Managing a Business/help


dear Leo thanks for your help, I have question:
1.   Can any underlying characteristic required for performing a given task, activity or role successfully be considered as competency? Elaborate and explain the concepts and discuss various facets underlying this statement. Site example as to how is Competency Mapping done in an organisational set up known to you or you are familiar with. Describe the organisation and the context, you are referring to.

2.   “HRD Audit play a role in the development of an organization”. Critically evaluate with the example from the organisation you are familiar with, referring to various aspects of HRD Audit. Briefly describe the organisational set up you are referring to.

2.   Explain the learning cycle concept proposed by David Kolb (1984) and discuss its relevance with the organisational situation you are in or familiar with. Critically evaluate its efficacy with respect to developing/changing mindset. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.


3.Can any underlying characteristic required for performing a given task, activity or role successfully be considered as competency? Elaborate and explain the concepts and discuss various facets underlying this statement. Site example as to how is Competency Mapping done in an organisational set up known to you or you are familiar with. Describe the organisation and the context, you are referring to.

Any underlying characteristic required to perform a given task, activity or role successfully can be considered as competency. Competency may take the following forms: skill, knowledge, attitude, other characteristics of an individual including motives, values, self concept etc.David McClelland, the famous Harvard psychologist, stated in an article that, traditional achievement and intelligent scores may not be able to predict job success and what is required is to profile the exact competencies required to perform a given job effectively and measure them using a variety of tests.
Competencies can be broadly grouped into four areas i.e. technical, managerial, human and conceptual competency. This is a convenient classification and a given competency may fall into one or more areas and may include more than one form. Competency approach is a foundation to build a variety of human resource development initiatives. Competency approach to job depends on competency mapping. Competency mapping may be defined in more than one way:
1. It is a process to identify key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes of the organization.
2. It is a process of identifying the key competencies for a particular position in an organization, and then using it for job-evaluation, recruitment, training and development, performance management, succession planning etc.
3. It is a process of identifying the competencies required to perform successfully for a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent task or activities and identifying the competencies needed to perform the same successfully.
Competency mapping is important and is essential exercise. It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence and strength of individuals in areas like team structure, leadership and decision making. Every well management firm should have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively. Such list should be used for recruitment, performance management, promotions, placement and training. Competency based HR is considered as the best HR. As a result of competency mapping, all the HR like talent induction, management development, appraisals and training yield much better results.
Steps of competency mapping:
1. For competency mapping to be productive, the organization has to be clear about its business goals, in short as well as long term and the capability building imperatives for achieving these business goals.
2. The process starts from as an endeavour, as understanding the vision and mission of the organization and how that translates into specific, time bound business goals.
3. It then goes on delineating the organization structure clearly and identifying the various levels and positions as well as reporting relationships obtaining within that.
4. For each position/level, the mapping exercise should outline the roles and responsibilities of the position; short term goals to the extent that they are qualified, skill sets required for the job and soft skills required for the job plus interaction with other personals.
Methods of Competency Mapping:
A number of methods and approaches have been developed and tried out. These methods have helped managers to a large extent, identify and reinforce and develop these competencies both for the growth of the individual and organization. Following methods can be explained by citing examples from a scientific organization. The competency profile of a science and technology management provides a guide for managers to monitor their professional development with a view to identify and measure areas of knowledge, skill and ability that may be improved.
1) Technical Management:
The scientific and technical skills and the experience are the basic qualification for a manager of scientific oraganization. It comprises knowledge of one's own scientific discipline and at management levels, an ability to integrate that knowledge across the total spectrum. To become technically competent at management level, one should develop following skills:
a) Possess knowledge and demonstrated ability in one or more knowledge of science and technology.
b) Understand the issues surrounding the intellectual property management and technology transfer.
c) Continuously update his/her knowledge in the field of science and technology.
d) Read and evaluate technical terminology and concepts in his/her area of responsibility.
Benefits of technical management:
By developing various required skill, a technically competent manager can:
a) Recognize emerging trends and priority issues in the scientific community.
b) Manage complex technical issues within the mandate of the work group.
c) Monitor specific and technological trends and use this knowledge to anticipate new and promising areas for research and development.
d) Articulate science and technology purpose, values and business plans.
e) Critically and accurately analyse trends, problems, situation and issues.
f) Develop strategies to facilitate the resolution of science and technology issues and problems.
2) Self Management:
The ability to effectively and responsibly manage your own actions, well being and time to achieve organizational goals, self improvement and personal growth, is the key concept of self management competency method. To maintain an effective work/life balance in response to a stressful, challenging and dynamic work environment, this method is very useful.
To develop self management skill, following elements are essential:
1) To remain optimistic with individual and maintain a positive attitude about the organization during challenging and difficult situations.
2) Create an awareness of the impact of workload on personnel, physical and mental well being and adjust work and life style appropriately.
3) Courage to speak out effectively and in an appropriate and timely manner.
4) Avoid conflict of interest and maintains political neutrality.
5) Avoid promoting personnel lines of scientific and technology investigation if they are not soundly based on client needs or in line with departmental policy orientation.
6) Understand the impact of personal behaviour on others.
7) Maintain a realistic view of one's strengths and limitations.
