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  • Hello Dear Sir, I really need answers of these questions.I have to submit my assignments within 3 days so hope you understand.If you will answer all these questions i will be thankful to you..Thank you

Managing a Business/Hello Dear Sir, I really need answers of these questions.I have to submit my assignments within 3 days so hope you understand.If you will answer all these questions i will be thankful to you..Thank you

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Question
1) Explain the concept and need of human resource informational system(HRIS).Describe the approaches which have been followed in any organisation for managing information at the micro and macro level.Discuss the advantages of computerizing resources information system.Briefly describe the the organisation you are referring to.

2)Explain the aims and the objectives of career planning. Describe the benefits of career planning by citing suitable examples from any organisation you are aware of.Discus the concept of career planning and succession planning in today,s rapidly changing environment..

****MS-22***  HR DEVELOPMENT

1)WHAT are the phases of organisational development and the conditions for its success.Describe with the help of the realistic account of the system prevailing in the organisation you are working in or familiar with.Give brief detail of the organisation and the context you are referring to.

2)How are performance management system different from appraisal system?Explain with the help of an organisational example known to you or you are familiar with. Describe the context and organisation you are referring to.

3)CAn any underlying characteristic required for performing a given task,activity or role successfully be considered as competency?Elaborate and explain the concepts and discuss various facets underlying this statement.site examples to how is competency mapping done in an organisational set up  known to you or you are familiar with.Describe the organisation and the context,you are referring to..

4)HRD audit play a role in the development of an organisation. critically evaluate with the example from the organisation you are familiar with,referring to various aspects of HRD audit. Briefly describe the organisational  set up you are referring to.

5) Explain the learning cycle concept proposed by David kolb(1984) and discuss its relevance with the organisational situation you are in or familiar with.critically evaluate its efficacy with respect to developing/changing mindset.Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to..

Answer
SUSSHREE,

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PLEASE  RESPOND




HERE  IS  SOME  SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.
SOME  ANSWERS  HELD  BACK  DUE TO  SPACE CONSTRAINT.
PLEASE  FORWARD  THESE  BALANCE  QUESTIONS  TO  MY  EMAIL  ID   
leolingham2000@gmail.com.
I  will send  the balance  asap.WITHIN  MINUTES
Regards
LEO  LINGHAM
==========================================








4.Explain the concept and need of Human Resource Informational System (HRIS). Describe the approaches which have been followed in any organisation for managing information at the macro and micro level. Discuss the advantages of computerizing resources information system. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

Significance of Information System in HRM

HRIS, or Human resource information system, is a  solution for  businesses to help automate and manage their HR, payroll, management and accounting activities. HRIS generally should provide the capability to more effectively plan, control and manage HR costs; achieve improved efficiency and quality in HR decision making; and improve employee and managerial productivity and effectiveness.
HRIS offers HR, payroll, benefits, training, recruiting and compliance solutions. Most are flexibly designed with integrated databases, a comprehensive array of features, and powerful reporting functions and analysis capabilities that you need to manage your workforce. This can give back hours of the HR administrator’s day previously spent attending to routine employee requests. They also facilitate communication processes and save paper by providing an easily-accessible, centralized location for company policies, announcements, and links to external URL’s. Employee activities such as time-off requests and W-4 form changes can be automated, resulting in faster approvals and less paperwork.

HRIS    can enable  the   system   and   OFFER

-ability  to  collect  qualtitative informations
-ability  to collect  quantitative informations
-ability  to  handle wide range of  functionalities
-ability  to store
-ability  to track
-ability  to  monitor
-ability  to track variances
-ability  to  provide  trends
etc etc.

HRIS    PROVIDES    FOR  
FOR  MANAGEMENT

The information  that  can be  used  for   various  purposes,

-strategic HR planning
-delivering increased  productivity
-reducing  service cycles
-increasing  the  understanding  of  ORGANIZATION   HR  needs
-facilitating business and  HR  process re-engineering.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INFORMATION    can  also  be used across the  organization  as an  information
utility  to

-support  policy making
-meet  regulatory  and  legislative requirements
-support  research  and  development
-support  consistent and  rapid  decision  making
-enable  effective  and efficient  utilization  of resources
-identify  and  manage  risks
-evaluate  and document quality, performance and achievements.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HRIS   MAKING INFORMATION  AVAILABLE
The  availability  of  information is  fundamental  to  the  decision making
process. Decisions  are  made within the organization at
-STRATEGIC
-OPERATIONAL
-PROGRAMMES
-ACTIVITY  LEVEL.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
The  information  needs and decision making  activities  of the  
various  levels of  management

SENIOR  MANAGEMENT
Strategic business  direction

-information  for  strategically positioning  the  organization
-competitive  analysis and  performance evaluation,
-strategic  planning and policy,
-external factors that  influence  the  direction
etc

MID LEVEL MANAGEMENT
Organizational and operational functions

-information  for  coordination  of  work units
-information  for  delivery  programmes
-evaluation  of  resources usage
-budget control
-problem  solving
-operational  planning
etc


MID  LEVEL  MANAGEMENT
Programme  management within units

-information  for  implementing programmes
-information  for  managing   programmes
-management   of  resources usage
-project scheduling
-problem  solving
-operational  planning
etc




LINE  MANAGEMENT
Activity management

-information for  routine  decision  making
-information  for  problem solving
-information  for  service delivery
etc.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
HRIS   MANAGEMENT  SUPPORT  SYSTEMS

The  HRIS  management  oriented  support  systems   provide support
to  various  levels  of  management.

