Managing a Business/Management Questions
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Q1 : Elucidate how communication is the lifeblood of any business organization?
Q2 : Discuss how the objectives of communication are many & varied.
Q3 : “Meanings are in people, not in words.” Discuss.
Q4 : List out any four barriers to communication and state how they can be overcome?
Q5 : Describe any three methods of communication & their relative merits and demerits.
Q6 : Elaborate the various steps involved in the process of communication.
Q7 : What according to you are the essentials of communication?
Q8 : What are various physical, psychological and mechanical factors that affect communication?
Q9 : How is business communication different from personal communication?
Q10 : What is the significance of language in ensuring effective communication?
Q11 : “Face is the index of mind.” Discuss with reference to facial expressions.
Q12 : Explain the significance of the statement, “Bodies don’t lie.”
Q13 : How is the field of consumer behaviour defined?
Q14 : Describe the consumer decision process.
Q15 : What is social marketing?
Q16 : What is marketing strategy?
Q17 : What is customer value and why is it important to marketers?
Q18 : What is required to provide superior customer value?
Q19 : What are the implications of “guanxi” for a western firm entering the Chinese market?
Q20 : How do demographics affect a culture’s values? And how do culture’s values affect its demographics?
Q21 : What is green marketing?
Q22 : What values underline green marketing?
Q23 : What do you mean by gender? What is gender identity? What is gender role?
Q24 : How does an ascribed role differ from an achievement role?
Q25 : What is McDonald’s basic philosophy? How does it enforce this philosophy and adapt to different environments?
Q26 : Should McDonalds expand its menu? If not, then why not? If yes, then what kind of products should it add?
Q27 : Is spirituality appropriate for business?
Q28 : Give arguments for and against the inclusion of spirituality in business.
Q29 : Why was Bellisario much sought after CEO? Write about her career path?
Q30 : What special problems Bellisario may have encountered as a woman heading a major company in Italy?
Q31 : Discuss how a company with a geocentric orientation may manage itself. Compare these practices with a company having an ethnocentric outlook.
Q32 : From the various approaches to quality management, which model do you find most useful? Why? Explain.
Q33 : What advantages do multinational corporations have? What challenges must they meet? Give examples.
Q34 : Do you think that the way managerial decision are made in Japan, could work in the United States? Why or why not?
Q35 : Planning is looking ahead and control is looking back. Explain.
Q36 : Do you think that managing by objectives could be introduced in a government agency? A university? A college fraternity? Discuss.
Q37 : How liable should a company be for the violent acts that are committed during work by its own employees?
Q38 : Can a company completely prevent workplace violence? If not, what steps can they take to reduce it?
Q39 : What factors might lead to violent acts in the workplace? Are these acts committed by only a few “sick individuals” or are many individuals capable of committing acts given certain circumstances?
Q40 : Is it ever okay to allow potentially unethical behaviours which on the surface may benefit organizations to persist? Why or why not?
Q41 : Contrast the cognitive and affective components of an attitude.
Q42 : What steps should be taken to reduce the use of steroids in baseball?
Q43 : What is cognitive dissonance and how is it related to attitudes?
Q44 : What is self perception theory? How does it increase our ability to predict behaviour?
Q45 : Do you think job satisfaction means the same thing in all countries? Why or why not?
Q46 : “Happy workers are productive workers.” Comment.
Q47 : What is the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism?
Q48 : What are the reasons of declines in employee job satisfaction?
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Q1 : Elucidate how communication is the lifeblood of any business organization?
communication is the lifeblood of any business organization
communication is the act of transmitting information, thought, opinion or understanding of speech, signs or any viable acts from a source to a receiver with a feed back.
Life-blood is defined as the thing that keeps strong and healthy and is necessary for successful development. In other words, life-blood is considered as a vital to sustain life or a life giving force. From the above definitions, it can be deduced that communication is very important to the successful development of any Business Organization. It is an inevitable asset that organizations cannot do without.
Communication is important to business since work in business involves communication – a lot of it – because communication is a major and essential part of the work of business. By improving communication ability, you improve your chances for success. The communication short comings of employees and employers generally affect the productivity of an organization. The unavoidable importance of communication in business explains why the management of each organization should work to improve the company’s communication skills. Whatever position you have in business, your performance will be judged largely by your ability to communicate. If you perform and communicate well, you are sure of getting rewarded with much productivity. And the higher you advance, the more you will need your communication ability.
All organized effort, including the work of business, requires communication because communication enables human beings to work together. Lack of proper communication suggests a poor human relation in a working environment. Managers direct and coordinate through communication. Likewise, a well organized work force that maximizes productivity understands and utilizes effective communication.
Peter Drucker, a management consultant explained, the one basic skill is the ability to organize and express ideas in writing and speaking. As soon as you move one step from the bottom, your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word which is a form of communication. This ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a person can possess.
