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1.DISCUSS THE OBJECTIVE AND USES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL.DESCRIBE THE METHODS WHICH HAVE BEEN USED IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM IN ANY ORGANISATION U R FAMILIAR WITH.HIGHLIGHT THE MERITS AND DEMERITS OF THIS METHODS.

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3.Discuss the objectives and uses of performance appraisal. Describe the methods which have been used in performance appraisal system in any organisation you are familiar with. Highlight the merits and demerits of those methods. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.
Performance Appraisal is defined as structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, where the work performance of the subordinate is to be taken into consideration, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills  development . Appraisal results are used to determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses, and promotion .  Simultaneously appraisal results are also used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling, or in extreme cases, demotion, dismissal or decrease in pay.
  
Performance Appraisal is a part of   ORGANIZATIONAL   DEVELOPMENT   AND  career development.

THE  OBJECTIVES  ARE

1    Know what your employees have achieved and can achieve
2   Know what your employees’ weaknesses are
3   Understand how each employee’s role fits into the overall business
4   Compare the efficiency of different staff members
5   Set realistic goals
6   Identify ways your business can be expanded or enhanced
They allow your staff to:
1   Feel valued
2   Understand what is expected of them
3   Understand the business they are involved in
4   Understand their weaknesses
5   Identify their strengths
6   Identify areas they need further training in
Offer opinions and insights that may improve the business as a whole

A performance appraisal   system links achievements at all levels of the organisation with corporate, business and unit's  objectives. It provides the framework for:
• clarifying expectations, roles, responsibilities and resources required to achieve goals;
• improving communication and understanding between managers and employees in terms of work requirements, expectations, performance criteria and achievements;
• linking individual, team or unit performance with quality assurance, continuous improvement and evaluation processes of the organisation;
• facilitating, encouraging and assessing performance;
• encouraging structured feedback from employees and supervisors on performance and career planning and from the community on organisational performance;
• introducing an outcomes focused culture and increasing motivation;
• collecting data and information needed for management decision making or external review ;
• increasing the organisation’s capability to meet future requirements and to improve outcomes for the community;
• identifying performance which requires improvement; and
• recognising and acknowledging performance.
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FOR  INDIVIDUAL  EMPLOYEES,

-an  opportunity  for  self  appraisal.

-an  opportunity  for  the  manager  to appraise  the  staff.

-helps  to  determine  the  strengths  of  the  employee.

-helps  to  determine  areas  for  improvements

-helps  to  determine  the  employee  training  needs.

-helps  to  determine  the  types  of  training  programs

-helps  to  determine  the  merit  rewards  for   the  employees.

-an  opportunity  to   acknowledge /  offer  recognition  for  performance

-an  opportunity  to  improve  the  employee's  capability/competencies.

-helps  to  develop  individual  development  plan.


Benefits of performance appraisals.
At a macro level performance appraisals   assists organisations to match outcomes with organization objectives. It provides a system for improving organization  performance and outcomes, within the  organization's  policy framework, while maintaining good industrial relations. It generates benefits throughout organisational functions and processes.
Performance appraisal  recognises that people are the organisation’s most valuable resource, and that people are the key to an innovative, professional and service-oriented public service. Performance management emphasises the relationship between the management and development of people and an effective organisation, and provides a fair and equitable environment for improving performance.
A performance appraisal   system links achievements at all levels of the organisation with corporate, business and unit's  objectives. It provides the framework for:
• clarifying expectations, roles, responsibilities and resources required to achieve goals;
• improving communication and understanding between managers and employees in terms of work requirements, expectations, performance criteria and achievements;
• linking individual, team or unit performance with quality assurance, continuous improvement and evaluation processes of the organisation;
• facilitating, encouraging and assessing performance;
• encouraging structured feedback from employees and supervisors on performance and career planning and from the community on organisational performance;
• introducing an outcomes focused culture and increasing motivation;
• collecting data and information needed for management decision making or external review ;
• increasing the organisation’s capability to meet future requirements and to improve outcomes for the community;
• identifying performance which requires improvement; and
• recognising and acknowledging performance.
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IN  THE  ABOVE  LISTED  ORGANIZATION, THE  PM  IS CONDUCTED  AS  FOLLOWS:


1. The objectives of the system are clearly defined

Objectives of the system, and its underlying principles, are clearly defined in terms of potential benefits to the organisation, its employees and its clients.  Guidelines are clear and unambiguous.


2. The system is aligned with corporate objectives, priorities and strategies

The system reflects the organisation's goals and priorities and is linked with corporate and business plans.  The system has a strong strategic focus, with recognition given to performance and achievements that advance corporate priorities.

The system is designed in full consultation with employees and their representatives as it needs to be supported at all levels of the organisation to be accepted and workable.


3.  The system is equitable

The system is equitable; open; free from gender, race and other bias; and fairly and consistently applied.


4.    The organisation focuses on performance improvement

The organisation fosters performance recognition and realisation of the individual’s potential by taking a positive approach to cultural change and focusing on outcomes, continuous improvement and training.  Performance management is not used as a primarily punitive means of dealing with unsatisfactory performance or disciplinary matters.



5.    Commitment and ownership of the process is demonstrated

Managers and supervisors perceive performance management as a fundamental and ongoing management function and a key planning and evaluation mechanism.  The organisation fosters ‘whole of organisation’ ownership of performance management processes rather than managerial or human resource specialist ownership.


6.    Comprehensive training is provided

Training and education needs are determined and all employees, including supervisors and managers, receive adequate training.  Follow up support and maintenance training is provided.  Managers and supervisors obtain the necessary interpersonal and communication skills required for providing quality feedback.


Performance criteria and standards are clearly defined in workplans and are objective, job related and based on performance over which the team or individual can exert control.  Outcomes are measurable in terms of individual, work group or team achievement and goals are challenging yet attainable.



7.  Confidentiality is assured

Employees are confident in the system’s ability to provide anonymity and confidentiality and appropriate safeguards against bias.  Agreement is reached on documentation to be produced and guidelines for its retention.



8.  Data generated is used appropriately

Performance data is analysed when decisions are being made on organisational improvement strategies and training and development initiatives.  Inappropriate generation and use of performance data does not occur.


9.  The system is linked to a sound grievance handling process

The performance management process includes a complaint mechanism, or link to the organisation’s existing grievance and harassment policy and procedures.



10.  The system is regularly reviewed

Review mechanisms are in place to ensure that the system is effective, relevant and that it remains in line with corporate objectives and priorities.  The system is compared with other performance indicators (such as absenteeism, turnover, productivity levels) in order to gauge its effectiveness.  Attitude surveys are used to measure levels of motivation, commitment and job satisfaction.    


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Leo Lingham

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In Managing a business, I can cover all aspects of running a business--business planning, business development, business auditing, business communication, operation management, human resources management , training, etc.

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18 years of working management experience covering such areas
as business planning, business development, strategic planning,
marketing, management services, personnel administration.

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24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing, product management, training, business coaching etc.

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BESTBUSICON   Pty Ltd--PRINCIPAL

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MASTERS IN SCIENCE

MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION

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