not persons.
• Help other members to participate more fully.
• Be open to and encourage the ideas of others.
• Every member is responsible for the team’s progress.
• Maintain a friendly attitude.
• Strive for enthusiasm.
• The only stupid question is the one that is not asked.
• Look for merit in the ideas of others.
• Pay attention- avoid disruptive behavior.
• Avoid actions that delay progress.
• Carry out assignments on schedule.
• Give credit to those whom it is due.
• Thank those who give assistance.
• Do not suppress ideas- do express.
• Objectives and causes first, solutions next.
• Give praise and honest appreciation when due.
• Ideas generated by the group should not be used as individual suggestions to suggestion scheme.
Problem Solving Tools and Techniques Used by Quality Circles
Given below are the most commonly used tools and techniques. These are called the old QC tools:
• Pareto analysis.
• Cause and effect diagram (or fish bone diagram or Ishikawa diagram).
• Scatter diagram
• Check sheet
• Control charts and graphs
New QC Tools
Quality circles started using additional seven tools as they started maturing. These are:
1. Relations diagram.
2. Affinity diagram.
3. Systematic diagram or Tree diagram.
4. Matrix diagram.
5. Matrix data analysis diagram.
6. PDPC (Process Decision Program Chart).
7. Arrow diagram.
Benefits of QC
• Self development.
• Promotes leadership qualities among participants.
• Achievement satisfaction.
• Promotes group/team working.
• Serves as cementing force between management/non-management groups.
• Promotes continuous improvement in products and services.
• Brings about a change in environment of more productivity, better quality, reduced costs, safety and corresponding rewards.
1. Discuss which brands of mobile do you feel successfully targeted the group “Generation Y”. Which brands do not? What could they do better?
MARKETING TO ‘’Y’’ GENERATION
The logic is simple, but the practice is far from easy. Successful urban youth branding involves a lot more than a few hip-hop artists and skateboard pros .
"Youth brands have to be relevant. If the product or service is needed then it is welcome," "But there can be no dodging. A brand is a reputation and nothing more, part of a mental picture. If people see through what you are trying to do and see you are hijacking your position, then the image palls."
"You have to earn their respect," senior director of business development at Boost Mobile, a telecommunications brand dedicated to the youth market in Australia and the US. "You can't just come in as a big company, throw your money down and expect them to like you."
Boost Mobile launched in Australia in 2000. From the outset it aimed to be the leading youth brand in telecommunications. "We saw that no one was talking to youth on its own terms and in its own language," says Fewell. "We approached the market less from the product and more from the brand, built around lifestyle elements common to urban youth—surfing, skateboarding, snowboarding and motocross, with a bit of music thrown in."
But to really win customers, a brand has to become part of the culture. "Everything you do must have your audience in mind, and you have to prove that you are engaged with them," says Fewell. To this end, Boost has sponsored athletes and been involved in relevant urban sporting events. In 2005 its major events will include the And 1 Mixed Tape Tour for street ball, moto-X and professional skateboarding and surf tours, and a summer youth basketball initiative.
But while Boost has been phenomenally successful, targeting urban youth can be a risky strategy. "They are difficult to market to because it is too easy to put them in a single box, but they have a broad range of interests and attitudes—just like any other age segment."
"People say 'Here's the youth category and here is a list of its characteristics and properties.' But I find the thing rather false. Aren't we just listening to a list of adjectives? It is clichéd because all the same characteristics and attitudes are found in other groups. Youth is an overstated category. A lot of attitudes are attributed to young people, but [those attitudes] are not the sole preserve of the youth."
Nevertheless, all youth do tend to have one thing in common: a lack of loyalty. "Young people tend to chop and change consumption habits far more than over 35s. Your average 17 year old has little loyalty. They are a promiscuous consumer, which is exactly why all the advertising is directed at them. You have to constantly talk with them, and if you're not as good as your competitor, they will ditch you. The stats look impressive when they say the youth market is worth X billion, but the over 45s segment is worth many times more than that."
So is youth marketing a necessary expense, a valid strategy or totally misguided? it makes much more sense to target particular generations rather than age brackets. "We've got three generations at the moment. There are the baby boomers, generation X, and millennials who [came] of age around the turn of the millennium. Attitudes and behaviors are much easier to identify and generalize in these groupings."