For every business to grow, management needs to build up a proper communication skill between herself and the work force and the work force needs to establish a good relationship among each other. Indeed communication is the life-blood of every organization and institution that seeks increase in productivity. A lot of investment needs to go into building up effective communication for it pays.
Therefore, the ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing is an asset for the communicator. Through successful correspondence, he leads his business to success. The letters, reports, memos etc. He writes to the people demonstrate his ability or lack of it. A successful communicator is able to run the affairs of a business house. He can plan well andcontrol the working of his organization. He has the skill to transfer his policies, decisions objectives and job instructions to the persons working with him at all levels. So this skill is quite essential for a businessman to perform his managerial functions.
Success of any business lies in effective communication. The more effective the communication is, the better the results are. Communication is effective when it produces desired action in the reader or audience. Effective communication is essential for the survival and progress of a business concern.The ability to communicate effectively is an essential quality of a businessman. A person may be intelligent but he may not be able to get his message across to others. Ideas are generally common but the ability to convey then to others is rare. A successful communicator exercises a good effect on the minds of his readers, employees, supervisors, customers, suppliers, investors and business associates. They form a good impression of the company and the communicator. He builds the goodwill of the company he represents. Goodwill of a person or company attracts customers and wins friends. Therefore, the ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writingis an asset for the communicator. Through successful correspondence, he leads his business to success. The letters, reports, memos etc. He writes to the people demonstrate his ability or lack of it.A successful communicator is able to run the affairs of a business house. He can plan well and control the working of his organization. Hehas the skill to transfer his policies, decisions, objectives and job instructions to the persons working with him at all levels. So this skill is quite essential for a businessman to perform his managerial functions.
There is a need to make sure that every business deal is attended to promptly. Business communication encompasses not only communicating with external contacts but also with employees within the organization. This will aid the business in being well-organized and every matter whether it is a problem, an inquiry or a sales letter will be attended to properly and promptly.It does not mean that only a client’s inquiry should be responded promptly but also feedbacks or problems arising inside and outside the business as well. This is done to have a balance within the internal and external factors, especially in relation to dealing with people, whether they are employees or other external contacts.
Types of Business Communication
It is very important to know the type of business communication used in order to know the specific etiquettes and standards to use in a specific situation. Here are some of the communications used in business.
comprises different modes of communication out from the traditional way. It includes e-mail, fax, teleconferencing and voicemail. This is used for external contacts and for people within the business organization.
is a mode of communication used for employees but specifically for accepting applicants for a job.It includes application letter, follow-up communications, interview and resumes.
is a mode of communication that usesbody language and other means of communicating without the use of uttering words. It includes body language, expression, gestures, professional appearance, time or space.
is a mode of communication that uses the uttering of words in communicating to external contacts and employees. It includes feedback, instructions,presentations, and telephone.
is a mode of communication that requireswriting in order to communicate. It includes letters, memos, proposalsand reports.
Q4 : List out any four barriers to communication and state how they can be overcome?
Organizational communication barriers
There are six crunching barriers to organizational communication:
Poor structure to the communication
A weak delivery
The use of the wrong medium to deliver the communication
A mixed message
The message is delivered to the wrong audience
A distracting environment Let's consider each of these barriers to business communication in turn...
Poor structure to the communication
As mentioned inEssentials of Business Communication, the structure of a communication is anessential factor in how well a business communication is received by an audience.It doesn't matter whether that audience is an audience of one or one million, good structure isessential if a communication is to be 'heard' amongst the advertising and marketing 'noise' of today'sbusiness environment.
So a poor structure to your message or delivery is therefore a major barrier to effective communication.
It doesn't matter how important or impressive the subject of your communication is, if you deliver itwithout any 'punch' you will not get as many people to take your desired action as you would like.A weak delivery is like the very funny joke with the badly-told punchline --- it is not as funny or asmemorable as you remember the original to be.My mother is a shocker when it comes to jokes. I remember one evening she was telling me a jokeand, having successfully gotten all the way through the lead up, couldn't remember the punchline. Shefumbled and stumbled her way, but couldn't get me to laugh. I couldn't see what the joke was. So sherang the friend who told her the joke and got HER to tell me the punchline. What wasincomprehensible and unfunny suddenly became extremely funny.It's all in the delivery.It is important to not get confused between delivery and presenter. I know of one Englishbusinessman, Richard Branson, who is a shy and reticent public speaker. Yet I have seen audienceshang on his every word.
The use of the wrong medium
You have to announce a temporary hold on non-essential stationery spending in your department. Howdo you communicate this?Believe it or not, I know of one company who were seriously considering holding a major publicmeeting about this, with the department head having to get up in front of the entire department in thestaff restaurant and explain why her staff couldn't order disposable fountain pens for a while.I know of one group that were thinking of rolling out a small internal initiative via an expensive multi-media cd-rom, one to be given to each member of staff.In the first case a simple memo would have sufficed; in the second a simple announcement on theirintranet would equally have gotten the message across.