8) Desire to learn and improve continuously through acquisition of new knowledge, skills and abilities.
Benefits of Self Management:
1) It helps to monitor personnel health and effectiveness.
2) It demonstrates personal integrity and ethical behaviour.
3) It helps possessing self awareness and self assurance.
4) It enables to manage stress and maintain work/life balance.
5) It helps to deal with complexity and maintains a high tolerance for ambiguity.
6) It allows self improvement and personnel growth.
3) Teamwork:
Teamwork is the ability to work cooperatively with others, in a participatory role to create team that use the combined strength of individual members to accomplish organizational goals. In order to develop teamwork skill among individual employee, the organization should develop the following qualities in them:
1) Seek and accept feedback openly.
2) State opinions in value free language and treat everyone fairly.
3) Respect and empower team members.
4) Use knowledge of research process, applied and fundamental, to encourage scientific networks aimed at common problems.
5) frank, constructive and diplomatic speaking.
6) Adopt ideas for the overall benefit of team's ultimate goal.
Benefits of teamwork:
a) In a teamwork, every member of a team can able to work effectively in collaboration with and to contribute to the success of team as a member and a leader.
b) A team can easily able to resolve conflict.
c) A team respects and values diversity and is sensitive to differences
4) Interview techniques:
Almost every organization uses interview technique as a part of competency mapping. The interview consist of interaction between interviewer and applicant. If handled properly, it can be powerful method to achieve accurate information and getting access to material otherwise unavailable.
Following steps are essential for conducting a successful interview:
1) Before actual interview begins, the critical areas in which questions are to be asked must be identified for judging ability and skill.
2) The second step is to scrutinize the information provided to identify the skills and experience in the career of the candidate.
3) During the interview, tact and sensitivity can be very useful.
4) The fundamental step is establishing rapport, putting the interviewee at ease, conveying the impression that the interview is a conversation between two friends and not a confrontation between an employee and employer.
5) The interviewer should prepare precise questions and not take time in framing them.
6) Once this phase is over, the interviewer should discuss with the interviewee, identify area of agreement and disagreement.
Competency mapping has been used for the following benefits in the organization:
a) It provides systematic approach to plan training and customizes training delivery to the individual or organization.
b) It evaluates suitability of training programme to promote job competence and also develop modular training curriculum that can be clustered as needed.
c) It provides employees with a detailed job description and develops job advertisement.
d) It helps in personnel selection and assist in performance appraisal.
e) It targets training to skills that require development and gives credit for prior knowledge and experience.
f) It promotes ongoing employee performance development and thus focuses on performance improvement.
g) It guides Carree development of employees by developing learning programmes.
h) it identifies employees readiness for promotion.
One strong point for competency approach is that it requires interaction between employer and the employee. the job analysis is the catalyst to meaningful discussion of job performance because the employer and the employee have a common understanding of expectancy.
A problem with competency mapping, especially when conducted by an organization is that there may be no room for an individual to work in a field that would make best use of his/her competencies. If the company does nor respond to competency mapping by reorganizing its employees, then it can be little short term benefit and actually result in greater unhappiness on the part of the individual employee
A high-performance team can be defined as a group of people with specific roles and complementary talents and skills, aligned with and committed to a common purpose, who consistently show high levels of collaboration and innovation, that produce superior results. The high-performance team is regarded as tight-knit, focused on their goal and nothing else. Team members are so devoted to their purpose that they will surmount any barrier to achieve the team's goals.
Within the high-performance team, people are highly skilled and are able to interchange their roles. Also, leadership within the team is not vested in a single individual. Instead the leadership role is taken up by various team members, according to the need at that moment in time. High-performance teams have robust methods of resolving conflict efficiently, so that conflict does not become a roadblock to achieving the team's goals. There is a sense of clear focus and intense energy within a high-performance team. Collectively, the team has its own consciousness, indicating shared norms and values within the team. The team feels a strong sense of accountability for achieving their goals. Team members display high levels of mutual trust towards each other.
To support team effectiveness within high-performance teams, understanding of individual working styles is important. This can be done by applying DISC assessment, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument to understand behavior, personalities and thinking styles of team members.
Using Tuckman's stages of group development as a basis, a HPT moves through the stages of forming, storming, norming and performing, as with other teams. However, the HPT uses the storming and norming phase effectively to define who they are and what their overall goal is, and how to interact together and resolve conflicts. Therefore, when the HPT reaches the performing phase, they have highly effective behaviours that allow them to overachieve in comparison to regular teams.
High-performance teams have ten characteristics that are recognised to lead to success
Participative leadership – using a democratic leadership style that involves and engages team members
•   Effective decision-making – using a blend of rational and intuitive decision making methods, depending on that nature of the decision task
•   Open and clear communication – ensuring that the team mutually constructs shared meaning, using effective communication methods and channels
•   Valued diversity – valuing a diversity of experience and background in team, contributing to a diversity of viewpoints, leading to better decision making and solutions
•   Mutual trust – trusting in other team members and trusting in the team as an entity
•   Managing conflict – dealing with conflict openly and transparently and not allowing grudges to build up and destroy team morale
•   Clear goals – goals that are developed using SMART criteria; also each goal must have personal meaning and resonance for each team member, building commitment and engagement
•   Defined roles and responsibilities – each team member understands what they must do (and what they must not do) to demonstrate their commitment to the team and to support team success
•   Coordinative relationship – the bonds between the team members allow them to seamlessly coordinate their work to achieve both efficiency and effectiveness
•   Positive atmosphere – an overall team culture that is open, transparent, positive, future-focused and able to deliver success

