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Managing a Business/Marketing Management


1) Suggest suitable presentation strategy in the following situations.

  i) Creating awareness for safe drinking water among rural people
ii) Presenting your self the suitability for a senior sales position for the top    management of an MNC.

i) Creating awareness for safe drinking water among rural people

There can be little doubt that water is a basic necessity for the survival of humans. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilisation of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centred approaches for water management.

Water Resources and Utilisation
• India has 16 per cent of the world’s population and four per cent of its fresh water resources.
• Estimates indicate that surface and ground water availability is around 1,869 billion cubic
metres (BCM). Of this, 40 per cent is not available for use due to geological and
topographical reasons. 4
• Around 4,000 BCM of fresh water is available due to precipitation in the form of rain and
snow, most of which returns to the seas via rivers. 4
• Ninety two per cent groundwater extracted is used in the agricultural sector, five and three
per cent respectively for industrial and domestic sector.
• Eight nine per cent of surface water use is for agricultural sector and two per cent and nine
per cent respectively are used by the industrial and domestic sector.
While on the one hand the pressures of development are changing the distribution of water in the
country, access to adequate water has been cited as the primary factor responsible for limiting
development. The average availability of water remains more or less fixed according to the natural
hydrological cycle but the per capita availability reduces steadily due to an increasing population.
• In 1955, the per capita availability was 5,300 cubic metres (cu.m) per person per year,
which came down to 2,200 cu. m in 1996.5
• It is expected that by around 2020, India will be a ‘water stressed' state with per capita
availability declining to 1600 cu m/person/year.4 A country is said to be water stressed
when the per capita availability of water drops below 1700 cu. m/person/year.

While accessing drinking water continues to be a problem, assuring that it is safe is a challenge by
itself. Water quality problems are caused by pollution and over-exploitation. The rapid pace of
industrialisation and greater emphasis on agricultural growth combined with financial and
technological constraints and non-enforcement of laws have led to generation of large quantities
of waste and pollution. The problem is sometimes aggravated due to the non-uniform distribution
of rainfall. Individual practises also play an important role in determining the quality of water.
Water quality is affected by both point and non-point sources of pollution. These include sewage
discharge, discharge from industries, run-off from agricultural fields and urban run-off. Water
quality is also affected by floods and droughts and

can also arise from lack of awareness and
education among users. The need for user involvement in maintaining water quality and looking at
other aspects like hygiene, environment sanitation, storage and disposal are critical elements to
maintain the quality of water resources.

Bacterial contamination of water continues to be a widespread problem across the country and is
a major cause of illness and deaths with 37.7 million affected by waterborne diseases annually.
The major pathogenic organisms responsible for water borne diseases in India are

The Central Pollution Control Board monitoring results obtained during 2005 indicate that organic
pollution continues to be predominant in aquatic resources. Organic pollution measured in terms
of bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) and coliform count gives an indication of the extent of water
quality degradation in different parts of the country. It was observed that nearly 66 per cent of the
samples had BOD values less than acceptable limits while 44 per cent of the samples indicated
the presence of coliform while according to the BIS there should be no coliform in drinking water
Another major cause for concern is the pollution of ground and surface water from increased
fertiliser and pesticide use in agriculture and from industrial sources. The consumption of
fertilisers shot up from 7.7 million tonnes in 1984-85 to 13.9 million tonnes in 1994-95 and that
of pesticides from 24,305 tonnes in 1974 to 85,030 tonnes in 1994-95.
The rise in the usage of such compounds has degraded the quality of surface water resources by
causing nitrate contamination. The World Bank has estimated that the total cost of environmental
damage in India amounts to US$9.7 billion annually, or 4.5 per cent of the gross domestic
product. Of this, 59 per cent results from the health impacts of water pollution.12


1. Supporting awareness drives:
Supporting awareness drives: One of the major challenges is to make people aware on the need to consume safe water. There are examples where despite being provided potable water
by the government, people drink water from contaminates surface sources. The government needs to support civil society and organisations involved in increasing awareness. An
integrated campaign can result in wide spread information dissemination amongst the masses on the ways and means of preventing contamination of water sources.

2. Testing and remedial action: There is an urgent need to enhance the monitoring network by establishing monitoring stations across all regions and seasonal assessments of all water
sources. In case of contamination being detected, an action plan for dealing with sources
should be provided. The challenge lies in establishing well equipped laboratories with well-
trained staff. This also calls for training of people and infrastructure development.
3. Capacity building of communities: The roles of panchayats are becoming more important and stress is being laid on community-based approaches in dealing with water-related problems. A prerequisite for increasing community participation is training of people form the communities
so that they are able to make well-informed decisions. The objectives of decentralisation can
come about only if there is an attitudinal change among government functionaries as well as
the people, with respect to decentralisation, transferring authority and responsibility to the
people at the community level.

4. Inter-agency coordination:
agency coordination: One major bottleneck in an effective policy formulation and implementation has been the current institutional set-up involving various government
agencies. There is a fragmented approach at the state and central level with the involvement
of numerous agencies in the supply and management of water.

5. Making the service provider accountable:
Making the service provider accountable:
Making the service provider accountable: Article 21 of the Constitution of India, relates to the
Protection of Life and Personal Liberty and the right to pollution-free water is guaranteed under
this provision. The user has the right to know whether water being provided at source is free
from any contamination as claimed by authorities.