A mixed message
It is very hard for an audience -- whether an audience of 1 or 1 million -- to understand yourcommunication if you unnecessarily obfuscate.What?If you deliberately, or otherwise, confuse them. A HUGE barrier to business communication is theability of 'business-speak' to confuse and alienate its audience.It does this in two ways:1. By using terms and phrases that are 'jargon', the meaning of which are possibly recognised butprobably not fully understood2. By trying to 'save time/paper' by rolling several different communication messages into one.
The wrong audience
A distracting environment
There's nothing worse than trying to communicate your message to a group of people who cannot'hear' you.Whether their inability to 'hear' you is because of:
your voice not being strong enough
too many others talking in the room at the same time
police and ambulance sirens outside the venue
too many phone calls coming in to their office while they're trying to read your memo
interruptions while they try to read your report
incoming emails keep popping up while they are reading your web-based communication
their minds are full of other pressing matters
they are supposed to be somewhere else at that moment
their mobile phone keeps ringing, or vibrating if they've set it to 'silent' instead of switching itoff
their internet connection is slow
their internet connection keeps dropping out
there are too many interesting people to look at while they are on the bus trying, in vain, toconcentrate on your report (which is what is happening to me as I sit here on a bus trying towrite this -- there is a 'domestic' happening between a married couple and it makes forfascinating, if voyueristic, watching!)
the room's airconditioning is not working and the room is hot and stuffy
the room's heating is not working and the room is cold and clammy
Why Business Communication is called, “Life blood” of an
A business Organization is a group of people associated to earn profit. Various kinds of
activities have to be performed by the people of an organization so as to earn profit. These activities
need an effective and systematic communication. Without efficient communication, one can not even
imagine to do work and hence will be unable to earn profit. Since the aim of business organization is to
earn profit, the organization will die without profit and this death is a result of the absence of
communication. This is why communication is called life blood of a business organization. We can
prove this statement in the following manner.
COMMUNICATION INSIDE AN ORGANIZATION:
Different employees and officials in an organization need to communicate to each other.
This internal communication with its importance is shown in the following way:
1. Setting goals and Objectives:-
Mostly, the organizations have a variety of formal and informal objectives to accomplish.
These objectives may be financial results, product quality, market dominance, employees satisfaction,
or service to customers. So the communication enables all the persons in an organization to work
towards a common purpose.
2. Making and Implementing decision:-
In order to achieve the objective, people in a business organization collect facts and
evaluate alternatives, and they do so by reading, asking questions, talking or by plain thinking. These
thoughts are put into a written form. Once a decision has been made, it has to be implemented which
Having implemented the decision, management needs to determine whether the desired
outcome is being achieved. Statistics on such factors as cost, sales, market share, productivity and
inventory levels are compiled. This is done through computers, manual papers, memos or reports.
4. Manufacturing the products:-
Getting an idea for a new product out of someone’s head, pushing it through the production
process and finally getting the product also require communication. Designing the plan regarding
product, introducing the workers, purchasing raw material, marketing and distributing the product all
require effective communication.
5. Interaction between employer & employee:-
Employees are informed about policies and decisions of employers through circulars,
reports, notices etc. Employers also get in touch with employees through application, complaint etc.
So, communication plays a vital role in the interaction of employer and employee.
1. Hiring the employees:-
If a company wants to hire some one, it advertises the vacancy, receives applications, calls
the candidates, takes the interview and then offers job to the successful candidates. The whole process
2. Dealing with customers:-
Sales letters and brochures, advertisements, personal sales calls, and formal proposals are
all used to stimulate the customer’s interest. Communication also plays a part in such customer related
functions as credit checking, billing, and handling complaints and questions.
3. Negotiating with suppliers and financiers:-
To obtain necessary supplies and services, companies develop written specification that
outlines their requirement. Similarly, to arrange finance, they negotiate with lenders and fill out loan
4. Informing the investors:-
Balance sheet, income statement, and ratio analysis are used to inform the investors
regarding performance of business.
5. Interacting with Govt.:-
Government agencies make certain rules to regulate the economy. These rules are
communicated to organizations through various papers. These organizations try to fulfill, these
requirement like filling taxation form and other documents.
importance of communication
for an individual and for an organization?
“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and organization, so that an understanding response results”.