Competencies in organizations tend to fall into two broad categories:
-   Personal Functioning Competencies. These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors).
-   Functional/Technical Competencies. These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry.
Three other definitions are needed:
• Competency Map. A competency map is a list of an individual’s competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or industries that are part of the individual’s current career plan.
• Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role.
• Top Competencies. Top competencies are the vital few competencies (four to seven, on average) that are the most important to an individual in their ongoing career management process. “Importance to the individual” is an intuitive decision based on a combination of three factors: past demonstrated excellence in using the competency, inner passion for using the competency, and the current or likely future demand for the competency in the individual’s current position or targeted career field.
Although the definition above for “competency mapping” refers to individual employees, organizations also “map” competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies:
1.   Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)
2.   Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets
3.   Position-Specific Competency Sets
4.   Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e. Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)


First stage of mapping requires understanding the vision and mission of the organization.
Second stage requires understanding from the superior performers the behavioural as well as the functional aspects required to perform job effectively.

•   Tool for the first and second stage: BEI/ Structured Interview
Third stage involves thorough study of the BEI Reports/ Structured Interview Reports
a)   Identification of the competency based on competency frame work
b)   Measurement of competency
c)   Required levels of competency for each job family
d)   Development of dictionary which involves detail description of the competency based on the indicators.  Care should be taken that the indicators should be measurable and gives objective judgment.
Fourth Stage requires preparation for assessment.
a)   Methods of assessment can be either through assessment centres or 360 Degree Feedback
b)   If assessment centre is the choice for assessment then tools has to be ready beforehand
i.   Tools should objectively measure the entire competency required.
ii.   Determine the type of the tools for measuring competency
iii.   Prepare the schedule for assessment
iv.   Training to the assessor should indicate their thorough understanding of the competencies and the tools and also as to how the behaviour has to be documented.
Fifth Stage involves conducting assessment centre.  Usually it  is a two day program which would involve giving a brief feedback to the participant about the competencies that has been assessed and where they stands to.  
Sixth stage involves detailed report of the competencies assessed and also the development plan for the developmental areas.
Competency Mapping & Assessments is a process designed to consistently measure and assess staff performance as it relates to the expectations of the organization.
A competency map is made up of four areas of competence attributes:
I.   Personal Attributes - The characteristics which enable the employee to attract others to well reasoned and logical points of view, to effectively communicate, and to relate to others. These include:
A.   Insight and Judgment
B.   Integrity and Ethics
C.   Continuous Personal Improvement
D.   Commitment and Performance Stability
E.   Interpersonal Orientation
F.   Project Management Skills
G.   Innovative/Creative Thinking
H.   Presenting/Speaking
I.   Business Writing
J.   Professional Demeanor
II.   Leadership Qualities - The skills that allow the employee to assume a position of influence by assembling and leveraging a variety of resources that address problems and opportunities throughout the organization. These include:
A.   Strategic Thinking and Planning
B.   Facilitating
C.   Negotiating and Persuading
D.   Teamwork
E.   Coaching and Empowerment
F.   Problem Solving
G.   Decision Making
H.   Cross-Functional Perspective
III.   Broad Business Perspective - The body of knowledge that encompasses an understanding of the organization and its industry. These include:
A.   The Organization and Industry Knowledge
B.   Internal and External Consulting
C.   Business Relationships/Partnerships
D.   Current and Emerging Management Practices
E.   Best Practices
F.   Risk Management
G.   Mergers, Acquisitions and Strategic Alliances
H.   Management Accounting
I.   Organizational Systems and Processes
IV.   Functional Expertise - The traditional technical skills that the employee should possess and which form the basis for their unique ability to understand an organization from a perspective that others cannot. For eg. A finance professional should have knowledge in the following:
A.   Financial Analysis
B.   Treasury Management
C.   Cost Management
D.   Human Resources
E.   Taxation
F.   Information Technology
G.   Control Environment
H.   Financial and Statutory Reporting and Accounting Principles
I.   Internal Audit
J.   Budgeting, Forecasting and Business Planning
Once a competency map has been developed and validated, it can be used as a tool to manage, evaluate, and develop employee performance; recruit and select individuals that possess the skills required in the position; and compensate individuals based on their demonstrated performance.