Executive  Information  Systems  allow  executives to see where  a
problem  or  opportunity  exists.

Decision  Support  Systems are  used  by  mid-level management  
to support  the  solution  of  problems that  require judgement
by  the  problem solver.

Line  Managers   use Management  Reporting Systems  for  
routine operational  information.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
MANAGEMENT  FUNCTIONAL   INFORMATION  SYSTEMS

HRIS  HELPS  TO

-PROVIDE   INFORMATION   FOR  DECISION  MAKERS  TO  MAKE  SOLUTIONS
FOR   THE  MOST  CHALLENGING  SITUATIONS.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE    INFORMATION  FOR  MAKING  STRATEGIC  DECISIONS
IN A  COMPETITIVE  SITUATION.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR   STRATEGIC  HR  PLANNING
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  CORPORATE  HR PLANNING
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  INDUSTRY HR  BENCHMARKING.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  PROCESS  ENGINEERING
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION FOR  DEVELOPING   STRATEGIC  ALLIANCES.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR   ALLOCATING  OF   RESOURCES
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  RESOURCE  MANAGEMENT
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  Identifying strategic shifts and positioning  WITH   HR  in anticipation of several possible outcomes – scenario planning --is a core part of our strategic and tactical planning.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  TO  SEE  Changes in market conditions, technical advances, and economic issues will all affect THE  INDUSTRY /  BUSINESS   HR  SITUATIONS  in the future.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  TO   find the most effective  HR strategies in order to succeed in these challenging times.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  PROPRIETARY  DATABASES  AND  ANALYTICAL  SUPPORT.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  ON  ECONOMIC  CONDITIONS-PAST/PRESENT/FUTURE.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  THAT  enables  to provide  valuable understanding of the opportunities, challenges, potential pitfalls and HR  implications
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  WHICH   helps organizations realize the most value from their HR   assets.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  OBJECTIVE  HR PLANNING.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION   FOR the execution of effective HR  ROLE  in  business planning and sound management usually defines these differences in profitability.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDE   INFORMATION  TO   analyze and prioritize the  HR   DRIVERS  to help to  achieve a superior competitive position. Vital to this process is an understanding of the economic advantages of scale and scope.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDES   INFORMATION  FOR  Operational excellence results in the attainment of world-class quality and productivity in the delivery of services .
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-PROVIDES  INFORMATION  to develop a clear understanding of their operating HR  practices and associated costs, particularly relative to competitors.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MACRO / MICRO  USES   OF  HRIS

Describe the organisation you are referring to

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*marketing
*manufacturing
*sales
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*distribution
*warehousing/  transportation
*TQM  
===============================================
IN  MACRO  /  MICRO  OPERATING   TERMS ,  HRIS  
-HOLDS
-SUPPORTS
THE  FOLLOWING  INFORMATION  SYSTEMS  FOR  MANAGEMENT

-HR  AUDIT
-HR  BUDGET
-Strategic  HRM  Plann
-HR Strategies and Policies.
-Competency-based HR
-Knowledge management
=============================
JOB   DEVELOPMENT

-Job analysis
-job Role/
-Job Description.
-Job specifications
-Job enrichment  PROGRAMS
-Job  rotation  PROGRAMS
=========================
RECRUITMENT/ SELECTION

-recruitment  PROGRAMS/DETAILS
-selection PROGRAMS/ DETALS
-induction  PROGRAMS
-orientation  PROGRAMS
===========================
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR  PROGRAMS
-employee  engagement  
-motivation
-organization  culture  CHANGE  PROGRAMS
-organization  development  PLANS
==============================

ORGANIZATION
-org. designss.
-org. structure.
=====================================
HUMAN RESOURCING
-HR plan
-manpower  plan
-succession  plan
-talent management  plan
=============================
PERFORMANCE  MANAGEMENT
-performance appraisals systems
-performance  management    processes.
================================
HR  DEVELOPMENT
-org. learning  programs
-training  plans
-education  plans
-development  plans
-Training  evaluation plans/  data
-e learning  programs
-management  development  plans
-career planning /development  plans
=============================
REWARD  MANAGEMENT
-job  evaluation  results
-  reward  management plan
-administration  of  rewards
-benefits  plans
==============================
EMPLOYEE  RELATIONS
-organization  communications
-employee  communications.
-staff  amenities  plans
=================================
HEALTH AND  SAFETY.
-OHS          plans/ programs
=================================

HRIS   PROVIDES  METRICS    OFFER  HELP   AT    four  levels  of
perspectives.

1. Strategic Perspective — the results of strategic initiatives managed by the HR group. The strategic perspective focuses on the measurement of the effectiveness of major strategy-linked people goals.

EXAMPLES
-change management capability of the organization
-organization compensation and benefit package with respect market rate.
-organization culture survey
-HR BUDGET / ACTUAL
-HR COSTS BENCHMARK EXTERNALLY
-HR annual resource plan.
-skills/ competency level
etc

2.Operational Perspective — the operational tasks at which HR must excel. This piece of the Balanced Scorecard provides answers to queries about the effectiveness and efficiency in running HR processes that are vital to the organization.