“Communication is the process which involves transmission and accurate replication of
ideas, ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting action which will accomplish organizational
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION FOR AN INDIVIDUAL
(1) Helps in getting a desired job:-
Getting a desired job is not an easy task. It requires a person to be excellent, especially in
terms of communication abilities. Communication abilities can be classified into five categories that is
reading, writing, speaking, listening and observing. If a candidate is a good reader of not only text
books and reference books but also of newspapers and magazines, this would help him developing
confidence level at the time of interview. Writing skills are necessary for preparing an appropriate Bio-
data and covering letter, so that a better initial impression could be created. No doubt, conversational
skill right at the time of interview is equally countable towards success of the candidate. Listening
abilities on the other could prove to be fruitful especially when the interviewer is making a comment
or asking a question. In short we can say that the presence of above mentioned five communication
skills could give a better chance of being selected during an interview.
(2) Help in maintaining social relationships:-
We as human beings live in a cobweb of relationships rather social relationship. These
social relations compel us to act simultaneously in the capacity of father, child, husband, uncle,
neighbour, cousin, teacher, nephew and so on. All these relationships especially near one’s could be
maintained properly if we can communicate well to all these relations, that we are here to take care of
them and our services are always there to help them in case of any needs.
(3) Helps in getting on the job promotion:-
Perhaps finding a job would not be a big deal in case of if the candidate is well connected
and belongs to a well off family. But promotion on the job requires some extra skills on the part of the
candidate. Amongst those skills, communication abilities rank on the top. If a person can speak well
during interactive and presentation sessions, can reports properly, he will automatically be in the eyes
of the management and whenever a chance for promotion comes, he will be on the top of the list.
(4) Helps in solving other’s problems:-
It is commonly observed that around us there are so many people whom we like to meet,
their company is a source of enrichment for us. When we are with them we feel secured. The only
reason for such types of feelings is that such type of people are not only good listeners but they also
know it well that whenever they would speak, it would only be for the sake of encouraging, not
discouraging others, only for solving other’s problems and not for creating problems for others. Such
people are no doubt excellent communicators.
(1) It is the language spoken in office,
business and other formal places.
(2) Proper and standard words are used.
(3) It consists of specific purpose words
like manager, supervisor, owner,
(4) It is used comparatively less than
(5) It is used when the speaker is relaxed.
(1) It is the language spoken at home or
(2) Improper words and slangs are used.
(3) It has all purpose words like “boss”
that stands for various personalities.
(4) It is used in daily life.
(5) It is used when speaker is in a hurry/
Barriers to Effective Communication
There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the communication process. This can occur when people now each other very well and should understand the sources of error. In a work setting, it is even more common since interactions involve people who not only don't have years of experience with each other, but communication is complicated by the complex and often conflictual relationships that exist at work. In a work setting, the following suggests a number of sources of noise:
1 Language: The choice of words or language in which a sender encodes a message will influence the quality of communication. Because language is a symbolic representation of a phenomenon, room for interpreation and distortion of the meaning exists. In the above example, the Boss uses language (this is the third day you've missed) that is likely to convey far more than objective information. To Terry it conveys indifference to her medical problems. Note that the same words will be interpreted different by each different person. Meaning has to be given to words and many factors affect how an individual will attribute meaning to particular words. It is important to note that no two people will attribute the exact same meaning to the same words.
2 defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past
3 misreading of body language, tone and other non-verbal forms of communication (see section below)
4 noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)
5 receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues
6 power struggles
7 self-fulfilling assupmtions
8 language-different levels of meaning
9 managers hesitation to be candid
10 assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you
11 distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people
12 Perceptual Biases: People attend to stimuli in the environment in very different ways. We each have shortcuts that we use to organize data. Invariably, these shortcuts introduce some biases into communication. Some of these shortcuts include stereotyping, projection, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotyping is one of the most common. This is when we assume that the other person has certain characteristics based on the group to which they belong without validating that they in fact have these characteristics.
13 Interpersonal Relationships: How we perceive communication is affected by the past experience with the individual. Percpetion is also affected by the organizational relationship two people have. For example, communication from a superior may be perceived differently than that from a subordinate or peer
14 Cultural Differences: Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values, motives, aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given some dramatic differences across cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space, and privacy, the opportunities for mis-communication while we are in cross-cultural situations are plentiful.
THE BARRIERS CAN BE OVERCOME WITH
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Effective Feedback has most of the following characteristics:
1 descriptive (not evaluative)(avoids defensiveness.) By describing one's own reactions, it leaves the individual fee to use it or not to use it as he sees fit..
2 avoid accusations; present data if necessary
3 describe your own reactions or feelings; describe objective consequences that have or will occur; focus on behavior and your own reaction, not on other individual or his or her attributes
4 suggest more acceptable alternative; be prepared to discuss additional alternatives; focus on alternatives
5 specific rather than general.
6 focused on behavior not the person. It is important that we refer to what a person does rather than to what we think he is. Thus we might say that a person "talked more than anyone else in this meeting" rather than that he is a "loud-mouth."
7 It takes into account the needs of both the receiver and giver of feedback. It should be given to help, not to hurt. We too often give feedback because it makes us feel better or gives us a psychological advantage.