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*warehousing/  transportation
This organizations also “map” competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies:
1.   Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)
2.   Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets
3.   Position-Specific Competency Sets
4.   Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e. Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)
This organization   uses  Competencies to  Relate to MANPOWER  PLANNING.
-1.   Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)
2.   Job Family or Business Unit Competency PROFILE
3.   Position-Specific Competency  PROFILE
4. INDIVIDUAL   profile.

-required  manpower  /  competency  profiles
-current  availability of  manpower / competency  profiles
-estimated   gap  in  manpower  / competency .




4.“HRD Audit play a role in the development of an organization”. Critically evaluate with the example from the organisation you are familiar with, referring to various aspects of HRD Audit. Briefly describe the organisational set up you are referring to.
HRD  is   described   as:

an omnivorous discipline, incorporating over the years almost any theory or practice that would serve the goal of learning in the context of work. Like an amoeba, it has ingested and taken nourishment from whatever it deemed expedient in the social and behavioural SCIENCES  , in learning theory and business.

Three assumptions on which it is based:

1.HRD is based on the research and theories drawn from the field of adult education and is different from the learning that occurs in children. Learning is based on creating the arrmpriate circumstances in which adults can learn and thereby change behaviour.

2.   HRD is concerned with improved performance within the work environment. It is not concerned with improving people's health or their personal relations with their family.

3.   HRD utilizes the theories of change and how these relate to the organization. Change affects individuals, groups and the organization and HRD is predominantly concerned with the change of individuals.

definition of HRD:

Human resource development is the study and practice of increasing the learning capacity of individuals, groups, collectives, and organisations through the development and application of learning based interventions for the purpose of optimising human and organisational growth and effectiveness.

HRD is the integrated use of training and development, career development, and organisation development to improve individual and organisational effectiveness.

The  people placed the following subjects under the umbrella HRD : training and development, organizational development, human resource planning, and career planning.

A number of strategic pressures have contributed to the increasing importance and Strategic role of HRD and these mducle:

*accelerated rate of change;
* focus on quality;

*globalization of business;

*increased flexibility and responsiveness of organizations;

*increased pressure to demonstrate the contribution of human resources;

*new competitive structures;

*new   technology.

Yet, today's business environment requires that HRD not only supports the business strategies or organisations, but that it assumes a pivotal role in the shaping of business strategy. ... As a primary means of sustaining an organisation's competitive edge, HRD serves a strategic role by assuring the competence of employees to meet the organisation's present performance demands. Along with meeting present organisational needs, HRD also serves a vital role in shaping strategy and enabling organisations to take full advantage of emergent business strategies.

Strategic HRD can be viewed as a proactive, system wide intervention, with it linked to strategic planning and cultural change. This contrasts with the traditional view of training and development as consisting of reactive, piecemeal interventions in response to specific problems. HRD can only be strategic if it is incorporated into the overall corporate business strategy. It is in this way that the HRD function attains the status it needs to survive and to have a long term impact on overall business performance and respond to significant competitive and technological pressures.

. Strategic HRD enables:

•   the organization to respond to challenges and opportunities through the identification and delivery of HRD interventions;

•   individuals, supervisors, line managers and top managers to be informed of their roles and participate in HRD delivery;

•   management to have operational guidelines which explain the reasons for investment in HRD;

•   information to be disseminated which explains the training, education, development and learning opportunities available for employees;

•   a policy statement to explicitly describe the relationship between the objectives of the organization and the HRD function;
•   a positive public relations awareness for new and potential employees to know that skills deficiencies will be provided for;

•   the continuous assessment of learning and development opportunities for its employees and thereby enabling them to advance their careers and support organizational growth;

•   clearly specified objectives and targets that enable the HRD function to be evaluated against strategic requirements;

•   policies which relate the HRD function to the other operating functions;

•   training, education, development and learning opportunities to have a coordinated role within a systematic process.

-org. learning
-Training  evaluation
-e learning
-management  development
-career planning
-career development.
-performance management
-personal development
etc etc