Roberts has been involved in a large-scale ethnographic study of the millennial generation, also called Generation Y or the echo generation and commonly characterized as those born between 1980 and 1990. "They are about self-navigation. A lot has changed in the world and it is now about making sense of it. Certainties have gone. Gone are the days where you have a regular career for 30 years and a good pension at the end. This is a generation brought up in an age of technology and globalization."
"You can talk about youth and the enduring truths about what being young is," says Roberts. "Talking about millennials tries to tie things down to a specific juncture in history."
"Youth is a mindset," states Pillot de Chenecey. "Remember that today's 70 year olds bought 'It's Alright' by Presley. They lived though the 60s youth culture. The attitudes they had then are the ones they have now. They don't want to be treated like a bunch of old idiots."
Generational marketing is a better long-term strategy, Pillot de Chenecey argues. "Companies lose track of customers when they go through age stages because they ask 'What do 15 year olds want?' rather than 'What do the people we talked to last year want?' "
Of course, that does not mean that the highly targeted branding of Aygo, Boost and other urban youth brands will fail. But how will they fair in the long term? Will their funk and freshness feel right to the youth of 2020—or should they be allowed to grow gracefully into middle age along with their current clientele?
OTHER BRANDS FOLLOWED THE GENERALIZED MARKETING APPROACH.
Upbringing in the choice-rich and information environment, has led Gen Y to be:
• Overtly demanding in choices and features
• Seeking exploratory knowledge even at the expense of making additional investments
• Less accustomed to loyal diligence to a brand
• Critical of hierarchy structures in work-environments
Here are three tips to successfully market to Gen Y
The term “teens” was coined when the magazine Seventeen was published in America, in 1944. Its founders realized that young women were not little clones of their mothers and wanted to be recognized for their individuality. Similarly, marketers across the globe have crafted various approaches to reach out to Gen Y audience.Here are my tips for marketing to Generation Y—a wish list, if you will:
•Look Inside: The first and probably the most underrated way to market to the newer generations is to understand and market to your own company’s Gen Y employees. Think about starting programs that cater toward these age groups to take advantage of their social fluency – leverage internships, rotational programs and mentorship programs.This is probably the cheapest and easiest way to get a large social reach. This would allow you to leverage the adage “marketing is too important to be left to marketers”. Some examples from HCL are:
• HCL runs MAD (Make-A-Difference) programs for its Gen Y employees 47% of whom are Gen Y ers. The program is designed to create a work-environment, which gives free reign to Gen Y’s entrepreneurial capabilities allowing them to get their ideas implemented.
• HCL’s MAD Ltd (Make-A-Difference, Lead the Difference) is possibly the only contest focused on student entrepreneurs allowing them to be judged by HCL leadership and VC’s and giving them a chance to receive cash grants and mentoring to bootstrap their venture.The FY 13 finale was held at Blue Frog, a popular pub keeping in-line with the GenY irreverent ethos.
• Be Responsive: Old world marketer’s world often starts and ends with delivering ads on TV which allows limited scope for customer interactions. The most cost effective and engaging way to reach Gen Y’s is social media where being responsive is key. Do yourespond in a timely fashion every timesomebody tweets about you or uses your brand’s hashtag. If somebody has a concern, do you address it?Marketers focusing on Gen Y need to realize that they can either join and leverage the online conversation or ignore the sameand perish, what they can’t do is stop the conversation from taking place. At HCL, we have a social media command post which is managed by a Gen Y executive whose focus in on responding/engagement near real time.
• Think Mobile/Gamification: Saatchi & Saatchi labeled the lifestyle of Gen Y as “connexity,” to mark the first generation that grew up with 500+ TV channels and computers at home. Identifying the gen Y-ers to be multi-taskers who are completely at-home with the thumb culture of instant messaging, cell phones, and music downloads. When members of Generation Y consume your marketing material, you should assume that many of themwould be using their phones. For a marketer, this means that mobile optimization is crucial. Some examples from HCL are:
1. HCL leverages customapps on Facebook (gamification) to communicate its Employer Value Proposition (EVP) while on-boarding GenY employees in a more interesting and unique way.
2. HCL’s Ideathon is a platform for premier engineering and management graduates to understand the entrepreneurial culture of HCL by engaging with them during the offer/ joining phase. The program has an on-line engagement platform along with physical events.