8 It is directed toward behavior which the receiver can do something about. A person gets frustrated when reminded of some shortcoming over which he has no control.
9 It is solicited rather than imposed. Feedback is most useful when the receiver himself has formulated the kind of question which those observing him can answer or when he actively seeks feedback.
10 Feedback is useful when well-timed (soon after the behavior-depending, of course, on the person's readiness to hear it, support available from others, and so forth). Excellent feedback presented at an inappropriate time may do more harm than good.
11 sharing of information, rather than giving advice allows a person to decide for himself, in accordance with his own goals and needs. When we give advice we tell him what to do, and to some degree take away his freedom to do decide for himself.
12 It involves the amount of information the receiver can use rather than the amount we would like to give. To overload a person with feedback is to reduce the possibility that he may be able to use what he receives effectively. When we give more than can be used, we are more often than not satisfying some need of our own rather than helping the other person.
13 It concerns what is said and done, or how, not why. The "why" involves assumptions regarding motive or intent and this tends to alienate the person generate resentment, suspicion, and distrust. If we are uncertain of his motives or intent, this uncertainty itself is feedback, however, and should be revealed.
14 It is checked to insure clear communication. One way of doing this is to have the receiver try to rephrase the feedback. No matter what the intent, feedback is often threatening and thus subject to considerable distortion or misinterpretation.
15 It is checked to determine degree of agreement from others. Such "consensual validation" is of value to both the sender and receiver.
16 It is followed by attention to the consequences of the feedback. The supervisor needs to become acutely aware of the effects of his feedback.
17 It is an important step toward authenticity. Constructive feedback opens the way to a relationship which is built on trust, honest, and genuine concern and mutual growth.
Part of the feedback process involves understanding and predicting how the other person will react. Or in the case of our receiving feedback, we need to understand ways that we respond to feedback, especially threatening feedback.
People often react negatively to threatening feedback. This reaction can take a number of forms including:
1 selective reception and selective perception
2 doubting motive of the giver
3 denying validity of the data
5 attack the giver of the data
Following the guidelines to effective feedback can go a long way to limit these kinds of reactions but we need to be conscious of them nonetheless and be ready to react appropriately.
When we are on the receiving end of feedback we should be careful to avoid these pitfalls. Try to keep these points in mind.
1 try not to be defensive
2 check on possible misunderstanding ("Let me restate what I am hearing")
3 gather information from other sources
4 don't overreact
5 ask for clarification
Q6 : Elaborate the various steps involved in the process of communication
“Communication is a two way process of exchanging ideas or
information between two human beings”.
Communication simply means exchange of ideas & information between two persons. A
person sends a message to another person and gets the response from the receiver on the message. This
whole phenomenon can be explained as under.
1. Sender’s thoughts:-
The very first step in the process of communication is generation of thought in the sender’s
mind. These thoughts may be about a request, order, inquiry production or any other such activity.
2. Encoding / Message:-
The thought generated in the mind of sender is ambiguous and unable to be communicated
unless it is put into a receivable form. This step is known as encoding where the sender converts his
thought into a message by means of a language. For example, a sender thinks about having a job. Now,
he will put his thought on a paper. That is called job application. In his way, his thought becomes a
3. Transmission through media:-
Once a thought is converted into message, it should be transmitted to the receiver through a
suitable medium. This media might be electronic media as T.V., E-mail, radio etc. or it may be print
media like newspaper, magazines, letters or merely sound that is transmitted through the medium of
4. Noise and Barriers:-
While transmitting the information to the receiver, the sender faces lots of barriers. These
noise and barriers are explained as under:
On sender’s side:- Noise and barriers may take place during the process of encoding.
Some of them may be caused by distraction, lack of concentration, typing mistake, poor
In the medium:- Some barriers are caused by medium such as poor transmission on
T.V. and radio misprinting in newspapers etc.
(iii) On receiver’s side:- The receiver can also create certain barriers to the receiving of
message such as poor reading ability, emotions, lack of concentration etc.
5. Decoding by Receiver:-
Having received the message form the sender, the receiver attempts to understand and
interpret the message. This process of converting the language of message into thoughts is known as
decoding. For instance, the receiver, having received job application, reads the application and
understands the message conveyed by the applicant.
6. Idea Received:-
As soon as the process of decoding is finished, the idea given by the sender is received by
the receiver. It means the thought that was generated in the mind of sender has been transmitted to the
mind of receiver. In our example, the sender wanted to inform the receiver about his thought of having
a job. Now the sender has got this idea.
7. Feed back:-
Process of communication is incomplete until the receiver responds to the sender. This
response may be negative, positive, or for further enquiry. It means when the receiver of job
application welcomes or regrets the sender, the process of communication is deemed to be complete.
This whole process can be depicted through the following diagram.