The broad scope of HRD, to introduce methods to address the development of individuals and organizations.
1   ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS -the first step. This sounds simple, but we are often in too much of a hurry. We implement a solution, sometimes the correct intervention but not always. But we plan, very carefully and cautiously, before making most other investments in process changes and in capital and operating expenditures. We need to do the same for HRD -- implement the appropriate planning. This needs assessment and planning will lead to several possible ways to improve performance. (Of course, one of these is to do nothing! -- we may decide to focus on other activities with greater impact and greater value.)
2   PROGRAM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION. We need to consider the benefits of any HRD intervention before we just go and do it: What learning will be accomplished? What changes in behavior and performance are expected? Will we get them? And of prime importance -- what is the expected economic cost/benefit of any projected solutions?
3   TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT-- acquiring knowledge, developing competencies and skills, and adopting behaviors that improve performance in current jobs, including: adult learning theory and applications, instructional systems design, train-the-trainer programs, and instructional strategies and methods.
4   ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT -- the diagnosis and design of systems to assist an organization with planning change. OD activities include: change management, team building, learning organizations, management development, quality of work life, management by objectives, strategic planning, participative management. organizational restructuring, job redesign, job enrichment, centralization vs. decentralization, changes in the organization's reward structure, process consultation, executive development, action research, third party interventions, and more.
5   CAREER DEVELOPMENT  -- activities and processes for mutual career planning and management between employees and organizations. Changes in our organizations (including downsizing, restructuring, and outsourcing) are resulting in more empowerment for employees. The responsibility for our own career development is downloaded to us. (Translation: career ladders are gone; career development is now the responsibility of the individual.)
6   ORGANIZATION RESEARCH & PROGRAM EVALUATION -- an exploration of methods to evaluate, justify, and improve on HRD offerings.
HRD can give you the tools you need to manage and operate your organizations. Everything -- production, management, marketing, sales, research & development, you-name-it -- everything may be more productive IF your people are sufficiently motivated, trained, informed, managed, utilized and empowered.

"Organization development is the planned process of developing an organization to be more effective in accomplishing its desired goals,"  "It is distinguished from human resource development in that HRD focuses on the personal growth of individuals within organizations, while OD focuses on developing the structures, systems, and processes within the organization to improve organizational effectiveness."

The following ten FACTORS   ARE  USEFUL.

1.Be clear about what you are trying to accomplish.

2.Evaluators need good diagnostic skills to work on this task prior to any discussion of assessment. Good evaluation will also look for goals from various stakeholders as well as unintended consequences, but formal goals are a necessity, especially when the program is externally supported. The process is likely to be a cyclical one since goals are refined through evaluation of progress.

3.Link theory of the intervention to outcomes. Evaluators need to help  define theories of change that underlie their operations - that is, the relationships among their assumptions, resources, program activities and expected results. The evaluators can help the program staff determine how important these alliances are in producing the desired program outcomes, as well as monitor the resources and activities devoted to them. Explicating these theories of change, or logic models as they are sometimes called, is often a very useful formative evaluation task in itself since it helps identify gaps among resources, activities and outcomes. This is a first step toward building a shared understanding in the organization and provides a framework for dialogue about evaluation findings and continuous improvement of the project. This is a compelling need in nearly every organizational setting, and a skill that evaluation and OD professionals should share.

4.Setting the stage properly.
It is important to clarify why the evaluation is being done at a particular point of time and how that information will be used. These issues need to be dealt with early on and revisited continually throughout an evaluation. The evaluator needs good brokering skills to work  interested parties to regularly clarify expectations about the purposes of evaluation.

5.Pay attention to stakeholders. It is important that key stakeholders are involved in the process - to determine the important questions that need to be addressed and how success will be measured. Evaluators can start by asking  stakeholders what challenges or dilemmas they are facing in their work. In this way, evaluation has a higher likelihood that the stakeholders will cooperate with the evaluation and that the results will be used.

6.Integrate evaluation into the program. The stakeholders  need to build in at the outset the expectation that evaluation should be done and also the resources to do it well. Too often, the thought for evaluation comes once a program is finished with the result that useful baseline data and resources are missing to make evaluation meaningful and reliable.

7.Integrate evaluation into daily work. Evaluation activities can be integrated into routine work such as assessing needs at  staff level, although the information processing demands on employees represent a significant challenge to keep in mind. The point here is to take advantage of relevant and accessible data rather than requiring additional work for information gathering. Evaluators who are sensitive to workload and workplace dynamics can be helpful in this process.

8.Identify just a few things to evaluate. Pick the fewest indicators that provide the most information about program assumptions, resources, activities and outcomes. Evaluators who are knowledgeable about information overload in organizations will obviously be helpful in this process, as will well developed theories of change to identify key information needs.

9.Coordinate evaluation reports with internal decision-making. Findings need to be presented on a timely basis to inform learning and action and throughout a program's life - not just at the end. Evaluators need skills in understanding organizational power, budgeting, decision-making and culture that will attune them to how and when findings can be useful.

10.Use evaluation as a process not simply as a report. Stakeholders  and  staff get more out of the evaluation process than its final report. Regular feedback and opportunities for varied interpretations of findings strengthen a program as well as any evaluation of it. Methods other than written reports, such as video, photos, and human-interest stories, can serve as effective communications tools within the program as well as with  stakeholders.

Do evaluation only when an organization is ready. Clear goals and theories of change are important for effective evaluation, but other conditions are also essential. As documented from the field of OD, evaluation is truly useful when there is a commitment to and resources for candid feedback.
Implementing OD Programs

OD efforts basically entail two groups of activities: [1] "action research" and [ 2 ]"interventions."
1. Action research is a process of systematically collecting data on a specific organization, feeding it back for action planning, and evaluating results by collecting and reflecting on more data. Data gathering techniques include everything from surveys and questionnaires to interviews, collages, drawings, and tests. The data is often evaluated and interpreted using advanced statistical analysis techniques.
Action research can be thought of as the diagnostic component of the OD process. But it also encompasses the intervention component, whereby the change agent uses action plans to intervene in the organization and make changes, as discussed below. In a continuous process, the results of actions are measured and evaluated and new action plans are devised to effect new changes. Thus, the intervention process can be considered a facet of action research.

2. OD interventions are plans or programs comprised of specific activities designed to effect change in some facet of an organization. Numerous interventions have been developed over the years to address different problems or create various results. However, they all are geared toward the goal of improving the entire organization through change. In general, organizations that wish to achieve a high degree of organizational change will employ a full range of interventions, including those designed to transform individual and group behavior and attitudes. Entities attempting smaller changes will stop short of those goals, applying interventions targeted primarily toward operating policies, management structures, worker skills, and personnel policies. Typically, organization development programs will simultaneously integrate more than one of these interventions.
Various OD interventions

Planned Change –
Many Specific Interventions

The many types of interventions can
include a variety of specific practices

Various specific practices are usually
highly integrated into action plans

Practices include, eg, team building,
conflict management, training,
coaching, facilitating, organizational
analysis, organizational restructuring,

Types of Interventions
Human process, eg:
Process consultation
Team building
Search conference (a large-scale

Technostructural, eg:
Work/job design
Quality circles

Human resource management, eg:
Performance management (employee)
Employee wellness
Reward systems
Diversity management

Strategic, eg:
Organizational transformation
Cultural change
Self-designing organizations
Strategic management


Profitability, productivity, morale and quality of work life are of concern to most organizations because they impact achievement of organization goals. There is an increasing trend to maximize an organization's investment in its employees. Jobs that previously required physical dexterity now require more mental effort. Organizations need to "work smarter" and apply creative ideas.

The work force has also changed. Employees expect more from a day's work than simply a day's pay. They want challenge, recognition, a sense of accomplishment, worthwhile tasks and meaningful relationships with their managers and co-workers. When these needs are not met, performance declines.

Today's customers demand continually improving quality, rapid product or service delivery; fast turn-around time on changes, competitive pricing and other features that are best achieved in complex environments by innovative organizational practices.

The effective organization must be able to meet today's and tomorrow's challenges. Adaptability and responsiveness are essential to survive and thrive.

There are seven characteristics of OD:

Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees .

Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure, technology, and people, must work together.

Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training should NOT be all theory and lecture.

Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are made as needed. This process is known as Action Research.

Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.

Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change.

Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.





-org. learning
-e learning
-management  development
-career planning /development.
-performance management
etc etc


-corporate mission statement
-corporate objectives
-corporate strategy.

Once you get their departmental requirements, HRM develops
-training plans / programs/ procedures/ priorities




A  TRAINING  AND  DEVELOPMENT   Needs ANALYSIS  is a systematic exploration of the way things are and the way they should be. These "things" are usually associated with organizational and/or individual performance .
WHY design and conduct a Needs Assessment? We need to consider the benefits of any Human Resource Development (HRD) intervention before we just go and do it:
1   What learning will be accomplished?
2   What changes in behavior and performance are expected?
3   Will we get them?
4   What are the expected economic costs and benefits of any projected solutions?
We are often in too much of a hurry. We implement a solution, sometimes but not always the correct intervention. But we plan, very carefully and cautiously, before making most other investments in process changes and in capital and operating expenditures. We need to do the same for Human Resource Development.
The largest expense for HRD programs, by far, is attributable to the time spent by the participants in training programs, career development, and/or organization development activities.


In addition  to  


there  are  other  methods  like

-ONE TO ONE INTERVIEWS [ in person / by telephone]
[ one to  one information  gathering]

[meetings of individuals who share an interest in the subject
 exchange ]

[ information  gathering on paper]

[reviewing the  existing documents/ analysing]

[observing  / reviewing  people performing on the job]

[ assessment  of  line managers  of  their staff]

[ auditing  operation  process ]

[ source  of  inputs ]

[ changes/ impact  on the  organization]

[changes / impact  on the  individual  jobs]

[ changes in industry characterisitics / impact on the  organization]

[data  collection  by  observation ]

[ reports /descriptions  of  things ]

[paper  pencil  dianostic tests  of  knowledge/opinions etc]

[ seeking advice  of  departmental  heads ]



-anticipated  demand for  products
-anticipated  demand  for  services
-local  labor  market  situation
-customer  requirements
-changes in  government  regulations
-changes in  competitive  situation

-plan  to  change  operational methods
-plan to  change technology
-organization  restructuring
-changes in  corporate  strategy
-changes in the  role  of  jobs.

Discuss how it is carried out in your organisation or an organisation which you are familiar with., Describe the organisation you are referring to.

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*warehousing/  transportation

A  thorough and accurate  assessment of needs must precede the
design of a  training intervention so that it  can assist  managers
in improving  in the  areas  that  need it  most.