EXAMPLES
-time taken to fill vacancies
-cost per recruitment promotions
-absenteeism by job category
-accident costs
-accident safety ratings
-training cost per employee
-training hours per employee
-average employee tenure in the company
-lost time due to injuries
-no. of recruiting advertising programs
-no. of employees put through training.
-turnover rate
-attrition rate
etc



3.Financial Perspective — this perspective tries to answer questions relating to the financial measures that demonstrate how people and the HR function add value to the organization.


EXAMPLES
-compensation and benefits per employee
-sales per employee
-profit per employee
-cost of injuries
-HR expenses per employee
-turnove cost
-employee '' workers compensation costs''
etc


4.Customer Perspective — this focuses on the effectiveness of HR from the internal customer viewpoint. Are the customers of HR satisfied with their service; are service level agreements met;

EXAMPLES
-employee perception of the HRM
-employee perception of the company , as an employer
-customer/market perception of the company, as an employer.
etc
=======================================================

HERE  ARE SOME  COMMON  EXAMPLES.

FOR EACH  ELEMENT,THE  COMPANY  SETS  ITS  CRITERIA  FOR
HR STRATEGY.
=======================================================
1.ABSENTEEISM  PER EMPLOYEES  [DAYS]

2.AVERAGE  RECRUITMENT TIME  [DAYS]

3.EMPLOYEE TURNOVER  [ % ]

4.EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION  [ LEVELS ]

5.AVERAGE  EMPLOYEE  TENURE [ YEARS]

6.INDUCTION  TRAINING  [ % OF NEW EMPLOYEES]

7. TRAINING  WORKSHOP  [ % ] CONDUCTED/PLANNED

8. TRAINING  AT EXTERNAL COURSES [ %]  ACTUAL  / PLANNED

9.PERFORMANCE  APPRAISALS  [ NOS.]  AGAINST  TOTAL  EMPLOYEES.
=====================================================
HERE  ARE  SOME
PROBABLE  HR  METRICS  IN   COMPENSATION  ONLY

1.ANNUAL  TOTAL  COMPENSATION INCREASE RATE [%] [this year vs last year]
2.ANNUAL  TURNOVER  RATE.[this year  v s  last year]
3.COMPENSATION &BENEFITS  AS A  %  OF  SALES.
4.COMPENSATION & BENEFITS  AS  A  %  OF OPERATING EXPENSES.
5.COMPENSATION & BENEFITS   PER EMPLOYEE [ this year vs last year]
6.COMPENSATION & BENEFITS  COMPETITIVENESS INDEX.
7.INCENTIVE  PAYMENT   AS  A % OF  TOTAL COMPENSATION & BENEFITS.
8.BENEFITS  SPEND AS  A  %  OF  TOTAL  COMPENSATION & BENEFITS
9.COMPENSATION & BENEFITS   BY  LEVELS  OF  STAFF
-senior mgnt/ executives/middle mgnt/ junior mgnt/supervisors/staff etc.
10.NEW COMERS  COMPENSATION & BENEFITS      AGAINST TOTAL FOR  THE  YEAR.
11.% OF  EMPLOYEES  SATISFIED  WITH CURRENT  SYSTEM [ SURVEY ]
12.MEDICAL BENEFITS  EXPENSES  TOTAL  [ THIS  YEAR VS  LAST YEAR]
13.MEDICAL  BENEFITS  EXPENSES   PER  EMPLOYEE.
=======================================================

HERE  ARE  SOME   STANDARDS  METRICS

1   HR  UTILIZATION        %   TOTAL  PAYROLL  $ / TOTAL  SALES  $
        
2.   HR  PRODUCTIVITY       %   TOTAL  EMPLOYMENT COST $/TOTAL
         PRODUCTION  VOLUME  IN $    X  100
        
3.   HR  BUDGET       %    ACTUAL   $ / BUDGET   $      X   100
         
4'.   ACCIDENT  COSTS       %   CURRENT  ACTUAL  $   /    LAST YEAR  $  X  100
        
5'.    ACCIDENT  SAFETY       %   CURRENT  ACTUAL  $   /    LAST YEAR  $  X  100
  RATINGS      
        
6'.    EMPLOYEE        %   EMPLOYEE  BENEFITS $ /  TOTAL PAYROLL  $ X100
  BENEFITS      
        
        EMPLOYEE BENEFITS  $ /TOTAL SALES  $    X 100
        
         
7'.   HR  BUDGET        %   ACTUAL  HR EXPENSES  $ / TOTAL SALES $ X 100
  sales effectiveness      
        
8'.    HR  EXPENSES          $   TOTAL HR EXPENSES $ /  TOTAL  NO. OF EMPLOYEES
  per head      
        
9'.   HR EXPENSES        %   HR  EXPENSES  $ /  TOTAL  EXPENSES  $ X  100
  cost effectivenss      
        
10'.   NO.OF  COURSES       %   ACTUAL CONDUCTED  / PLANNED   X  100
  CONDUCTED      
        
11.   NO. OF  SAFETY       %   ACTUAL CONDUCTED  / PLANNED   X  100
  training  programs      
        
12.   TRAINING  DAYS       %   ACTUAL  TRAINING DAYS /  PLANNED  X 100
  EFFECTIVENESS      
        
13.   EMPLOYEES      %   ACTUAL TAKING PART / PLANNED  X 100
  involvement in train      
        
14.   SICK DAYS       nos.   TOTAL  SICKDAYS  TAKEN/ TOTAL EMPLOYEES
  managemeent effectiveness      
        
15.   STAFF  orientation       %   NO. OF NEW STAFF LEAVING IN  THREE MONTHS/
  EFFECTIVENESS        TOTAL   NO.  OF NEW STAFF  ORIENTED
         X  100
        
        
16.   TIME TO  FILL AN    NO.DAYS     TOTAL  NO  OF  DAYS / TOTAL  NO  positions filled
  OPEN POSITION      
        
        
17.   TURNOVER  BY       %    TURNOVER  / TOTAL RECRUITMENTS  X100
  RECRUITING source      
        BY  EACH  SOURCE
        
        
18.   TURNOVER  BY        %   TURNOVER  /  TOTAL  EMPLOYEES BY   EACH
  EACH  JOB      CATEGORY
  CATEGORY        X   100
        
        
19.   WORKERS       %   ACTUAL  $ /  PLANNED BUDGET $   X  100
  çompensation costs      
        
        
20.   HR  STAFFING      NO.   TOTAL  HR STAFF / TOTAL EMPLOYEES
  EFFICIENCY      
        


#########################
5.Explain the aims and objectives of career planning. Describe the benefits of career planning by citing suitable examples from any organisation you are aware of. Discuss the concept of career planning and succession planning in today’s rapidly changing environment.

Career  Planning  is   a  critical  element /  outcome   of   SUCCESSION  PLANNING, Performance  appraisal  and  Potential  assessment  systems.


The process of career planning

Career planning is the key process in career management. It uses all the information provided by the organization's assessments of requirements, the assessments of performance and potential and the management succession plans, and translates it in the form of individual career development programs and general arrangements for management development, career counseling, mentoring and management training.

Career planning   the competency band approach

It is possible to define career progression in terms of the competencies required by individuals to carry out work at progressive levels of responsibility or contribution. These levels can be described as competency bands.

Competencies would be defined as the attributes and behavioral characteristics needed to perform effectively at each discrete level in a job or career family. The number of levels would vary according to the range of competencies required in a particular job family. For each band, the experience and training needed to achieve the competency level would be defined.

These definitions would provide a career map incorporating 'aiming points' for individuals, who would be made aware of the competency levels they must reach in order to achieve progress in their careers. This would help them to plan their own development, although support and guidance should be provided by their managers, and HR specialists . The provision of additional experience and training could be arranged as appropriate, but it would be important to clarify what individual employees need to do for themselves if they want to progress within the organization.

The advantage of this approach is that people are provided with aiming points and an understanding of what they need to do to reach them. One of the major causes of frustration and job dissatisfaction is the absence of this information.

A competency band career development approach can be linked to

Aiming points

1. Competence  band 1 definition         
  Basic training and   experience   

2. Competence  band  2  definition
  Continuation    of  medium  training  and experience
3.Competence  band  3  definition
         Continuation  of advanced training and experience   
         


Career planning is for core people as well as high flyers

The philosophy upon which career plans are based refers not only to advancing careers to meet organizational and individual requirements, but also the need to maximize the potential of the people in the organization in terms of productivity and satisfaction under conditions of change, when development does not necessarily mean promotion.

career planning is for individuals as well as the organization

Career planning procedures are always based on what the organization needs. But they have to recognize that organizational needs will not be satisfied if individual needs are neglected. Career planning has to be concerned with the management of diversity.

Career plans must therefore recognize that:

*   members of the organization should receive recognition as individuals with unique needs, wants, and abilities;
*   individuals are more motivated by an organization that responds to their aspirations and needs;
*   individuals can grow, change and seek new directions if they are given the right opportunities, encouragement and guidance.

Career planning techniques

Career planning uses all the information generated by the succession plans, performance, and potential assessments and self assessments to develop programs and procedures which are designed to implement career management policies, achieve succession planning objectives and generally improve motivation, commitment and performance. The procedures used are those concerned with:

0 personal development planning .
0 training and management development.
0 mentoring
0 career counseling

In addition, career planning procedures may cater for the rising stars by 'fast tracking' them, that is, deliberately accelerating promotion and giving them opportunities to display and enlarge their talents. But these procedures should pay just as much, if not more, attention to those managers who are following the middle route of steady, albeit unspectacular, progression.

1. Career counseling

Performance management processes, should provide for counseling sessions between individuals and their managers. These sessions should give the former the opportunity to discuss their aspirations and the latter the chance to comment on them   helpfully   and, at a later stage, to put forward specific
career development proposals to be fed into the overall career management programs.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.Personal development planning

Personal development planning is carried out by individuals with guidance, encouragement and help from their managers/HRM as required. A personal development plan sets out the actions people propose to take to learn and to develop themselves. They take responsibility for formulating and implementing the plan, but they receive support from the organization and their managers in doing so. The purpose is to provide  a 'self organized learning framework'.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. MANAGEMENT  DEVELOPMENT   

Formal approaches to management development

The formal approaches to management development include:

*   development on the job through coaching, counseling, monitoring and feedback by managers on a continuous basis associated with the use of performance management processes to identify and satisfy development needs, and with mentoring;

* development through work experience, which includes job rotation, job enlargement, taking part in project teams or task groups, 'action learning', and secondment outside the organization;

*formal training by means of internal or external courses;

*structured self development by following self managed learning programs agreed as a personal development plan or learning contract with the manager or a management development adviser   these may include guidance reading or the deliberate extension of knowledge or acquisition of new skills on the job.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mentoring

Mentoring is the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance and advice which will help to develop the careers of the 'proteges' Allocated to them.

Mentoring is aimed at complementing learning on the job, which must always be the best way of acquiring the particular skills and knowledge the job holder needs. Mentoring also complements formal training by providing those who benefit from it with individual guidance from experienced managers who are 'wise in the ways of the organization'.

Mentors provide for the person or persons allocated to them :
advice in drawing up self development programs or learning contracts; general help with learning programs; guidance on how to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to do a new job; advice on dealing with any administrative, technical or people problems individuals meet.

==================================================
Here’s what  I  typically  suggested  to companies that want to go though this process.
Define or validate the organization’s three-to five-year business strategy. This typically comes from the executive group and should be communicated broadly to the organization.
Determine the organization structure required to support the business strategy. For example, if the company is planning to grow by acquisition, the organization needs to be structured in such a way as to facilitate the integration of new divisions or business units.
Define job roles. Using the new organization structure, create specific job roles. The most important thing to remember in this step is to consider positions, not people. If you design positions around the capabilities of the current incumbents, not the business requirements, you’ll be setting yourself up for disappointment.
Define skills and competencies for each role. This step helps you to objectively determine the behaviors and knowledge required for successful performance in each role.
Place individuals into positions based on the skill and competency requirements. This also is a difficult step, because it forces you to take a hard look at individuals who may have been part of the organization for a long time. However, if the business requirements have changed, and have resulted in new skill and competency requirements, then the workforce you need will have changed concurrently.
Review compensation and other HR programs. Once the structure and roles have changed, it’s important to ensure that HR programs are aligned with the market. For example, if a position’s responsibilities change as a result of the organization assessment, then you should benchmark the new position’s compensation against the external market.
Communicate the changes. The effectiveness of your organization changes can be lost without the support of a strong communication and implementation program. People will want to know what is changing, why it’s changing, when it’s changing, etc., and it’s critical to never assume that people have the same perspective of the organization that management does. So over-communicate. Help people feel like they were part of the change process, not just affected by it. Get folks from the organization involved in some of the design decisions, and ask for their input along the way. It’s really the only way that a change like this will be sustainable.
Be flexible enough to change again soon. Change is never over, and new business challenges may force you to go through the same process again soon. As long as the organization understands why the changes are required, and they trust that management is steering the company in the right direction, you should be able to have a positive impact.


FIRST,
Succession planning, is a process for preparing people to meet an organization's needs for talent over time.  Succession planning “is perhaps best understood as any effort designed to ensure the continued effective performance of an organization, division, department, or work group by making provision for the development, replacement, and strategic application of key people over time.” Geared to developing the internal bench strength of an organization, succession planning is usually part of a larger talent management program that is intended to attract the best through recruitment, keep the best through effective retention practices, and develop the best people through well-targeted talent developmen

-----SUCCESSION  planning  is an  element  of   career   management  process.
It  is  an  outcome  of  
-corporate  strategic planning
-corporate  objectives
-corporate strategy.
-HR  OBJECTIVES
-HR  STRATEGY
Hence  you  need  to  review this  in detail.

SECOND,
AS  per  your  request,
I  have provided  few  materials  here.
1.SAMPLE  OUTLINE  OF   A POLICY.
2. ADDITIONAL  RESOURCES,  which you can use  to  tailor
your  policy.
BUT  before  you  work  on  your  policy,  you  will  need
-company  vision
-company mission  statement
-company objectives
-company  strategic   directions
-COMPANY  HR OBJECTIVES/ STRATEGY
-BUSINESS  PROCESS
-business  drivers  of  your company
-company succession  plan [ if  any]
-company retention plan
-performance  appraisal  systems
-performance  management  system
etc etc.
YOU  NEED  TO  REFER    THEM.
==================================   
SUCCESSION  planning  is an  element  of   career   management  process.
Career  Planning  is   a  critical  element /  outcome   of   

1.SUCCESSION  PLANNING,
2.Performance  appraisal  and  
3.''Potential''   assessment  systems.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
FIRST   WE  DEVELOP  THE  Outline for Succession Planning
Define where you currently are in your succession planning process.
•   What positions are you planning for?
•   What key people have you designated for succeeding to higher positions?
•   Where are they in their experience, education and training schedules?
•   What has changed since your last review?
•   What other candidates can you identify, either for future needs or to replace people who were in the process and either left your company or did not work out as expected?
What has changed inside your company which might alter where you have been planning to go with your succession plan?
•   How have the current candidates performed to date?
•   What jobs have changed, and how have they changed, since your last review?
•   What new opportunities, technologies and other issues have emerged which may lead to change in the succession plan, its objectives or tactics?
Define where you want your succession plan to take you, especially in light of your current strategic plan.
•   What will you look like in three to five years and what will your key people be doing then?
•   What openings will you need to fill due to attrition, promotion or expansion?
•   What new disciplines will the company require, and how will you fill them?
•   How does your succession plan fit with your expectation of where your company, your markets and your internal situation will likely be going?
Define how you will get from where you are today to what you want the company to look like at the end of your current planning horizon.
•   Who will be involved and what will each be doing?
•   When will they start and end each part of the process and how will you judge their progress?
•   What criteria will be used to determine each candidate’s ongoing fitness for his or her career path?
•   Does each candidate offer and demonstrate continuing potential and progress toward meeting the requirements you have established?
•   On what basis will you determine if someone is not progressing appropriately, and what can you do to help that person develop to the fullest extent?
•   What alternatives can you offer those who are not meeting expectations?
Once a plan is in place and people are in the process of being groomed for higher responsibilities and positions, where do you go from here? As indicated above, this is an ongoing process. You establish goals, select candidates, establish training and educational processes, initiate the process of selecting and training with each individual, and monitor developments. As the Simplified Strategic Planning process teaches, you continually update your status, review your assumptions about where you want to go and how you will get there, modify your strategies and the resulting actions/action plans, and continually feed back environmental developments. As your situation changes, you alter your objectives to match the appropriate strategies, make mid-course corrections, and continue your ongoing management processes as a part of the regular course of business.



The process of career planning

Career planning is the key process in career management. It uses all the information provided by the organization's assessments of requirements, the assessments of performance and potential and the management succession plans, and translates it in the form of individual career development programs and general arrangements for management development, career counseling, mentoring and management training.

Career planning   the competency band approach

A competency band career development approach  is   linked to

1. Competence  band 1 definition         
Basic training and  experience   

2. Competence  band  2  definition
Continuation    of  medium  training  and experience

3.Competence  band  3  definition
  Continuation  of advanced training and experience   
         



WE  USE  THE   FOLLOWING  Career planning techniques

Career planning uses all the information generated by the succession plans, performance, and potential assessments and self assessments to develop programs and procedures which are designed to implement career management policies, achieve succession planning objectives and generally improve motivation, commitment and performance. The procedures used are those concerned with:

0 personal development planning .
0 training and management development.
0 mentoring
0 career counseling

In addition, career planning procedures may cater for the rising stars by 'fast tracking' them, that is, deliberately accelerating promotion and giving them opportunities to display and enlarge their talents. But these procedures should pay just as much, if not more, attention to those managers who are following the middle route of steady, albeit unspectacular, progression.

1. Career counseling

Performance management processes, should provide for counseling sessions between individuals and their managers. These sessions should give the former the opportunity to discuss their aspirations and the latter the chance to comment on them   helpfully   and, at a later stage, to put forward specific
career development proposals to be fed into the overall career management programs.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.Personal development planning

Personal development planning is carried out by individuals with guidance, encouragement and help from their managers/HRM as required. A personal development plan sets out the actions people propose to take to learn and to develop themselves. They take responsibility for formulating and implementing the plan, but they receive support from the organization and their managers in doing so. The purpose is to provide  a 'self organized learning framework'.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3. MANAGEMENT  DEVELOPMENT   

Formal approaches to management development

The formal approaches to management development include:

*   development on the job through coaching, counseling, monitoring and feedback by managers on a continuous basis associated with the use of performance management processes to identify and satisfy development needs, and with mentoring;

* development through work experience, which includes job rotation, job enlargement, taking part in project teams or task groups, 'action learning', and secondment outside the organization;

*formal training by means of internal or external courses;

*structured self development by following self managed learning programs agreed as a personal development plan or learning contract with the manager or a management development adviser   these may include guidance reading or the deliberate extension of knowledge or acquisition of new skills on the job.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mentoring

Mentoring is the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance and advice which will help to develop the careers of the 'proteges' Allocated to them.

Mentoring is aimed at complementing learning on the job, which must always be the best way of acquiring the particular skills and knowledge the job holder needs. Mentoring also complements formal training by providing those who benefit from it with individual guidance from experienced managers who are 'wise in the ways of the organization'.

Mentors provide for the person or persons allocated to them :
advice in drawing up self development programs or learning contracts; general help with learning programs; guidance on how to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to do a new job; advice on dealing with any administrative, technical or people problems individuals meet.
=================================================
WE  USE  THE  FOLLOWING   APPROACH
1.THE  PERFORMANCE  APPRAISAL   REPORT.
-job  description /  responsibilities.
-job  role/ position  competencies [functional  competencies/ personal  competencies ]
-performance  ratings  AGAINST  STANDARDS by  supervisor/manager/self / FINAL.

2.EMPLOYEES  DATA  INPUT.
-employee's readiness  on  the  job.
-employee  aspirations.
-employee's  potential.
3.EMPLOYEE'S  DATA  OUTPUT
-INDIVIDUAL   DEVELOPMENT  PLANS.
Drill down to individual Development Plans – ensure development is appropriate for the individual
development plans/career counseling/mentoring/
management training/ education

-A  VISUAL   MAP

A  career  progression  opportunities.

competency models and behaviors that outline clear performance
expectations


4 .  Key guidelines to create & implement Career Pathing

• Ensure all career pathing tools and processes are aligned with the company vision

• Customize the career pathing map to the culture of your organization

• Identify specific, detailed behaviors for THIS  position along the career path

• Include a variety of entry points and alternative routes along the career path.
[FRESH  RECRUITS/ NEW TRANFERS/ PEOPLE  WITH EXPERIENCE]


• Use an integrated approach to connect selection, development, performance management and
succession planning

• Evaluate an individual’s position readiness using benchmarked analyses

• Utilize validated, position-based  PERFORMANCE   ASSESSMENT  tools for your career pathing evaluations

• Create developmental plans to help propel individuals along your organizational career pathing
[IDP = INDIVIDUAL   DEVELOPMENT  PLAN - sample  shown below]

• Understand the types of experiences necessary to be successful in the  role along the path

• Plan a comprehensive communications plan to introduce Career Pathing and educate mangers on
best practices
====================================================
An  outline  of   contents  for  the  assessment  form.
A.JOB POSITION.
B.JOB  RESPONSIBILITIES
**FIRST  COLUMN
FUNCTIONAL  COMPTENCIES
1.
2.
3.
.
.
PERSONAL  COMPETENCIES
1.
2.
3.
.
.
**SECOND  COLUMN
-assessment  standards  for  each  competencies.
**THIRD  COLUMN
-supervisor's ratings  against the  standard.
**FOURTH   COLUMN
-manager's ratings  against the  standard.
**FIFTH   COLUMN
-Self  ratings  against the  standard.
***SIXTH   COLUMN
-AVERAGE   ratings  against the  standard.

COMMENTS.
=================================================
IDP  Format
The following is a sample format. You may modify it as needed.

INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN
Employee ___________________________________________ Department ______________________________
Position Title _______________________________ Period Covered ________________ to __________________

Development Goal   Purpose   Method or Activity   Results Expected/Measures   Time Frame













         
___________________________________ _______________________
Supervisor’s Signature Date
_____________________________________ _______________________
Employee’s Signature Date
Competencies
Whether the type of development you envision for the employee is to help her or him improve past performance, enhance current capabilities, expose the employee to skills needed in the future, or simply provide enrichment opportunities that make the current job more interesting, fun, or meaningful, what you will probably focus on developing are competencies. Competencies are observable and measurable knowledges, abilities, skills, and behaviors that must be applied to achieve results aligned with the goals of the organization.
You may select whatever competencies you feel are most important to develop and  list   them into your IDP.Competencies are fairly broad. You may find that, in addition to including the definition in the IDP, you will want to include some sub-tasks, or behavioral indicators, to help clarify what exactly you want the employee to develop. This is all stated in the “Development Goal.” Once this is laid out, determining the purpose and method/activity for accomplishing it will be easier.
The following sample lays out the information described above:
Example of Results Comments and Rating: Example of Corresponding IDP
Development Goal   Purpose   Method or Activity   Results Expected/Measures   Time Frame
Enhance Interpersonal Skills Develops and maintains effective relationships with others
Enhance Customer Service skills- Works with individuals who use or receive the services or products that your work unit produces to assess their needs, provide information or assistance, resolve their problems, or satisfy their expectations   To ensure that future projects take into consideration the needs and concerns of other units
Same as above   Planning phase of future projects will include identification of affected internal parties
Progress reports of future projects will be distributed to the affected parties identified above
Will take a PDS course in Customer Services   List completed
All affected parties identified per supervisor review




Progress reports distributed at least three times



Will be able to list three actions he can take to improve his customer service skills   Planning phase of projects undertaken in next evaluation period


Within next evaluation period



By March 1, 2004

##################################################
THE  APPROACH    TO  CAREER   PLANNING  
IN  AN  INDIAN  ORGANIZATION.

The Career Planning Policy
Our policy for career planning is a well thought out, planned process. Aim is to develop and prepare people for higher responsibilities. It assists them by identifying various roles they could undertake and skills they may need to develop in order to do full justice to their new role within the organization.
At L&T Infotech, we place People first. In this knowledge industry, we empower our employees with the strength of knowledge and create a 'climate' that is conducive to learning and personal and professional growth. We are a People driven organization that helps it's employees gain a level of freedom that provides security, satisfaction and, most importantly, a sense of professional fulfillment.
Recruitment and Selection at L&T Infotech:
•   We believe in the maxim "Right-person-for-the-right-job"
•   We believe in the phrase "catch-them-young" and hire a number of fresher as Software Engineer Trainees and Management Trainees from reputed Engineering and Management Institutions, impart extensive technical, behavioral and managerial training and create thoroughbred professionals out of them.
Induction:
The new entrants - Fresher as well as experienced persons joining the organization, across all levels, attend Induction programs individually and/or as groups. The objective is to begin the process of integration of the incumbent with the organization and ensure smooth entry into the organization. This consists of inputs on the following:
•   Company Values, Business Philosophy
•   Corporate Culture
•   Work Culture
•   Quality Process
•   Project Management
•   Information on Business and Future Plans
•   Information on Organization Structure
•   Systems and Policies
•   Performance Appraisal
Emphasis on building lasting Relationships & Team Effectiveness:
•   Team Development Workshops aimed at enhancing intra-team cohesion
•   We believe that it helps the goal accomplishment when people are able to relate with one another and build lasting relationships & sense of belonging to the organization.
•   We believe that it’s the teams of committed people who eventually deliver results. Intra-group cohesion in terms of shared understanding of goals and objectives, cooperation, and collaboration is given a priority.

Job Rotation
•   Job rotation at L&T Infotech is aimed at optimum utilization of the available skill sets across the organization. We believe that job rotation is a crucial process which helps individuals to enhance their technical, behavioral and managerial competence.
  
  At L&T Infotech, people are our greatest pride and resource. Our focus lies in bringing aboard some of the finest professionals in the software industry and providing them with opportunities that match their drive and ability. With one of the lowest attrition rates in the industry, L&T Infotech's people-force is inspired, committed, and thoroughly professional. If you have what it takes to become an integral part of an organization that's built and driven by people, then you are the person we are looking for. Simply access the "We Need You" section to post your resume on our site. It could be your first step towards getting closer to an organization full of self driven people. And closer to becoming a part of the collective people-energy that's L&T Infotech- "A software force that's driving relationships globally."
  At L&T Infotech you are faced with a challenging Work Environment that is shared by a highly motivated group of over 7200 people who choose L&T Infotech because they believe that it's all happening here. We provide:
  Opportunities for Entrepreneurship
•   Freedom to inspire ideas and be inspired
•   In-house training programs for personal and professional growth
•   Infinite access to the latest technologies
•   Opportunities to take on leadership roles early in your career
•   Freedom to experiment and be innovative
•   Compensation that is benchmarked with the leaders in the industry
•   HR polices that are aimed to strike a balance between work and personal welfare
Variable Compensation Schemes
The compensation policy of L&T Infotech is designed to address the dual need of encouraging high performance amongst all it’s employees and at the same time aligning itself to the highly sensitive IT business scenario.
The total compensation package of an individual is made of fixed and variable components. These variable components are paid annually at different times of the year. The actual payment of the variable component is dependent on the individual’s performance and the company performance in the year under consideration.
The above compensation structure is guided by the principle of a strong emphasis on individual performance and at the same time encouraging a sense of participation and ownership for the company’s performance in any year.
The compensation review exercise is conducted annually. This exercise seeks to align the company’s compensation levels to that of the market. Individual salaries are revised after taking inputs from various sources like performance appraisal ratings, relative performance vis--vis others in the same business unit and various other factors
We Care...
We believe in employee centered approach and our HR policies and practices are aimed, mainly at, employee care.
We care for :
•   People's need for self expression and leisure time (E.g. Special Interest Groups plan, opportunities for putting up cultural show at the Bi-annual Awards ceremony, recreation facilities)
•   Self-worth of people (Awards Plan, Motivation Plan)
•   Collective excellence (CE's award for best managed project, Rolling trophy for SBU with best customer orientation)
•   People development (Technical and behavioral training, Team building workshops. Library, Higher Study Plan)
•   People's opinion (Communication meetings, open houses, climate surveys)
•   People's need to know (L&T Infotech Voice, Real Time, News Flash)
Policy Profile
The High Commitment Work Systems Policy :
As per our High Commitment Work Systems Policy, empowered and independent teams work with responsibility and accountability in an environment of openness. It increases employee involvement and develops a mature work culture. This in turn has a good bearing on the company helping it achieve goals and targets successfully in a competitive environment.

Performance Appraisal Policy
We appraise employee performance on an annual basis, giving people credit for their achievements and setting targets for the forthcoming year. We have developed a balanced policy that is both objective and holistic in its approach. Our HRD personnel facilitate the appraisal process and also train senior personnel in assessing individual performance. They resolve the areas of conflict and follow up on the outcomes of the appraisal.
Our Performance Appraisal System has several salient features :
•   An Opportunity for Self-review and Assessment
•   A clear and equal focus on both, the End Results and the Process
•   Identifying Training and Development needs
•   Distribution of incentives in an objective, value based manner
Recognition & Motivation
We believe that our people are our greatest assets and that they are not just employees but strategic partners in our journey to achieve organizational objectives. In furtherance of our stated philosophy, our well-developed policies help us to recognize performance at work.
Recognizing Individuals and Teams
We understand the crucial role recognition plays in motivating employees to demonstrate superior performance. There are many ways in which we acknowledge and appreciate good performance - from a sincere sharing of an ‘I Appreciate’ Note for a specific job well done to granting honors through an established formal ‘Employee Award Plans’.
So if you're an achiever with a passion for setting and attaining goals, you'll find many opportunities for being recognized at L&T Infotech. The ‘Employee Motivation’ Plan at L&T Infotech is another success story – an unique experiment to empower our line managers to recognize and give spot rewards to individuals and team in pursuit of excellence.
Recognizing Collective Excellence
In addition to the above, we have mechanisms to recognize collective excellence at an organization level, on an annual basis. One such initiative is our ‘CE’s Award for Best Managed Project’. The award recognizes excellence in the management of projects and encourages a competitive spirit amongst the Business Units to achieve better performance through higher standards in project management.
To encourages and foster the growth of a customer-oriented culture in the organization and within a business unit in particular, the ‘Rolling Trophy for the SBU with Best Customer Orientation’ has been institutionalized. This award encourages a competitive spirit amongst the business units to achieve better performance through higher standards in customer service.
Training for Development…

We believe in a learning organization, where learning is a continuous process. There is room for those driven by the zeal to surpass their peers and most importantly, themselves.

We mix and match intensive training with equal thrust on job skills and behavioral development. Group therapies and seminars are organized to encourage professional rapport and keep employee morale running high. We realize the value that people add to our organization and formulate policies that take into consideration individual needs and benefits.

Some of the activities that make learning a continuous process at L&T Infotech are
•   An extensive orientation-cum-technical training program for Software Engineer Trainee at our well-equipped Training Center
•   Conduct Focused Management Development Programs at the premium Management Development Center
•   Continuous skill up-gradation on new emerging technologies
•   Behavioral Training Programs offered to enhance personal and professional effectiveness of our project groups viz.
•   Customer orientation
•   Team work
•   Communication
•   Self development
•   We engage the best faculties in the field for conducting the programs. We also make use of training events offered by premium management institutions like IIM, Administrative Staff College of India etc.
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Managing a Business

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18 years of working management experience covering such areas
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