Noise & Barriers
Effective communication is vital to success. If management cannot communicate their wants with workers, and workers cannot communicate their needs back to management as well as amongst each other, the workforce will not be a cohesive team. To communicate effectively, understanding the steps in this information exchange process is vital.
The first step in communicating a message is creating the message. This requires that the individual sending the message decide what he wants to say, and selects a medium through which to communicate this information. If the medium he selects is a written one, he must compose a concise and clear message that others can understand. If the medium is oral, he must plan out a clear spoken message.
After a message is created, it must be transmitted. This transmission may be as simple as meeting with the intended recipient of the message and orally sharing the message, or calling the individual to communicate orally over the phone. If the message is a print one, it could include distributing a paper memo or sending an email. Often, the number of individuals that the message must reach will influence the transmission, as individuals will be less likely to use face-to-face transmission if they must share the message with a large number of people.
After transmitting the message, the communication duties change hands and fall upon the receiver of the message. This individual must obtain the message either from the written format the sender selected or by listening carefully as the message is delivered orally.
Once receiving the message, the recipient must translate the message into terms that she can easily understand. To do this, she must listen to or read the message in question and paraphrase it within her head, turning the potentially complex contents of the message into more manageable and meaningful components.
Communication is a two-way street and response is often necessary. Message recipients take the lead in concluding the communication process by crafting a response to the message. This response may be verbal and immediate, which would commonly be the case if the communication is face-to-face. It may also be a written response that either expands upon the message or simply indicates receipt of the message in question
1. Q7 : What according to you are the essentials of communication?
Essentials of Effective Communication
I narrate below the essentials on Communication Skill Management which I hope will help who are pursuing Management Courses in particular.
The purpose of communication is to get the message across to others clearly and unambiguously. It’s a process in which both sender and the receiver must put effort so that the messages are communicated without any misinterpretation to avoid confusion and missed opportunities.
In fact, communication is only successful when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information as a result of the communication.
To establish oneself as an effective communicator, one must first establish his credibility as well versed on the subject he wishes to communicate and the context in which the message is being delivered.
He must also know his audience (individuals or groups to which he is delivering his message). Failure to understand who the message is being communicated
Every message, be it. Written, oral or nonverbal communications is affected by the sender’s tone, sequence of delivering messages, validity of the argument, what is communicated and what is left out, as well as by the individual style of communicating. Messages also carry intellectual and emotional components, where intellect allows us the ability to reason the argument put and emotion allows us to motivational appeals, ultimately changing minds to result in actions in line with the message communicated.
It is important that appropriate channel is used to communicate different messages to successfully pass on our thoughts and ideas as different channels have different strengths and weakness too. However, a face to face communication is always useful to avoid confusion whereas a long list of directions cannot be delivered verbally. At the same time, writing an email to critcise someone will quickly cause problem. It is better avoid writing emails when one is in the aggressive frame of mind because it is a one way communication and we really are not aware of the exact frame of mind in which the Receiver will go through the message. This might cause a tremendous damage in relationship and the very importance of the communication itself will be lost.
We must have in mind, the action or reaction that our message might generate into the minds of the different individuals who are being communicated. However, each of these individuals enter into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will influence their understanding of the message being communicated and their response. We must keep in mind this factor before communicating and act appropriately.
Feedback on message communicated is an important component to ascertain if the message communicated has been understood by the Receiver in the way the Sender wanted it to communicate.
In a communication both the sender and the receiver must be aware about the context in which the communication is being made and its repercussions as well. Unless the context depending upon the surroundings and environment is not taken into consideration, the communication may not be effective and may end up into a futile exercise.
Before initiating a communication process on one to one basis, particularly when the message to be conveyed may not be pleasant for the Receiver, and there might be a fear that his reaction may be volatile, one must evaluate the emotional status of the Receiver. Such messages should be conveyed with adequate supportive reasons to convince the Receiver so that he is able to understand the sanctity and consequence of the message communicated.
Q35 : Planning is looking ahead and control is looking back. Explain.
1.Planning is looking ahead.
PLANNING is the ongoing process of developing the business' mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization, e.g., its mission, and the narrowest, e.g., a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal.
Planning is the first tool of the four functions in the management process. The difference between a successful and unsuccessful manager lies within the planning procedure. Planning is the logical thinking through goals and making the decision as to what needs to be accomplished in order to reach the organizations’ objectives. Managers use this process to plan for the future, like a blueprint to foresee problems, decide on the actions to evade difficult issues and to beat the competition. Planning is the first step in management and is essential as it facilitates control, valuable in decision making and in the avoidance of business ruin.
Quality in the results that are achieved and how the results are reached doing what is right, respect for others, value those that lead and take pride in all they do, and the value of teamwork to reach common goals.
STEPS FOR EFFECTIVENESS/ EFFICIENCY
- review of the previous period.