STEP 1.  Factors external  to the job and the culture surrounding the  job
are studied. These  include the values, practices, and heritage
that are  characteristic of  the  industry , firm, division, department,
and  work unit.

STEP 2.  The jobs  are  studied:
-level  in organization.
-role within the  organization.
-technical features/ demands.


STEP 3.  Forecast of  changes in:
-factors  external to the  job.
-The demands  of  the  job.
-Challenge to  and demands  that  will be  made  on the  individuals
 as they  receive  promotions, transfers, and  changes in assignments.

The first step is to check the actual performance of our organizations and our people against existing standards, or to set new standards. There are two parts to this:
1   Current situation: We must determine the current state of skills, knowledge, and abilities of our current and/or future employees. This analysis also should examine our organizational goals, climate, and internal and external constraints.
2   Desired or necessary situation: We must identify the desired or necessary conditions for organizational and personal success. This analysis focuses on the necessary job tasks/standards, as well as the skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to accomplish these successfully. It is important that we identify the critical tasks necessary, and not just observe our current practices. We also must distinguish our actual needs from our perceived needs, our wants.
The difference the "gap" between the current and the necessary will identify our needs, purposes, and objectives.
What are we looking for? Here are some questions to ask, to determine where HRD may be useful in providing solutions: (3)
1   Problems or deficits. Are there problems in the organization which might be solved by training or other HRD activities?
2   Impending change. Are there problems which do not currently exist but are foreseen due to changes, such as new processes and equipment, outside competition, and/or changes in staffing?
3   Opportunities. Could we gain a competitive edge by taking advantage of new technologies, training programs, consultants or suppliers?
4   Strengths. How can we take advantage of our organizational strengths, as opposed to reacting to our weaknesses? Are there opportunities to apply HRD to these areas?
5   New directions. Could we take a proactive approach, applying HRD to move our organizations to new levels of performance? For example, could team building and related activities help improve our productivity?
6   Mandated training. Are there internal or external forces dictating that training and/or organization development will take place? Are there policies or management decisions which might dictate the implementation of some program? Are there governmental mandates to which we must comply?

The first step should have produced a large list of needs for training and development, career development, organization development, and/or other interventions. Now we must examine these in view of their importance to our organizational goals, realities, and constraints. We must determine if the identified needs are real, if they are worth addressing, and specify their importance and urgency in view of our organizational needs and requirements . For example (5):
1   Cost-effectiveness: How does the cost of the problem compare to the cost of implementing a solution? In other words, we perform a cost-benefit analysis.
2   Legal mandates: Are there laws requiring a solution? (For example, safety or regulatory compliance.)
3   Executive pressure: Does top management expect a solution?
4   Population: Are many people or key people involved?
5   Customers: What influence is generated by customer specifications and expectations?
If some of our needs are of relatively low importance, we would do better to devote our energies to addressing other human performance problems with greater impact and greater value.


Now that we have prioritized and focused on critical organizational and personal needs, we will next identify specific problem areas and opportunities in our organization. We must know what our performance requirements are, if appropriate solutions are to be applied. We should ask two questions for every identified need:  
1   Are our people doing their jobs effectively?
2   Do they know how to do their jobs?
This will require detailed investigation and analysis of our people, their jobs, and our organizations -- both for the current situation and in preparation for the future.


If people are doing their jobs effectively, perhaps we should leave well enough alone. ("If it ain't broke, don't fix it.") However, some training and/or other interventions might be called for if sufficient importance is attached to moving our people and their performance into new directions.
But if our people ARE NOT doing their jobs effectively:
Training may be the solution, IF there is a knowledge problem.
Organization development activities may provide solutions when the problem is not based on a lack of knowledge and is primarily associated with systematic change. These interventions might include strategic planning, organization restructuring, performance management and/or effective team building.

Use multiple methods of Needs Assessment. To get a true picture, don't rely on one method. It is important to get a complete picture from many sources and viewpoints. Don't take some manager's word for what is needed.
There are several basic Needs Assessment techniques. Use a combination of some of these, as appropriate:
1   questionnaires
2   consultation with persons in key positions, and/or with specific knowledge
3   interviews
4   work samples
1   Perform a "gap" analysis to identify the current skills, knowledge, and abilities of your people, and the organizational and personal needs for HRD activities
2   Identify your priorities and importance of possible activities
3   Identify the causes of your performance problems and/or opportunities Identify possible solutions and growth opportunities.
and finally:
1   Compare the consequences if the program is or is not implemented
2   Generate and communicate your recommendations for training and development, organization development, career development, and/or other interventions


 Training   strategy   provides a framework for comprehensive staff development opportunities for all staff who work for the organization, to support the organization's  mission, and to enable the  organization  to achieve  the  corporate objectives  and become a true learning institution for all who work  here.
1   Staff development is relevant to all staff and the whole person
2   It is embedded in all working practice, throughout an individual's career
3   Reflection, review, feedback and opportunities for learning should form an integral part of everyone's work experience
[this  will  vary with organizations, but  as a  broad guideline include ]

1. An  assessment  of the  current situation.

2. A  statement  of  purpose, outlining  what is to be  accomplished.

3.Identification  of  the  training  needs.

4. A  statement of planning  premises -significant asssumptions,
    constraints, and parameters.

5. A  forecast statement  of   factors  that  might  help or hinder
   the  end  results.

6. Desired  behaviors  are  specified.

7.Desired   competences are identified and   specified.

8.Knowledge,  skills,  and  characteristics  desired  are specified.

9. Description of the required training/development programmes.

10. Constraints like  time, budget and  participants  attitude are identified.

11.Participants' characteristics   are  identified / listed.

12. Training  objectives  are defined / listed.

13.Training  program  contents  are outlined.
    -identifying  topic  areas to  be  covered.
   -specific  concepts  are listed

14. Selection  of  instructor(s)
     types of  specialists required.

15. Training   Teaching  materials,
      kind of  materials  required.

16. Training  Methods  required.

17.  Evaluations methods to be  used.

18. Training  resources required.

Based  on  the  TNA,  can you / your  immediate  supervisor
-identify  the  programs  [ subject/contents]
-also  the  priority [ what  is  critical  /what is urgent/what is  important]
the  departmental  heads  the  priority  , as  they see  it.
Sample Outline [for the  total corporatewide  program]

1.Introduction [ purpose of this  program]
2. Scope of the Training Plan
3 .Organizational Entities

4.Responsibility/ management ownership of  the program.
   [mention  T&D, department management etc]

5. Training/development Objectives

6. Training / development Policy

7. Corporate / Organizational Goals Supported
[  impact  on the  business]

8. Training  /  development   Benefits

9. Strengths and Areas  of  improvements  of the  Organization
 [avoid  using  term  WEAKNESSES]
10. How Training Needs Are Identified, Verified, and Prioritized

11. Training Needs To Be Addressed
    [  knowledge / skills etc]

12. Course  /  by Job Category

COURSES...............JOB CATEGORY>>>>sales !  PRORAMMING/customer service etc etc
   V V  V
time management
supervisory skills development
etc etc



13. Course Descriptions
     [ just  2/3  lines  for  each  selected ones]

14. Planned Course Development/Acquisition Strategy

15. Estimated Development and Acquisition Costs

16. Course Quality Standards

17. Planned Delivery Schedule

18.  staff   Selection and Enrollment Procedures

19. Training Evaluation and Tracking
when  selecting   the  modules, four  things  to remember
NOW  based  on  the  information,  can  you
-estimate  the  program time  for  each  program
-estimate  the   no of  time  each  program  has  to  be  run
-estimate  the  total  no.  of  hours  all  together
-estimate  who  is going  to  do it  [ take  logistics  into consideration]
-do  you need  external  trainers  , as  support
-how many / what  programs / when/where.


1. An  assessment  of the  current situation.

2. A  statement  of  purpose, outlining  what is to be  accomplished.

3.Identification  of  the  training  needs.

4. A  statement of planning  premises -significant asssumptions,
    constraints, and parameters.

5. A  forecast statement  of   factors  that  might  help or hinder
   the  end  results.

6. Desired  behaviors  are  specified.

7.Desired   competences are identified and   specified.

8.Knowledge,  skills,  and  characteristics  desired  are specified.

9. Constraints like  time, budget and  participants  attitude are identified.

10.Participants' characteristics   are  identified / listed.

11. Training  objectives  are defined / listed.

12.Training  program  contents  are outlined.
    -identifying  topic  areas to  be  covered.
   -specific  concepts  are listed
   -key points  are  specified
   -determining  the  emphasis  required on  each topic.
   -sequencing  the  topics  into  a  logical  progression.
   -establishing  a  learning  pace.

13. Selection  of  instructor(s)
      -in terms  of  scholastic  records
      -in  terms of  delivery  skills
     -in terms  of  personality
        etc etc

14. Physical  facilities
     -conference  room  [ size / layout /light/acoustics/ etc]
     -seating  arrangements
     -case study  rooms

15. Conference  room  facilities
     -equipments  required
     -stationery required
     -dining /  coffee  room  facilities
     -writing  materials
   etc  etc

16. Training   Teaching  materials
     -training agenda
     -trainer's  manual
     -participants' manual
     -case  studies
     -role  plays
      etc etc

17. Training  Methods
      -conference  method
      -management  games
      -case  study
      -senstivity  training
      -programed  instructions.

18.  Evaluations.

19. Training   schedule.

20. Training  Budget



5.Explain the learning cycle concept proposed by David Kolb (1984) and discuss its relevance with the organisational situation you are in or familiar with. Critically evaluate its efficacy with respect to developing/changing mindset. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.


Managing a Business

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Leo Lingham


In Managing a business, I can cover all aspects of running a business--business planning, business development, business auditing, business communication, operation management, human resources management , training, etc.


18 years of working management experience covering such areas
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marketing, management services, personnel administration.


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing, product management, training, business coaching etc.




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