6. Water quality standards and provision of water under the Food Law Bill: The quality of drinking
water supplies in India by public agencies is presently governed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) specifications IS: 10500-1991. In case of drinking water monitoring, standards such as
IS: 2488, for sampling methods and IS: 3025 for testing procedures should also be adhered to
8. Role of environment sanitation and hygiene: A direct relationship exists between water,
sanitation, health, nutrition and human well being. Consumption of contaminated drinking
water, improper disposal of human excreta, lack of personal and food hygiene and improper
disposal of solid and liquid waste have been the major causes of diseases in our country.

9. Awareness:
Awareness: The user should be made aware of the importance of preventing contamination of water and also of the importance of clean and healthy surroundings near water sources.
Effective IEC campaigns by civil society will play an important role in spreading awareness. One
has to keep in mind that such campaigns should be based on the local needs and problems
and use tools that are easily understandable by the people.

10.Accountability: Users should also realise their individual responsibility in maintaining the
quality of water supplied to them. Cultural and behavioural practices like open defecation,
bathing of cattle results in contamination of water sources. The responsibility of maintaining
the safety of water provided also rests with the users. Factors like contamination at source and
storage in clean vessels lies with the users.
11.Community Based Water Quality Monitoring: Many water quality problems are caused due to
communities being unaware of the different aspects of managing and maintaining the quality
of water resources. Raising their awareness of appropriate practices will help them realise the
grim realities of depleting water sources and at the same time help in engaging them in
monitoring and maintenance.
12.Maintenance: The lack of maintenance of rural water supplies and infrastructure is an area of
concern. This may be due to lack of funding capacity, apathy or unwillingness on the part of the
communities to handle operation and maintenance.

13.Looking for alternate water sources: Water Harvesting
Looking for alternate water sources: Water Harvesting
Looking for alternate water sources: Water Harvesting
Rain Water Harvesting and subsequent recharge of groundwater can help lower the
concentration of minerals in aquifers. Setting up community-based water harvesting units will
involve creating social mobilisation, awareness and confidence among all sections of the
14.Dual water supply and waste water treatment
Dual water supply and waste water treatment
Dual water supply and waste water treatment
To reduce the burden on fresh water sources, the option of dual water system is being worked
out in several parts of the country. The success of this system lies in the fact that filtered
purified water is used only for drinking purposes while other source of water may be used for
purposes other than drinking. This is also is cost saving measure as resources spent on
providing clean water is saved by using alternate sources. Waste water treatment can also be
another effective means of reducing the burden on freshwater sources.
15.Exploring simple, low
Exploring simple, low
Exploring simple, low-cost treatment technologies
cost treatment technologies
cost treatment technologies
Once contamination is detected in a water source, there is need for treatment. In case of
rural areas, modern water purification technologies might not be viable. In villages, it is
important that simple technologies that are easy to use and can be operated without much
technical know-how be promoted.

16.Revival of traditional water conservation structures
Revival of traditional water conservation structures
Revival of traditional water conservation structures
Traditional water conservation structures like tanks, lakes, ponds have been in use in India
since ages. These served as sources of water for people by capturing rainfall and surface
runoff. However in the past few decades one has seen many of these structures becoming
17.Community enterprise for water
Community enterprise for water
Community enterprise for water
Communities, civil society, technology provider can form enterprise for delivery of water
services. Each of the stakeholders plays an important role in the operation and maintenance of
water purification system and delivery.

Awareness: A large part of rural India is inaccessible to conventional advertising media. Only 41 per cent rural households have access to TV. Building awareness is another challenge in rural marketing. A common factor between the rural and the urban consumer is the interest for movies and music. Family is the key unit of identity for both the urban and rural consumer. However, the rural consumer expressions differ from his urban counterpart. For a rural consumer, outing is confined to local fairs and festivals and TV viewing is confined to the state-owned Doordarshan. Consumption of branded products is treated as a special treat or indulgence. Hindustan Lever has its own company-organized media. These are promotional events organized by stockists. Godrej Consumer Products, which is trying to push its soap brands into the interior areas, uses radio to reach the local people in their language. Coca-Cola uses a combination of TV, cinema and radio to reach the rural households. It has also used banners, posters and tapped all the local forms of entertainment. Since price is a key issue in the rural areas, Coca-Cola advertising stressed its `magical' price point of Rs 8 per bottle in all media. LG Electronics uses vans and road shows to reach rural customers. The company uses local language advertising. Philips India uses wall writing and radio advertising to drive its growth in rural areas.
Group Influences
Humans are inherently social animals, and individuals greatly influence each other.
A useful framework of analysis of group influence on the individual is the so called reference group—the term comes about because an individual uses a relevant group as a standard of reference against which oneself is compared. Reference groups come in several different forms. The aspirational reference group refers to those others against whom one would like to compare oneself. For example, many firms use athletes as spokespeople, and these represent what many people would ideally like to be. Associative reference groups include people who more realistically represent the individuals’ current equals or near-equals—e.g., coworkers, neighbors, or members of churches, clubs, and organizations. Finally, the dissociative reference group includes people that the individual would not like to be like. For example, the store literally named The Gap came about because many younger people wanted to actively dissociate from parents and other older and "uncool" people. The Quality Paperback Book specifically suggests in its advertising that its members are "a breed apart" from conventional readers of popular books.
Reference groups come with various degrees of influence. Primary reference groups come with a great deal of influence—e.g., members of a fraternity/sorority. Secondary reference groups tend to have somewhat less influence—e.g., members of a boating club that one encounters only during week-ends are likely to have their influence limited to consumption during that time period.
Another typology divides reference groups into the informational kind (influence is based almost entirely on members’ knowledge), normative (members influence what is perceived to be "right," "proper," "responsible," or "cool"), or identification. The difference between the latter two categories involves the individual’s motivation for compliance. In case of the normative reference group, the individual tends to comply largely for utilitarian reasons—dressing according to company standards is likely to help your career, but there is no real motivation to dress that way outside the job. In contrast, people comply with identification groups’ standards for the sake of belonging—for example, a member of a religious group may wear a symbol even outside the house of worship because the religion is a part of the person’s identity.

Social Influence & Reference Groups
We already know that a consumer's cognitive state has a large impact on his or her behavior in the rural marketplace.

Social Norms also have tremendous impact on the behavior of consumers in the rural marketplace. All behavior is driven by some motivating force and the motivating force that drives purchasing behavior is social acceptance. In other words, consumers are often influenced in their purchasing decisions by whether or not they believe that a particular purchase will or will not lead to social acceptance.
Of course, not everyone aims to be accepted by everyone else. Individuals usually care most about what their refernece group thinks about a particular purchase or subject.
A reference group is "one or more people that someone uses as a basis for comparison or point of reference in forming affective and cognitive responses and performing behaviors".
Thus marketers must pay close attention to the reference groups of their target markets. Marketers must remember when they are creating an image and advertisements for their product, that they must keep in line with the reference groups' expectations.

Reference Groups, Community, Family in the RURAL AREAS.

I. Reference groups are important to consumer behavior, especially in the rural sector.

II. There are many types of groups: normative, comparative, formal, informal, aspirational, contactual, disclaimant.

III. The family is one of the most important reference groups in the rural sector.

IV. Family functions influence behavior.

V. Families (and marketers) use many of the same strategies to influence behavior.

in influencing individuals behaviors using



1.BY MAKING ''STRONG'' [BC] AND ''STRONG'' [PC] associated with
reference groups to PUBLIC LUXURIES, it can influence rural buyers to
product groups like '' GOLF CLUBS'' as an example.

2.BY MAKING ''WEAK'' [BC] AND ''WEAK'' [PC] associated with
reference groups to PRIVATE NECESSARIES, it can influence rural buyers to
product groups like '' MATTRESSES'' as an example.

3.BY MAKING ''STRONG'' [BC] AND ''WEAK'' [PC] associated with
reference groups to PUBLIC NECESSARIES, it can influence rural buyers to
product groups like '' WRIST WATCHES/ CLOTHINGS'' as an example.

4.BY MAKING ''WEAK'' [BC] AND ''STRONG'' [PC] associated with
reference groups to PRIVATE LUXURIES, it can influence rural buyers to
product groups like '' TV SETS/ VIDEO GAMES '' as an example.

People like to think of themselves as making their own consumption choices. In truth, such decisions are very much shaped by the individual’s particular social context
Studies suggest that buyers name interpersonal sources more frequently than any other source in describing their external search efforts.

The power of word-of-mouth communication to motivate attitudes and behaviors is well known.

Recommendations from someone who knows something about the individual is often more useful than what experts or critics have to say.

People tend to define their social context locally rather than globally.

A reference group, or comparison group, is a group whose presumed perspectives, attitudes, or behaviors are used by an individual as the basis for his or her perspectives, attitudes, or behaviors.

Types of Reference Groups
Formal and informal
The level and direction of affect (or emotional response) that the group holds for an individual
Degree of contact
Primary and secondary

Three types of product choices:
Search goods
Products for which it is possible to observe the quality of the product from observation.
Experience goods
Require experience before it’s possible to ascertain product quality.
Importance of “Surrogate experience” – the reported experience of someone else.
Credence goods
one for which even after purchase and consumption it’s difficult to evaluate quality.
The unique features of rural India which call for special attention and thus,subsequent changes in the application of marketing concepts are as follows:
a) Traditional Outlook:
The rural consumer values old customs and tradition. Basic
cultural values
have not yet faded in rural India. Buying decisions are highly influencedby social customs, traditions and beliefs in the rural markets.

b) Levels of Literacy
: - The literacy rate is low in rural areas as compared to urban areas.This comes in way of the marketer in
promoting the product.
Advertising is very expensive making it difficult to communicate with the target audience.

c) Lack of Proper Communication and infrastructure facilities:
- Nearly fifty percentof the villages in the country do not have all weather roads. The Infrastructure Facilitieslike roads, warehouses, communication system, financial facilities are inadequate in ruralareas making physical
distribution becomes costly.

d) Many Languages and Dialects:
- The number of languages and dialects
widelyfrom state to state region to region and probably from district to district. Even though thenumbers of recognized languages are only 16, the dialects are estimated to be around 850.

e) Low Per Capita Income:
- Even though about 33-35% of gross domestic product isgenerated in the rural areas it is shared by 74% of the population.Hence the per
Capita incomes are low compared to the urban areas. Normally the rural consumers spent a majority of their income in basic necessities, which makes them very
price sensitive
Few of the available options in
The traditional media are


Folk Theater & Song,

Wall Painting,

Demonstration, Posters,

Agricultural Games,

NGO’s network The need for innovative means of communication in rural area can be appreciated by thecase study
where advertisement on hand pumps and ponds helpedin selling more soaps to rural customers.
Combining the above two points we would like to stress the need toconcentrate on both product development and communication in order to win the mindspace of the average rural Indian. Again a concept touted by the marketing gurusregarding product and promotion strategies in International markets (analogy extendableto domestic companies moving from urban to rural areas as well) can be used.In order to achieve success company should avoid straight extension. Rather some formof adaptation be it in preferably product or communication or both. In case of deeppockets, product inventions suited for Indian conditions would be able to generate morereturns rather then a simple copied strategy from abroad or urban markets.
a.) Rural Marketing Vehicle (RMV)
Marketers need to make more on- ground contactwith their target audience as well as make demonstration of products as consumers inrural markets rely on the 'touch and feel' experience. One of the ways could be usingcompany delivery vans which can serve both the purposes.
b.) Melas and Haats:-
According to the Indian Market Research Bureau, around 8000melas are held in rural India every year and annual sales at melas amount to Rs.3,500crore. Besides these melas, rural markets have the practice of fixing specific days in aweek as Market Days when exchange of goods and services are carried out.
ii) Presenting your self the suitability for a senior sales position for the top management of an MNC.

In business people want people who are effective. People who are capable, knowledgeable, confident, convincing and efficient.

Being effective comes from two sets of skills that make up your being
1 Knowledge Based Skills
2. Directional Skills
Using the analogy of a bicycle...
Knowledge Based Skills or
Power Based Skills
* Academic - Degree, PhD etc
* Professional Body Qualification
* Technical Qualifications

Personal Skills or
Directional Skills
Perceived abilities…
* Speaking
* Reading
* Writing
* Thinking
* Reasoning
* Listening
* Creativity
* Motivational
* Leadership
These are often referred to as Input / Output Skills
Combining the two within a solid frame gives us a strong, well-balanced
machine with the rear wheel providing the power and the front wheel - the direction.

Power  Direction
For maximum performance it is vital that the wheels are the same size.
In other words that your interpersonal skills match your knowledge skills.
But of course...
A bicycle is going nowhere unless you get on it and pedal! This takes effort - and
this comes from your attitude. If you just want to freewheel everywhere you'll
never meet any challenge head-on and overcome it. Pedal hard for the summit
and achieve your goal. Meet the next challenge with the confidence you have
gained and keep on going.

Effective Interview Skills is a complete sales and marketing course for the  applicant  and its approach is based on the following premise:-
That in order to sell yourself you've got to...
1. Know who you are
2. Know how to write who you are
3. Know how to express who you are
If you can successfully do all three you will put yourself in an excellent position when
it comes to getting a job.

Knowing Who You Are
This is, without doubt, the most complex, difficult and time -consuming part of the
overall approach because it deals with intangible. What makes you, you? Your
personality? Your genes? Your life experiences? Your enthusiasm for life? Without
knowing yourself you cannot truly represent yourself either on paper or in reality.

An MRI scan revealing intense brain activity
There are many companies who will write your CV for you for a fee and I'm sure your
CV will be top-quality. However it is my personal opinion that you can't effectively sell
what someone who doesn't know you has written about you. Interviews are about
selling yourself persuasively and about handling aspects about you that are written in
your CV. It certainly takes a lot of the hard work away if you follow this route but all
you'll really gain from it in the long run is a nicely presented CV not a rock-solid
foundation of yourself that will be able to handle anything that comes your way at
interview in a calm. controlled and winning manner.

Check out Johari's Window for an interesting approach to knowing who you are.

Knowing How To Write Who You Are
Your CV is you. At least until the interview takes place. So it had better be the best it
can be at representing you because you won't get on if you don't stand out. “Effective
CV Writing – What Employers and Agencies Want To See” shows you how to paint a
picture of "you" in words...
... a picture of you that you will have no problem expressing in reality.

Knowing How To Express Who You Are
Communicating your message effectively is the final piece of the jigsaw. You need to
understand what factors come into play when being interviewed. Once you
understand them you can harness them to make sure you come across confidently
and enthusiastically.
Preparing yourself to win at interview is not easy. It takes effort and stamina. It takes
staying-power and determination. As in any race, you have to have the will to win.
If you have the will to win and the mental strength to follow a course from beginning
to end this book is the right place for you. If you want a quick fix solution requiring
little or no effort, this isn't the place.

interview is "an oral examination
of an applicant for a job or college place".
So there you have it - an oral examination of you, taking place face-to-face.
The word "oral" means this is about communication and the word "examination" infers
a degree of in-depth questioning.
You will be subjected to questions about yourself, your skills, your experiences and
your suitability as represented by you in your submitted CV. Your CV is therfore
the basis of the interview.
There's a lot going on at an interview!
If you have prepared properly and know exactly what is stated on your CV then
you'll have nothing to worry about. Of course, everyone worries about being
asked a question they either don't know the answer to or just make a hash of it.
The interviewer is unlikely to make a judgement based on one question.

Make no mistake, this is not about how to write a CV - it's about Marketing and
Selling a product. And the product is YOU.
You won’t get on if you don’t stand out.
Self-deprecation, modesty and understatement don’t result in employers and agencies
beating a path to your door.
You must learn to sell yourself, and your CV is the starting point. Just think… will
the candidates you’re in competition with be thinking the same? Or do you think
they will be working hard at presenting themselves in the best light?
No-one is advocating that your CV represents anything less than the truth about
you, your experience and your abilities. It’s just that there are ways of
presenting information about yourself.

Your challenge is to make the most of the window of opportunity to grab
their attention before the window slams shut.

“Effective CV Writing – What Employers and Agencies Want To See” has
been designed firstly to make you think, then to make you work and then
to make you act. You must condition yourself to think like a recruiter.
Look at your current CV and answer this question… would you employ
The aim is...
- To assist you in getting a job
- To raise your awareness of the main problems associated with CV writing
- To give you a basic framework you can apply to your own CV
- To provide you with a better understanding of the processes involved
- To help you get to interview stage
- and to convince you that Everybody Lives By Selling Something. In this case it
is YOU. The information in this site won't get you a job. You get you a job.
It can help organise your knowledge, your experience, your skills, your wants -
and assist you in avoiding the pitfalls and errors that many candidates make.
Stand out!
The most unique selling point any person possesses,
no matter what the product or service,
is themselves.
Writing your CV is not the end of the hard work, it is the beginning. Believe in
yourself, put in the effort and you will succeed.

Before you can successfully sell and market a product you have to be intimately
familiar with its features, strengths, benefits and weaknesses. Selling and marketing
yourself is no different.
Knowing yourself covers many aspects and the reason you need to know yourself is
because of the necessity to interact with others. The better you know yourself the
better you can adjust your approach if necessary at interview.
One way of considering yourself in relation to others is to se your personality as a
series of windows, with each window representing a different aspect of your
personality as seen by yourself and as seen by others. This is Joharis Window.

The Transparent Area
Things known to you AND known to others. There is free communication between you
and others about these aspects of yourself.

The Blind Area
Things known to others but unknown to you. Others perceive these aspects in you but
you are unaware of them yourself. These aspects can include both strengths and
weaknesses you don't realise you have.

The Hidden Area
Things known to you but which you choose, for whatever reason, to hide from others.
These may include your feelings about others that you keep to yourself.

The Potential Discovery Area
Things unknown to yourself AND unknown to others. Both you and others may be
unaware of, or perhaps vague, about many aspects of your personality. It may just be
an unusual set of circumstances that reveals a different aspect you didn't know you
had and which others hadn't perceived in you before.
Clearly what you are attempting to do is increase the size of the transparent area by
pushing out the restrictions imposed on your true personality by the Blind and Hidden
areas. By doing this you move into the Potential Discovery area as represented by the
small green box.
Discovering your true potential takes self-awareness, intelligent listening and a
positive attitude to what you may perceive as criticism. It also involves working with
friends and colleagues to find out how they feel about you - what things come across
strongly to them? What weaknesses, what strengths do they see?
This has been a very simple look at Joharis Window. If you have found it interesting
the web has in-depth articles and advice on the window and how to use it.
The point is...
You must be comfortable with yourself when you go for interview. And the better you
know yourself the better you can sell yourself. However, the challenge, if there is one,
is to accept the fact that dealing with unknown aspects of your personality requires an
openness that may not come natirally. Try experimenting, you might just find out
something that will pleasantly surprise you!

Everyone we meet creates an impression on us - whether you meet them socially or
in business. Their qualities and attitudes to things are, however, mostly internal and
can't be seen. The impression they leave on us therefore is mostly governed by
external appearances. Very simply, the impression they leave is either "good" or
Someone who leaves a good impression tends to be liked and respected.
Someone who leaves a bad impression tends to be disliked and distrusted.
The problem is that you form a mental set very quickly. Often on information that is

The first 4 Minutes
Research indicates that 4 minutes is the time it takes to form an impression. And once
formed, that impression is very difficult to change. After 4 minutes you will have
made up your mind about that person and that initial impression will stay until
you are proved wrong.
But of course YOU create an impression about yourself every time you meet someone
for the first time - as will inevitably be the case at interview. If you start badly it is
going to be an uphill battle all the way - all the messages are negative. If you start
well - it is relatively plain-sailing, the messages are all positive.
When you meet face to face all sorts of parameters will be measured - consciously
and subconciously...
• Your appearance / grooming. This will be noticed first. Dress appropriately -
todays business environment is no longer suit and tie but even casual dress
can and should be smart.
• The physical greeting. This has got to be genuine and not contrived. A firm
handshake - not necessarily crushing grip - is vital. No limp or sweaty
handshakes please!
• Your smile (or lack of). Can't be substituted by words. An engaging smile is
one of the strongest communication forms.
• Your speech. Should be clear and measured. Avoid being loud - take your lead
from the interviewer. Avoid mumbling!
• Your opening line. Should be short and direct. Perhaps you have been asked
about your journey there or a comment on the weather has been made. Try
and think of possible topics - current news items for instance that could make
for an initial opener. Reply calmly - then shut up!
• Your eye contact (or lack of). Like the smile, eye contact is one of the most
potent forms of communication. And it doesn't lie! Make sure that you look the
interviewer straight in the eye while initially shaking their hand and then
maintain eye contact thorughout. Nobody is saying you have to stare-down
your opposite number but lack of eye contact makes people look
uncomfortable and as if they have something to hide.
• Your enthusiasm for the meeting. You're going for a job godammit. Be
enthusiastic! If you can't be enthusiastic what are you doing there in the first
A lot of decisions are going to be made very quickly... Do I like this person? Do they
like me? Can we form a lasting relationship? Is this going to be a worthwhile use of
my time?

Body Language
relative importance of verbal and nonverbal
communication - otherwise known as the 55-38-7 rule. In other words...
• 55% of the message we convey to other people is conveyed through Body
• 38% is formed through the Tone of your voice
• 7% only - is conveyed through Words
So... Body Language is an extremely powerful communicator!

Body Language
As you've read, Body Language is vitally important to making a good first impression.
When we communicate we use Words, Tone of Voice and Body Language to provide
the delivery of our message.
Words - 7%
Tone of Voice 38%
Body Language 55%
So what makes up Body Language?
In simple terms...
1. Posture
The way you carry yourself says volumes about who you are. Your posture can
indicate interest, disinterest, emotion, self-belief, perceived status. This last one is
interesting because it will change depending on who we're with. You may be a leader
within a certain group of people but defer to others when the group comprises
different members.
At interview you are aiming to create a good, positive rapport between you and the
interviewer. And research would show that when people are at ease with one another
they subconciously adopt similar postures and use similar gestures.
2. Territory
All of us are surrounded by a zone or space which we regard as our personal space.
I'm sure you've been in a situation face-to-face with someone where you feel that
they're standing just a bit too close - it becomes a little uncomfortable, but not
necessarily threatening.
There are generally regarded to be 4 personal areas which differ by their distance
away from you:-
• Intimate - you allow people to come within 15 - 20 centimetres of you
• Personal - you like someone but not intimately and will allow them within 50
to 100 centimetres of you
• Business - generally between 1 and 3 metres it covers business meetings and
social gatherings
• Public - over 3 metres. You don't know people and need to keep your
distance until you are made to feel more comfortable
You must remember that you are always going to be more relaxed when in your own
environment. But interviews are rarely, if ever, on your territory are they?
And of course...
You never get a second chance to make a good first impression!

Your voice is the second most important element of communication -
Body Language
Dr. Albert Mehrabian, currently Professor Emeritus of Psychology at UCLA, is
best known for his publications on the relative importance of verbal and nonverbal
communication - otherwise known as the 55-38-7 rule. In other words...
• 55% of the message we convey to other people is conveyed through Body
• 38% is formed through the Tone of your voice
• 7% only - is conveyed through Words

From the picture... do you believe the message conveyed by the person is more likely
to be positive or negative? Whoever she's talking to can't see her - all they have to go
on is her tone of voice (she's smiling, so likely to be appealing) and the words she
uses ( can't hear her but a subjective judgement would lead me personally to believe
that the interaction with the customer is going to be pleasant and positive)!
The same applies at interview - your voice is a powerful communicator.. Use it
positively and you'll be well on your way, use it negatively and you almost certainly
fail to be selected.

So what makes up your voice? Four elements...
• Pitch
The pitch of your voice can be a significant determinant in how you are perceived at
interview. A lower pitched voice is generally regarded as being more attractive,
conveying a picture of someone who is affable, influential and easy to listen to. A
high-pitched voice conveys someone who is excitable, tense or anxious - qualities you
don't want to portray! Practise deep breathing while waiting for the interview to begin.
• Power
This is about inflection and emphasis NOT VOLUME! Try saying these words out
Hello? Hello. Hello!
The word is the same in each case but the meaning conveyed is completely
different. There are many sources of information regarding exercises you can do
to improve your use of inflection. Take a look and see what you can learn. Using
inflection conveys the power you want without the volume. A must to avoid is
speaking in a monotone. Implies that you're not enthusiastic or passionate about
anything - including yourself.
• Pace
The key to speaking at an appropriate pace is remembering that you need to speak at
a rate that allows the interviewer to understand what you’re actually saying. Listening
is a two-step process - you have to physically hear what is said and then translate
what you have heard into meaning. If you speak too quickly, this vital step of the
process is lost. Unless you are a naturally even-paced speaker, slow down and don't
come across as excited. Enthusiasm at an interview is fine - excitement is not.
and lastly...
• Pause
The use of the pause is an art which must be practised. But many people are not
comfortable with silence and so fill the gap with meaningless words which only serve
to weaken their point or reply. You may find yourself at interview searching for a
word. Don't blather with fillers - pause (it may seem like an eternity), breathe in and
you'll find with practise that you think faster and can retrieve the appropriate word.
Be as expressive as possible when you speak and remember to smile. Speak in short
sentences. Be focussed. Use silence to your advantage. Use it to think ahead; use it
to give the interviewer a break from listening.
Use the 4 "P"'s to your advantage. They can help you win!

Your interviewer has the task of buying. They are in the market to buy the services of
someone who can perform the duties required of the role. To buy someone who is
skilled, best qualified and, in their judgement, the best fit.
So if they are buying you must be selling. And you win simply by creating a picture
of that person in their mind.
You must also remember that whether they are recommending the candidate for
further interview or making the final decision they are likely to be under some degree
of stress - no-one wants to be seen to have made a wrong decision, especially when it
comes to recruiting people.
They may also be fitting in a number of interviews in the one day. Interviewing in a
thorough, professional manner is tiring; it involves a lot of listening, probing,
interpreting and mental note-taking. This may mean that they don't always hear or
interpret everything you say as clearly as you think it comes across.

Minimise miscommunication by…
• Thinking before you speak. Phrase out what you have to say in short, simple
sentences. Remain alert
• Do not volunteer information. Just provide the information needed to answer
the question
• Get and keep to the point
• Stay positive. Never say or imply anything about a past employer that is less
than complimentary
Being face-to-face is not something to be afraid of. It is a natural part of the business
process. Be prepared. Be confident. Be enthusiastic!
Many candidates have either no experience of or no clear idea of what may
transpire in an interview. We hope these hints and tips will help you achieve a
more effective interviewing technique.
Before the interview...
• Find out as much as you can about the company.
Use the web, use the recruitment agency if applicable, use any contacts
you may have. Try to find out about sales, number of employees,
competitors, products and plans for the future. Check for any advertising
they may be doing.
• Select an appropriate style of dress.
This can be a little difficult to judge in todays casual dress code market.
First impressions still last and interviews are of a serious nature. I would
suggest a smart, professional look.
• Develop a list of questions to ask when invited.
There is nothing worse than to be given the opportunity to demonstrate
your knowledge by asking some searching questions and to have nothing
to say.
• Make sure you bring several copies of your CV - just in case!
• Make absolutely certain you know the exact location of the interview
and how to get there.
IF you know you are going to be late ring and let either your recruitment
agency if applicable know so they can inform their client or ring directly
yourself. DO NOT not bother to turn up! Your recruitment agency won't
touch you and their client won't either.
• Arrive ten or fifteen minutes early.
Absorb the atmosphere. Read anything on tables and walls. This time will  allow you to relax, reduce your anxiety and mentally prepare. Take a few
deep breaths and think of something pleasant.
• Make sure you know the name of the person who is interviewing you.

• TURN OFF your mobile, i-phone, blackberry etc! But.. if you have
forgotten to do so and it rings - DO NOT TAKE THE CALL!
(A candidate once did this to me at interview. It ended there!)

This it, the moment of truth - you're face to face and the interview is about to start.
Remember - this is about information exchange and assessment. Statements you
make will be compared to your written CV. Verbal and non-verbal communication will
take place. You win or lose at interview.
• Start on a positive note.
– a firm handshake, good eye contact, a sincere smile and a friendly greeting
will get things going your way.
• Be prepared for small talk.
• Research shows that interviewers can sometimes be under stress when they
conduct the interview – particularly if they are fitting a number of interviews
into a packed working day or if they are not well-used to professionally
interviewing candidates. This may mean that they don’t hear or interpret
everything you say as clearly and correctly as you think it comes across.
• Minimise miscommunication by…
• Thinking before you speak. Phrase out what you have to say in
short, simple sentences. Remain alert.
• Do not volunteer information. Just provide the information needed
to answer the question.
• Get and keep to the point.
• Stay positive. Never say or imply anything about a past employer
that is less than complimentary
• Don’t be afraid to speak up.
If there is something you’re unsure of... say so. If there’s something you
don’t understand... ask. If your interviewer seems to be deliberately
provocative give a reasoned response if you disagree – they may just be
testing your reaction. It is far better to get these things out in the open
early in the process than let them become obstacles later on.

Face to Face
Picture this...
You have your interview. You've done all your research. You have your list of
questions. You've rehearsed the interview over and over again in your mind. And now
you're sitting in reception waiting...
• Are you making polite conversation with the receptionist?
• Are you going to be greeted by someone who is going to escort you to your
• Is your interviewer going to meet and greet you personally and escort you to
the interview room?
• Are you looking at your surroundings and making judgements as to what type
of company they are?
• Are you re-reading your CV?
• Are you re-reading the job-description?
• Are you calm? Controlled? Prepared? Ready?
This is where the interview starts - not in the interview room or office. (In reality
the interview started in your mind long before you even reached the interview
In short, you must be prepared for all eventualities and be able to make in-flight
corrections as necessary without becoming flustered or phased. You are meeting face-
to-face and you must be ready if you are to do well.
• Be who you are.
Avoid trying to guess what the interviewer wants to hear. Experienced
interviewers will see through this.
• Avoid politics and religion
... unless you have taken them at primary degree level. Do not tell jokes.
• Do not take notes.
You cannot write, listen and speak at the same time.
• Wait for the interviewer to discuss salary and benefit options.
They will want to know what your expectations are, but try and avoid
being absolute – give a range instead. If asked what your current salary
package is, give a clean answer. Do not hedge or become evasive, it
makes employers edgy.
• End the interview cleanly.
If you like what you have heard and seen and want to be considered –
remember this is an opportunity for the company to “sell” you as well –
tell them of your interest.
• There is no such thing as an “informal” interview in reality.
Even if this is how the interview is portrayed be as prepared as if it was your
first meeting.
Remember the purpose of the interview at all times. Your prospective
employer wants to know three things above all...
• Can you do the job?
• Will you do the job?
• Will you fit in to the organisation?
There are two aspects to questions:-
1. What the interviewer asks you
2. What you ask the interviewer
What kind of questions could I be asked?
There are three types of questions typically found at interviews:-
1. “Hypothetical”, or “scenario” type questions
These are questions that place you in a hypothetical situation and are
designed to test your skill at answering questions rather than in testing job-
related skills.
Example: Suppose you arrive at the office late to perform a time-critical task
outside normal hours and you find that you have forgotten your access key.
What would you do?
2. “Leading” questions
Questions that hint at an answer but under the control of the interviewer. It
calls on you to make a judgement on how to answer
Example: Working on your own doesn’t bother you – does it?
3. “Behavioural” questions
Questions that seek demonstrated examples of behaviour from your past
experiences and concentrate on job-related functions. They may include:-
a) “Open” questions: these require more than a yes or no response.
They often begin “tell me…,” “describe…”, “When…?”
Example: “Describe a time where you had to be flexible in planning a
work load”.
b) “Closed questions”: used mostly to verify or confirm information
Example: “You have a degree in politics and economics… is that
c) “Why” questions:
Used to reveal a rationale for decisions you have made or to
determine your level of motivation.
Example: “Why did you decide to do this rather than do that?”
Here are some possible questions you may be asked...
• Tell me about yourself
• What do you know about our company / organisation?
• What do you look for in a job?
• How long do you think it would take you to make a meaningful contribution to
our company?
• Give me an example of...
• Why are you considering leaving your present position?
• What did you like most about your most recent position?
• What were your most recent, significant achievements in your present
• Can you work under pressure and to deadlines? Give me some examples.
• If you had your choice of company or job - where would you go?
• What are your salary expectations?
• Why do you want to work for us?
• Are you goal oriented? What are your main ones?
• What strengths do you believe you have?
• What weaknesses do you think you have?
• Where do you see yourself in three years? (or five years etc)
• If you could start your career all over again - what would you do differently?
• Which of your achievements are you most proud of?
• What would you like to have accomplished in your present position but
haven't? What stopped you?
• What do you perceive to be the toughest aspects of the job if you were offered
the position?
• What problems face our industry in the next five years?
• How long do you think the challenges you will face in this position will interest
• What do you do in your spare time?
• How do you deal with stress / tension / boredom?
• Who do you think has taught you the most in your lifetime? Why is it valuable
to you?
• Why are you particularly interested in these hobbies?
If you have been interviewed by someone else previous to this interview
watch for this question!
"I just want to make sure that my colleague has explained the job properly to you.
Can you outline to me your understanding of the role?"
Sounds easy but I've seen candidates completely thrown by this question to the point
where they are speechless. Very hard to recover from this!
• What questions do you have for me?
Most experienced interviewers tend to agree that candidates who do not ask
questions are rarely hired. Your questions can lead to a more open and relaxed
interview for both parties. Conducting an interview is hard work - it involves active
listening which can be tiring as it consumes brain power. Giving the interviewer the
opportunity to speak for a change can give them a breather and potentially look at
you in a different light.
This is your opportunity to gain control of the interview for a short while at least so
ask those questions when invited!
How You Come Across
As the interview progresses how you come across to someone is an ever-changing
collection of metrics.
Here are some of your aspects that could be being interpreted by an interviewer:-
• Friendliness
Distant / Aloof Reserved Approachable Warm/friendly Outgoing
• Poise
Ill at ease Tense At ease Self-assured Extremely self-assured
• Personality
Poor Dubious Average Very good Excellent
• Conversational Ability
Talks very little Hesitant Average Talks well Excellent expression / fluency
• Alertness
Slow to grasp ideas OK Quick Bright
• Drive & Initiative
Poor goals Lacking effort Some initiative Strives hard High Goals
• Knowledge of field
Poor Limited Average Well informed Excellent all round knowledge
• Qualifications
Not relevant Some relevance Average but OK Relevant Ideal
• Skill set
None appropriate Some relevant Average, but OK Suitable Ideal
• Experience
Nothing relevant Some relevance OK, spec covered Above average Ideal
• Reaction to Authority
Major concerns Some concerns No forseeable problems No problems
How do you think you would rate?

The time that follows an interview is just as important as the time before and the time
• Before it becomes a blur
Review what went well and what didn’t go so well. It’s your opportunity to
become better next time.
• Make notes
of anything that you believe was agreed to. This allows you to check an offer
made to you against your recollection.


Managing a Business

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Leo Lingham


In Managing a business, I can cover all aspects of running a business--business planning, business development, business auditing, business communication, operation management, human resources management , training, etc.


18 years of working management experience covering such areas
as business planning, business development, strategic planning,
marketing, management services, personnel administration.


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing, product management, training, business coaching etc.




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