-review of the current/ future environmental factors.
-conducting the internal SWOT analysis.
-setting up mission for guidelines.
-setting corporate objectives/ strategies
-cascading down to business units/ departments/ individuals.
ALL THESE HELP TO SET EVERYONE TO AN OBJECTIVE
WHOSE ACHIEVEMENT HELPS TO BUILD THE CORPORATE OBJECTIVES.
THE PLANS HELP TO
-achieve a purpose for all the employees.
-sets a direction.
-provides a set of business drivers.
-sets up issues to tackle to solve problems.
1. Effective managers understand clearly their job responsibilities and authority.
2. They utilize their resources productively.
3. They establish priorities for work to be done by themselves and their people.
4. They minimize the need for overtime.
5. They see to it that everyone understands his responsibilities and authority.
6. They show their people how each job fits into the total picture.
This measure of management effectiveness provides you with an idea of how well the company is being run relative to others in its sector and the market as a whole. Consistently low numbers are a red flag.
Unlike many comparisons, you can use these tools to compare companies in different industries. The tools are:
• Return on assets
• Return on investment
• Return on equity
Return on Assets
Return on assets tells you how well a company’s management uses its assets to make a profit.
You calculate the ROA by taking the net income and dividing it by the total assets.
The ROA comparison works better over time so you can see a trend in how well management uses assets to the advantage of the company.
The higher the ratio, the better and the continued high level over time is even better because it indicates management makes a habit of managing with efficiency.
Poorly managed companies, will consistently fall before industry averages in this area, while better run companies stay out in front of the averages.
Return on Investment
Return on investment measures not only the company’s contribution, but also the purposeful use of leverage or debt to extend company’s reach.
You calculate ROI by dividing net profits by (long-term debt plus other long-term liabilities plus equity).
Managers choose to combine the company’s equity with outside debt to extend programs quickly and efficiently.
Skillful use of debt can change a $50 million project into a $75 million project. If everyone has done their homework correctly, the company can see additional profit from a larger project than they could have afforded without the debt.
Return on Equity
Return on equity is music to stockholders ears if the numbers are good, because it measures how well management did in earning money for them.
Unlike return on assets and return on investment, this measure goes directly to the stockholders and their stake in the company.
Unfortunately, ROE is somewhat flawed. You calculate ROE by taking net income and dividing by shareholders equity. Missing from this equation is debt and that distorts the picture somewhat.
Although ROE is somewhat helpful in looking at companies, it doesn’t provide the guidance the ROA does.
HENCE PLANNING LOOKS AHEAD,
SETS YOUR OBJECTIVES, WHICH THE ORGANIZATION HAS
TO CHASE DURING THE SAID PERIOD.
2.Controlling is looking back.
CONTROLLING is a four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm's objectives, measuring and reporting actual performance, comparing the two, and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary.
The process that guarantees plans are being implemented properly is the controlling process. ‘Controlling is the final link in the functional chain of management activities and brings the functions of management cycle full circle.’ This allows for the performance standard within the group to be set and communicated. Control allows for ease of delegating tasks to team members and as managers may be held accountable for the performance of subordinates, they may be wise to extend timely feedback of employee accomplishments.
Controls are to be an integral part of any organization's financial and business policies and procedures. Controls consists of all the measures taken by the organization for the purpose of; (1) protecting its resources against waste, fraud, and inefficiency; (2) ensuring accuracy and reliability in accounting and operating data; (3) securing compliance with the policies of the organization; and (4) evaluating the level of performance in all organizational units of the organization. Controls are simply good business practices.
Everyone within the COMPANY has some role in controls. The roles vary depending upon the level of responsibility and the nature of involvement by the individual. The Board of President and senior executives establish the presence of integrity, ethics, competence and a positive control environment. The department heads have oversight responsibility for controls within their units. Managers and supervisory personnel are responsible for executing control policies and procedures at the detail level within their specific unit. Each individual within a unit is to be cognizant of proper internal control procedures associated with their specific job responsibilities.
The Internal Audit role is to examine the adequacy and effectiveness of the company internal controls and make recommendations where control improvements are needed. Since Internal Auditing is to remain independent and objective, the Internal Audit Office does not have the primary responsibility for establishing or maintaining internal controls. However, the effectiveness of the internal controls are enhanced through the reviews performed and recommendations made by Internal Auditing.
2.Elements of Internal Control
Internal control systems operate at different levels of effectiveness. Determining whether a particular internal control system is effective is a judgement resulting from an assessment of whether the five components - Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activities, Information and Communication, and Monitoring - are present and functioning. Effective controls provide reasonable assurance regarding the accomplishment of established objectives.
A. Control Environment
The control environment, as established by the organization's administration, sets the tone of THE COMPANY and influences the control consciousness of its people. MANAGERS of each department, area or activity establish a local control environment. This is the foundation for all other components of internal control, providing discipline and structure. Control environment factors include:
• Integrity and ethical values;
• The commitment to competence;
• Leadership philosophy and operating style;
• The way management assigns authority and responsibility, and organizes and develops its people;
• Policies and procedures.
B. Risk Assessment
Every entity faces a variety of risks from external and internal sources that must be assessed. A precondition to risk assessment is establishment of objectives, linked at different levels and internally consistent. Risk assessment is the identification and analysis of relevant risks to achievement of the objectives, forming a basis for determining how the risks should be managed. Because economics, regulatory and operating conditions will continue to change, mechanisms are needed to identify and deal with the special risks associated with change.
Objectives must be established before MANAGERS can identify and take necessary steps to manage risks. Operations objectives relate to effectiveness and efficiency of the operations, including performance and financial goals and safeguarding resources against loss. Financial reporting objectives pertain to the preparation of reliable published financial statements, including prevention of fraudulent financial reporting. Compliance objectives pertain to laws and regulations which establish minimum standards of behavior.
The process of identifying and analyzing risk is an ongoing process and is a critical component of an effective internal control system. Attention must be focused on risks at all levels and necessary actions must be taken to manage. Risks can pertain to internal and external factors. After risks have been identified they must be evaluated.
Managing change requires a constant assessment of risk and the impact on internal controls. Economic, industry and regulatory environments change and entities' activities evolve. Mechanisms are needed to identify and react to changing conditions.
C. Control Activities
Control activities are the policies and procedures that help ensure management directives are carried out. They help ensure that necessary actions are taken to address risks to achievement of the entity's objectives. Control activities occur throughout the organization, at all levels, and in all functions. They include a range of activities as diverse as approvals, authorizations, verifications, reconciliations, reviews of operating performance, security of assets and segregation of duties.
Control activities usually involve two elements: a policy establishing what should be done and procedures to effect the policy. All policies must be implemented thoughtfully, conscientiously and consistently.
D.Information and Communication
Pertinent information must be identified, captured and communicated in a form and time frame that enables people to carry out their responsibilities. Effective communication must occur in a broad sense, flowing down, across and up the organization. All personnel must receive a clear message from top management that control responsibilities must be taken seriously. They must understand their own role in the internal control system, as well as how individual activities relate to the work of others. They must have a means of communicating significant information upstream.
Control systems need to be monitored - a process that assesses the quality of the system's performance over time. Ongoing monitoring occurs in the ordinary course of operations, and includes regular management and supervisory activities, and other actions personnel take in performing their duties that assess the quality of internal control system performance.
The scope and frequency of separate evaluations depend primarily on an assessment of risks and the effectiveness of ongoing monitoring procedures. Internal control deficiencies should be reported upstream, with serious matters reported immediately to top administration and governing boards.
Control systems change over time. The way controls are applied may evolve. Once effective procedures can become less effective due to the arrival of new personnel, varying effectiveness of training and supervision, time and resources constraints, or additional pressures. Furthermore, circumstances for which the internal control system was originally designed also may change. Because of changing conditions, management needs to determine whether the internal control system continues to be relevant and able to address new risks.
Components of the Control Activity
1.Internal controls rely on the principle of checks and balances in the workplace. The following components focus on the control activity:
2.Personnel need to be competent and trustworthy, with clearly established lines of authority and responsibility documented in written job descriptions and procedures manuals. Organizational charts provide a visual presentation of lines of authority and periodic updates of job descriptions ensures that employees are aware of the duties they are expected to perform.
3.Authorization Procedures need to include a thorough review of supporting information to verify the propriety and validity of transactions. Approval authority is to be commensurate with the nature and significance of the transactions and in compliance with COMPANY policy.
4.Segregation of Duties reduce the likelihood of errors and irregularities. An individual is not to have responsibility for more than one of the three transaction components: authorization, custody, and record keeping. When the work of one employee is checked by another, and when the responsibility for custody for assets is separate from the responsibility for maintaining the records relating to those assets, there is appropriate segregation of duties. This helps detect errors in a timely manner and deter improper activities; and at the same time, it should be devised to prompt operational efficiency and allow for effective communications.
5.Physical Restrictions are the most important type of protective measures for safeguarding COMPANY assets, processes and data.
6.Documentation and Record Retention is to provide reasonable assurance that all information and transactions of value are accurately recorded and retained. Records are to be maintained and controlled in accordance with the established retention period and properly disposed of in accordance with established procedures.
7.Monitoring Operations is essential to verify that controls are operating properly. Reconciliations, confirmations, and exception reports can provide this type of information.
HENCE, IN CONTROL, WE LOOK BACK AT THE PERFORMANCE
AND COMPARE IT WITH THE OBJECTIVES SET DURING THE
PLANNING STAGE AND TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTION.