Managing a Business/NEED HELP




Q1. (A) Explain how the art of giving and receiving feedback helps the process of
         Communication to become more effective.          
     (B) Name various forms of communication and bring out the difference among them.   
Q2. (A) Explain any three function of upward communication.
     (B) Discuss the powerful influence of perception on communication.
Q3. (A) Briefly explain how silence communicates, giving a few specific examples.
(B) Define the term ‘Leadership’. What communication skills does a leader of group require?   
    Q4. (A) What skills are required to develop overall ability to communicate?
         (B) Briefly explain important components for building a solid communication   relationship
Q5. (A) What are the barriers to interpersonal communication and how can we overcome them?
     (B) Write a note on the visual aids that can be used for a presentation.
Q6. (A) Explain in brief the importance of public images and public relation?
    (B) What are the main recommendations of the Talwar committee on customer
    (C) Describe briefly the nature of future marketing possibilities for commercial


 Q1 (A) How would you imagine that their consumption of products and services
         Might differ from couples with children?

         (B) What is opinion leadership?

 Q2 (A) What are the strengths and weaknesses of motivational research?

         (B) What is social class?

 Q3 (A) What are the characteristics of people who adopt it first?
         (B) What recommendations would you make to Sony regarding the initial target
         market for the new TV model?

Q4 (A) Are there any circumstances in which information from advertisements is likely
         to be more influential than world of mouth?

       (B) How would you identify the innovators for this product?

Q5 (A) How can marketers use measures of recognition and recall to study the extent of
         Consumer learning?

      (B) What factors might cause the student to experience postpurchase dissonance?
         How might the student try to overcome it?         

Q6 (A) What is cross-cultures consumers analysis? How can a multinational company
         Use cross-cultural research to design each factor in its marketing mix?

    (B) How should marketers promote products and services to working women? What
         appeals should they use? Explain.

    (C) For what kinds of audiences would you consider using comparative advertising?

Q1 (A) What are the three levels of Analysis in our OB model? Are they related?
        If so, how?

         (B) What contingency factors can improve the statistical relationship between  
         Attitudes and Behavior?
   Q2  (A) If job satisfaction is not a behavior, why is it considered an important  
         Dependent Variable?

         (B) What are effectiveness and efficiency, and how are they related to
         organizational behavior?

     Q3 (A) What, if anything, can managers do to manage emotions?

         (B) What is the rational decision-making model? Under what conditions is it

    Q4 (A) Contrast distributive and procedural justice. What implications might they have
         for designing pay systems in different countries?
         (B) Can an individual be too motivated, so that his or her performance declines a
         s a result of excessive effort ? Discuss.?

    Q5 (A) Contrast job based and skill based pay.

         (B) What can you do, as a manager, to increase the likelihood that your
         employees will exert a high level of effort?

Q6 (A) Identify five roles you play in your organization. What behaviors do they require?  
         Are  any of these Roles  in conflict? If so, in what way? How do you resolve these

   (B) What effect, if any, do you expect that workforce diversity has on a group’s
        performance   and satisfaction?
   (C ) When do groups make better decisions than individuals?


I  will send  the balance  asap.

1. (A) Explain how the art of giving and receiving feedback helps the process of
        Communication to become more effective.        
    Explain how the art of giving receiving feed back helps the process of communication to become more effective.

What is feedback? Feedback is the process of giving data to someone
about the impact the person makes through his or her attitudes,
actions, and words. If there is lots of honest, open feedback going on
in an organization, up and down and sideways, that is a clear signal
that the environment is in the Stretch Zone and that people are
learning and changing.

The “Art” of Giving and Receiving Feedback
Most of us bristle at the prospect of criticism, so it is also important to reassure the other person
that you’re not hassling them, but rather trying to help. In simple terms, this means taking the
following approach:
• Describe the behavior. Be specific—do not put someone down or be vague. State the
facts as you see them.
• Avoid loaded terms that produce emotional reactions and raise defenses. Be
specific and use clear examples rather than vague generalizations. If you say to
someone “You’re always late” they can avoid the central issue by arguing that “always”
is not strictly true. Rather, “You were 10 minutes late on Monday, and 30 minutes late
on Wednesday. Is there some reason for this behavior?”
• Explain the consequences. You also need to describe what happened as a result.
Again, the key is to stick to the facts, rather than sit in judgment (e.g., “We need to have
a full staff in order to open the area for security and customer service.”).
• Build on the other person’s strengths. You can help the other person keep the
feedback in perspective by including positive comments about their overall behavior
(e.g., “Your overall performance is one of good teamwork and general punctuality.
However, there seem to be these occasional diversions from an otherwise good
• Invite the other person to respond. Think of feedback as a way of helping people to
explore their behavior and see for themselves what needs to be done. You should
resist the temptation to tell individuals directly what they should or shouldn’t do. The
usual response to direct advice is often rejection, resentment, denial, or argument. A
better approach is to avoid telling people what they should do, but rather invite them to
develop their own action plan (e.g., “Is there some way you could work toward 100%
All this takes practice, and the ability to communicate develops over time.
Unfortunately, this is not the case; most People dread feedback. They
often react negatively, both physically (heart pounding, dry throat)
and mentally (fearful, nervous, defensive), when they hear they are
going to give or worse get feedback. They anticipate criticism, and
they feel they will be under attack. Ego goes up and receptivity goes
down. This is because people look at feedback as evaluative, not
developmental probably because that is how they have experienced
it. The word feedback itself might be part of the problem. It sounds
clinical. In addition to this, negative feelings are often passed on
directly or indirectly by managers who themselves are not
comfortable giving or getting feedback. But the main reason feedback
is looked upon negatively is that the person receiving the feedback
believes the feedback is judgmental and that the motives of the giver
may be negative. People are not accustomed to feedback as a form
of ongoing development. Without a basi's of trust, good feedback
probably won't be given. If it is, it won't be well received.

Although many people try to avoid getting feedback initially (and
resent it mightily when they do get it if they don't trust the giver), once
a person experiences good feedback aimed at helping him or her get
to the next level developmental feedback he or she becomes hungry
for more. It is not unusual after our sales seminar in which people
taste intensive, individual feedback, that
they express resentment at their organizations for not having given
them feedback before. These are the people who begin to demand
feedback and development.

The vast majority of the participants who attend our seminars identify
the individual feedback they get in our training as the most valuable
part of the training. What makes this response even more impressive
is that this feedback is given by the trainer and peers in the presence
of peers, not one on one. And most of these participants, when asked
for the type of reinforcement they want from the training, ask for the
opportunity to get more feedback.

But we should not kid ourselves. Regardless of how positive
participants are about feedback given in the seminar, seminars are
seminars. They do not occur every day. Unless the manager buys in,
feedback cannot become a part of the culture outside the seminar
room. That means development stays in the seminar room. The
enthusiasm for feedback will come to an abrupt end if managers do
not give feedback and, as important, ask for it in return. As suggested
above, training seminars are only the opening of the book. It is the
manager's everyday practices and role modeling that determine what
the last chapter and bottom line will say.

  In my view, developmental coaching is the single most impor¬
tant thing a sales manager can do to increase the productivity of
his or her people and to meet or exceed a business plan.
Assuming the right corporate strategy, products, recruitment, and
rewards, developmental coaching virtually ensures improvement
in business performance and relationships. This is something the
competition cannot copy. As mentioned earlier, good coaching is in
the control of the sales manager (coach) and no one else. For this
I reason, developmental coaching is a virtual "secret weapon."

Before we look at how to give feedback and the levels of coaching,
let's differentiate two kinds of feedback:

• Evaluative feedback

• Developmental feedback

Although these two kinds of feedback are interrelated, they are not different
shades of the same color. They are not merely two dialects: although they
are linked, look at them almost as two different languages. Understanding
this is a breakthrough in shifting from boss to coach.

Evaluative Feedback

Evaluative feedback is what most people think of when they hear the word
feedback. Evaluative feedback, often in the form of the annual performance
review, is a key element of sales management. It is based on a familiar
model of grading found in schools: A through F, a quartile, a ranking of 1 to
5. It allows for comparisons "You outperformed/underperformed" and it is
usually related to compensation. Also, it represents yesterday, not today.

Evaluative feedback is an essential part of management. Evaluative
feedback comprises the bulk of the feedback given during an annual
performance review or performance assessment. During the performance
review, the manager gives (and should give) a grade or rating a snapshot or
picture of the past that captures the manager's perception of the person
being evaluated. Some organizations include other evaluations to create
what they call 360 degrbe feedback in which the person gets feedback from
people over, under, and next to him or her as well as for clients. Some
organizations even talk about "540 degree" feedback that provides clients'
views. While this may stretch the bounds of geometry, it makes a point.
Feedback should come from all around and beyond.

The primary goal of the performance review where evaluative feedback is
given is to make sure the person being evaluated clearly understands (not
necessarily agrees with) what the grade/rating/picture is for the past.
Whether evaluative feedback comes from one person or many, it is a vital
part of management. (Please see Chapter 7 for performance reviews.)

Developmental Feedback

Developmental feedback is very different from evaluative feedback. It looks
forward to what "we" (coach and person being coached) can do to improve
and create a better picture (grade) for the future/next time. if an Olympic
athlete gets an 8.8, it does not make him or her better or worse. It is a
score, a grade, an evaluation. Only what happens before and after that score
can make the star better or worse.

Developmental feedback answers the questions, "What can we do better to
meet/exceed the plan?" or "How can we fix ... T' Another key difference is
that these developmental questions are not asked only once or twice a year
but daily. The time for developmental coaching is always in a coaching
session, in the corridor

When one manager learned the difference between evaluation and
developmental feedback, he was greatly relieved. He said, "That's great. You
mean I don't have to evaluate my people every time I meet with one of

Development happens with developmental coaching. Moreover,
empowerment happens with developmental coaching, not evaluative.
Developmental feedback empowers because it helps people identify the
obstacles they face and reinforces their role in removing the obstacles each
day. Developmental coaching helps people live and thrive in the Stretch
Zone. For a comparison of evaluative and developmental feedback, see
Figure 1 1.

Evaluative Feedback   Developmental Feedback
Presents a picture of what   Aims to improve future perfor-
has happened in the past.    mance.
Assigns a grade-A, B, C, D-or   Gives information about
a number-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-to   the impact of a salesperson's
past performance. Often   behavior to help him/her to be
associated with compensation.   more successful in the future.
Is usually given quarterly or   Is given 365 days a year.
Is more often formalized   Is not usually formalized or
and paperwork-d riven.   paperwork-driven.
Is more one-way.    Is participative.
Focuses on the individual.   Focuses on the collective
  11 we"-"what we can do."

Figure 1 1

The Balance

Both evaluative and developmental feedback are essential to development. In
an evaluative session, 90 percent of the feedback should be evaluative, and
in a developmental coaching session, 90 percent plus of the feedback
should be developmental. The evaluative session and the developmental
session are different and it is important to separate them. A developmental
coaching session is not the time for evaluation. And an evaluative coaching
session is not the time for developmental coaching. But the two are clearly
linked. The evaluation (grades) should be used as a platform for
development: The grade is X and the action plan is Y. The grade is the
evaluative piece, and the action plan is the developmental one.

Formal evaluative coaching should take place one to four times a
year. At the quarterly or annual performance review, it is 41game
time." Practices are over. Having developed "players" all week, the
coach now chooses who will play. Quarterly reviews are a way to
help red flag performance problems and to recognize superior
performance. But even in a performance review session the focus
should not be solely on the past. The coach also needs to plan for the
present and future.

Performance review feedback can be emotionally charged, since it
often is tied to pay and involves assessment. People often get
disappointed or upset during a "negative" performance review and
relieved or elated during a "positive" one. Neither range of emotions
is helpful to a developmental session. Since evaluative feedback can
overwhelm the developmental part, it is better to separate the two
kinds of feedback into different sessions. However, if the person is
open to it, the evaluative feedback session can end with a bridge to
a developmental session right there and then or, if not, with a plan
for a developmental meeting a few days later.

Without ongoing developmental coaching, performance reviews are
traumatic filled with surprises, disagreements, and/or bad feelings.
Developmental feedback can change this. Because it is ongoing, the
developmental approach takes the sting, anguish, aggravation, and,
most important, the surprise from performance evaluation by making
it a summary of what has been communicated all along. Most
important, developmental coaching sessions ma ke the evaluative
feedback more positive.

Positive Versus Negative Feedback
Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback. Furthermore, while positive feedback is almost always accepted, negative feedback often meets resistance. Why? The logical answer seems to be that people want to hear good news and block out the bad. Positive feedback fits what most people wish to hear and already believe about themselves.
Does this mean that you should avoid giving negative feedback? No! What it means is that you need to be aware of potential resistance and learn to use negative feedback in situations in which it's most likely to be accepted. What are those situations? Research indicates that negative feedback is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a credible source or if it's objective in form.
Subjective impressions carry weight only when they come from a person with high status and credibility. This suggests that negative feedback that's supported by hard data?numbers, specific examples, and the like?is more likely to be accepted. Negative feedback that's subjective can be a meaningful tool for experienced managers, particularly those in upper levels of the organization who've earned the respect of their employees. From less-experienced managers, those in the lower ranks of the organization, and those whose reputations haven't yet been established, negative feedback that's subjective in nature is not likely to be well received.
Developing Effective Feedback Skills
There are six specific suggestions that we can make to help you be more effective in providing feedback.
Focus on Specific Behaviors. Feedback should be specific rather than general. Avoid such statements as "You have a bad attitude" or "I'm really impressed with the good job you did," They're vague and while they provide information, they don't tell the recipient enough to correct the "bad attitude" or on what basis you concluded that a "good job" had been done so the person knows what behaviors to repeat.
Keep Feedback Impersonal. Feedback, particularly the negative kind, should be descriptive rather than judgmental or evaluative. No matter how upset you are, keep the feedback focused on job-related behaviors and never criticize someone personally because of an inappropriate action. Telling people they're "incompetent," or "lazy," or the like is almost always counterproductive. It provokes such an emotional reaction that the performance deviation itself is apt to be overlooked. When you're criticizing, remember that you're censuring a job-related behavior, not the person.
Keep Feedback Goal Oriented. Feedback should not be given primarily to "dump" or "unload" on another person. If you have to say something negative, make sure it's directed toward the recipient's goals. Ask yourself whom the feedback is supposed to help.
Make Feedback Well Timed. Feedback is most meaningful to a recipient when there's a very short interval between his or her behavior and the receipt of feedback about that behavior.
Ensure Understanding. Is your feedback concise and complete enough that the recipient clearly and fully understands your communication? Remember that every successful communication requires both transference and understanding of meaning. If feedback is to be effective, you need to ensure that the recipient understands it.
Direct Negative Feedback Toward Behavior That the Recipient Can Control. There's little value in reminding a person of some shortcoming over which he or she has no control. Negative feedback should be directed toward behavior the recipient can do something about.

(B) Name various forms of communication and bring out the difference among them.
1 b. Name various forms of communication and bringing out the difference among them.

Forms of Communication
There are several forms of communication. These forms of communication fall under the umbrellas of communication that is symbolic, written, verbal, and of the body. In addition, there are digital and/or electronic forms of communication. Although these latter forms of communication are efficient, we must be mindful of the human element of face to face live communication that we require as human beings, and that a steady diet of digital and electronic communication can have a tendency to alienate us from one another.
Symbolic and Written Forms of Communication
Symbolic and written communication enabled humankind to communicate and record history that took place many years ago; in fact, it is believed that some of the symbols scribed on the inside of caves were made from early humans that dated as far back as one million years BC. Some of the oldest forms of communication were symbolic in nature; for example, the Ancient Egyptians developed an alphabet with symbols that represented each letter in their alphabet, and they would put words together that formed sentences through clustering them vertically. Early native peoples did much the same thing through using physical symbols through the medium of smoke signals to warn their people of danger or to signal an attack to begin battle. As the human race has evolved globally, our form of written communication has become what it is today: more sophisticated with grammar and vocabulary.
Verbal Communication
Verbal communication is also one of the oldest forms of communication and it too dates back to the times of early humans where sounds such as grunts, groans, and other guttural sounds, at different volumes or inflections, indicated friendly communication or a threat or warning to stay away from food or belongings. As is the case with the development of writing, our verbal communication has progressed and has become as we know it today.
Body Language
Another form of communication that is neither verbal nor written is body language. Reading a persons body language can indicate if they are upset, nervous, stressed out, or angry. On the other hand, body language can also show if a person is relaxed, tired, happy or sad. Body language is a very effective form of communication that is used by children and adults, but it is also used by domestic or wild animals; for example, you can tell just as easily if a saber-toothed tiger is about to attack or when your pet cat wants a back rub, yet both of these forms of communication through body language are at opposite ends of the spectrum.
Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles or even architecture, or symbols and infographics, as well as through an aggregate of the above, such as behavioral communication. Nonverbal communication plays a key role in every person's day to day life, from employment to romantic engagements.
Speech may also contain nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, including voice quality, emotion and speaking style, as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Likewise, written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words, or the use of emoticons.A portmanteau of the English words emotion (or emote) and icon, an emoticon is a symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotional content in written or message form.
Other communication channels such as telegraphy fit into this category, whereby signals travel from person to person by an alternative means. These signals can in themselves be representative of words, objects or merely be state projections. Trials have shown that humans can communicate directly in this way without body language, voice tonality or words.
Categories and Features G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:
Physical. This is the personal type of communication. It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell, and body motions.
Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing, painting and sculpturing.
Signs. This is the mechanical type of communication, which includes the use of signal flags, the 21-gun salute, horns, and sirens.
Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious, status, or ego-building symbols.
Static Features
Distance. The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.
Orientation. People may present themselves in various ways: face-to-face, side-to-side, or even back-to-back. For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-side while competitors frequently face one another.
Posture. Obviously one can be lying down, seated, or standing. These are not the elements of posture that convey messages. Are we slouched or erect ? Are our legs crossed or our arms folded ? Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree of relaxation in the communication exchange.
Physical Contact. Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back all convey messages. They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction.
Dynamic Features
Facial Expressions. A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey information. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures.
Gestures. One of the most frequently observed, but least understood, cues is a hand movement. Most people use hand movements regularly when talking. While some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universal meanings, most of the others are individually learned and idiosyncratic.
Looking. A major feature of social communication is eye contact. It can convey emotion, signal when to talk or finish, or aversion. The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom.

Digital or Electronic Forms of Communication
Our world has progressed quickly over the years with the inception of digital and electronic forms of communication. From that fateful day Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone to the present, humankind has swiftly moved forward in its digital or electronic communication. Instruments and tools such as computers, e-mail, faxes, radio, satellite television, the telephone, and the cellular phone have aided humankind in its quest to communicate efficiently. Unfortunately, it has also increased the workload experienced by people around the world.
Communication is such an important and large part of our lives that encompasses each moment of our existence. The latest innovations in technological communication (digital and/or electronic) are wonderful tools and resources that can enhance our lives through the convenience of communication that is fast and efficient. Nonetheless, we need to be conscious of the fact that we are human beings with emotions, feelings and thoughts, unlike the digital electronic tools that enable us to communicate with anyone anywhere around the world within seconds. Thus, the best form of communication, due to our human nature, is face to face live verbal communication where we are able receive the person, come to know them in their entirety, and have the benefit of more accurate perceptions that can easily be misconstrued via e-mail or another of the many digital or electronic technologies. Indeed, technology is a wonderful tool, but it is not an end to our means. As mentioned previously in my Blog, I believe in using technology in a practical manner. When we communicate in any way other than face to face (live) we lose that part of the humanness that makes us unique and special to each other. We must never forget our roots of communication and not allow digital or electronic forms of communication to alienate us from each other. I realize that when we desire to communicate with someone that is up north, in another province, or half way around the world, the most practical means of communication is digitally or electronically. As I have mentioned before, the more practically we use technology, the better technology will serve us and our planet.

Q2. (A) Explain any three function of upward communication.

Explain any three function of upward communication.



AREA.1.the communication upwards and sideways of proposals, suggestions and comments on corporate or functional objectives, policies and budgets from those who have to implement them ensure that managers and supervisors have adequate scope to influence corporate and functional decisions on matters about which they have specific expertise and knowledge
AREA .2.the communication upwards and sideways of management information on performance and results enable management to monitor and control performance in order that, as necessary, opportunities can be exploited or swift corrective action taken


AREA.1. the communication upwards of the comments and reactions of employees to what is proposed will happen or what is actually happening in matters that affect them ensure that employees are given an opportunity to voice their suggestions and fears and that the company is in a position to amend its plans in the light of these comments

AREA.1. the receipt and analysis of information from outside which affects the company's interests ensure that the company is fully aware of all the information on  
legislation and on marketing, commercial, financial and technological matters that affect its interests

AREA.2. the presentation of information about the company and its products to the government, customers and the public at large

OBJ.2. to exert influence in the interests of the company, to present a good image of the company, and to persuade customers to buy its products or services
Upward Communication Systems
1   Need to look @ feedback barriers to improve process
2   increased communication is often started by people who want to inform/influence higher-ups
Upward Communication Systems
1   supervisor needs to create an environment where open communication encouraged
2   Includes fostering a honest communication system
3   plus showing genuine concern for employees
Upward Communication Systems
1   Grapevine - informal communication system that springs up spontaneously due to social interactions (ie coffee groups, lunch etc.)
2   similar to friends sharing ideas & info
Upward Communication Systems
1   Good managers keep their “ear to the ground” = can be valuable feedback
2   need to show you can handle “off the record” conversations w/o jeopardizing communicator
Upward Communication Systems
1   Want to maintain confidentiality to keep employee confidence, trust & reliability
2   electronic discussion groups can also be used as Grapevine

5. a. What are the barriers to interpersonal communication and how can we overcome them?

Various barriers to effective communication and how to overcome them to make communication more effective.

Communication is one of the basic functions of management in any organization and its importance can hardly be overemphasized. It is a process of transmitting information, ideas, thoughts, opinions and plans between various parts of an organization.
You cannot have human relations without communication. However, good and effective communication is required not only for good human relations but also for good and successful business.
You can use softwares like business writing software for writing effective business communication, which is required at various levels and for various aspects in an organization such as -
Importance of communication for manager and employee relations:

Effective communication of information and decision is an essential component for management-employee relations. The manager cannot get the work done from employees unless they are communicated effectively of what he wants to be done? He should also be sure of some basic facts such as how to communicate and what results can be expected from that communication. Most of management problems arise because of lack of effective communication. Chances of misunderstanding and misrepresentation can be minimized with proper communication system.
For motivation and employee morale:

Communication is also a basic tool for motivation, which can improve morale of the employees in an organization. Inappropriate or faulty communication among employees or between manager and his subordinates is the major cause of conflict and low morale at work. Manager should clarify to employees about what is to be done, how well are they doing and what can be done for better performance to improve their motivation. He can prepare a written statement, clearly outlining the relationship between company objectives and personal objectives and integrating the interest of the two.
For increase productivity:

With effective communication, you can maintain a good human relation in the organization and by encouraging ideas or suggestions from employees or workers and implementing them whenever possible, you can also increase production at low cost.
For employees:

It is through the communication that employees submit their work reports, comments, grievances and suggestions to their seniors or management. Organization should have effective and speedy communication policy and procedures to avoid delays, misunderstandings, confusion or distortions of facts and to establish harmony among all the concerned people and departments.
Importance of written communication:

Communication may be made through oral or written. In oral communication, listeners can make out what speakers is trying to say, but in written communication, text matter in the message is a reflection of your thinking. So, written communication or message should be clear, purposeful and concise with correct words, to avoid any misinterpretation of your message. Written communications provides a permanent record for future use and it also gives an opportunity to employees to put up their comments or suggestions in writing.
Barriers to Effective Communication
There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the communication process. This can occur when people now each other very well and should understand the sources of error. In a work setting, it is even more common since interactions involve people who not only don't have years of experience with each other, but communication is complicated by the complex and often conflictual relationships that exist at work. In a work setting, the following suggests a number of sources of noise:
1   Language: The choice of words or language in which a sender encodes a message will influence the quality of communication. Because language is a symbolic representation of a phenomenon, room for interpreation and distortion of the meaning exists. In the above example, the Boss uses language (this is the third day you've missed) that is likely to convey far more than objective information. To Terry it conveys indifference to her medical problems. Note that the same words will be interpreted different by each different person. Meaning has to be given to words and many factors affect how an individual will attribute meaning to particular words. It is important to note that no two people will attribute the exact same meaning to the same words.
2   defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past
3   misreading of body language, tone and other non-verbal forms of communication (see section below)
4   noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)
5   receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues
6   power struggles
7   self-fulfilling assupmtions
8   language-different levels of meaning
9   managers hesitation to be candid
10   assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you
11   distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people
12   Perceptual Biases: People attend to stimuli in the environment in very different ways. We each have shortcuts that we use to organize data. Invariably, these shortcuts introduce some biases into communication. Some of these shortcuts include stereotyping, projection, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotyping is one of the most common. This is when we assume that the other person has certain characteristics based on the group to which they belong without validating that they in fact have these characteristics.
13   Interpersonal Relationships: How we perceive communication is affected by the past experience with the individual. Percpetion is also affected by the organizational relationship two people have. For example, communication from a superior may be perceived differently than that from a subordinate or peer
14   Cultural Differences: Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values, motives, aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given some dramatic differences across cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space, and privacy, the opportunities for mis-communication while we are in cross-cultural situations are plentiful.
Face-to-face meetings can result in awkward pauses and initial shyness for those who are not brimming with confidence. To help you over this hurdle, you can approach the meeting fully prepared and well armed if you have a look at the following factors.
In order to get your message across, think about what you are trying to achieve during the dialogue:
1   What information do you wish to convey?
2   What do you want the other person to do as a result?
Organise yourself beforehand. Jot down notes about your major points. Be positive and keep the message simple.
Clarity is Paramount for Effective Communication
What is communication? In short, it's signalling. The transmission, by speaking, writing or gestures, of information which evokes understanding.
That's simple enough, isn't it? Straightforward in theory but in practice it's fraught with dangers - particularly if you have high expectations from these important business connections.
Communication is not just speaking, writing or gesticulating. It's more than the transmission of information. Something else has to occur for the communication to be complete. The other party in the communication process has to engage their brain and receive the message.
There are some points to remember when considering the various methods of communication and some hazards to be aware of when dealing with business relationships:
1   Only 7% of the impact you make comes from the words you speak.
2   The rest is visual - your appearance, the sound of your voice and your body language.
3   You can break that 7% further down into sections:
4   the type of words you use
5   the sort of sentences you use
6   how you phrase them.
Voicing Your Thoughts
Pay attention to your voice. Tone, inflection, volume and pitch are all areas to consider. Most people don't need to develop their speaking voice, but there are many who do not understand how to use it effectively.
The simplest way is to compare the voice to a piece of music - it is the voice that is the instrument of
interpretation of the spoken word.
Those who have had some training in public speaking sometimes use mnemonics as memory joggers for optimum vocal effect. One simple example is R S V P P P:
1   Rhythm
2   Speed
3   Voice
4   Pitch
5   Pause
6   Projection.
Focus the discussion on the information needed
Judy, I've noticed in the past month that you've fallen behind on keeping the project schedule current. I'd like to figure out with you what we both can do to get it back on track.

Use open-ended questions to expand the discussion
You've always kept the schedule up to the minute-until about a month ago. Why the change?

Use closed ended questions to prompt for specifics
"What projects are you working on that take time away from your work on this project (warning: closed ended questions are often disguised as open ended as in "Are you going to have trouble finishing this project?)

Encourage dialogue through eye contact and expression
This involves nodding in agreeemnt, smiling, leaning toward the speaker, making statements that acknowledge the speaker is being heard.
State your understanding of what you are hearing
This can be done by restating briefly what the other person is saying but don't make fun of it

"So it sounds like these phone calls have ended up taking a lot more time than you or Jay expected; you think the three of us should talk about priorities; is this your position?"

Summarize the key points;
try to get some agreement on the next steps and show appreciation for the effort made so far. "So let's call Jay right now and set up a time when we can meet and iron this out; keeping the schedule updated is a high priority and I'd like to get this settled by Wednesday.
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Effective Feedback has most of the following characteristics:
1   descriptive (not evaluative)(avoids defensiveness.) By describing one's own reactions, it leaves the individual fee to use it or not to use it as he sees fit..
2   avoid accusations; present data if necessary
3   describe your own reactions or feelings; describe objective consequences that have or will occur; focus on behavior and your own reaction, not on other individual or his or her attributes
4   suggest more acceptable alternative; be prepared to discuss additional alternatives; focus on alternatives
5   specific rather than general.
6   focused on behavior not the person. It is important that we refer to what a person does rather than to what we think he is. Thus we might say that a person "talked more than anyone else in this meeting" rather than that he is a "loud-mouth."
7   It takes into account the needs of both the receiver and giver of feedback. It should be given to help, not to hurt. We too often give feedback because it makes us feel better or gives us a psychological advantage.
8   It is directed toward behavior which the receiver can do something about. A person gets frustrated when reminded of some shortcoming over which he has no control.
9   It is solicited rather than imposed. Feedback is most useful when the receiver himself has formulated the kind of question which those observing him can answer or when he actively seeks feedback.
10   Feedback is useful when well-timed (soon after the behavior-depending, of course, on the person's readiness to hear it, support available from others, and so forth). Excellent feedback presented at an inappropriate time may do more harm than good.
11   sharing of information, rather than giving advice allows a person to decide for himself, in accordance with his own goals and needs. When we give advice we tell him what to do, and to some degree take away his freedom to do decide for himself.
12   It involves the amount of information the receiver can use rather than the amount we would like to give. To overload a person with feedback is to reduce the possibility that he may be able to use what he receives effectively. When we give more than can be used, we are more often than not satisfying some need of our own rather than helping the other person.
13   It concerns what is said and done, or how, not why. The "why" involves assumptions regarding motive or intent and this tends to alienate the person generate resentment, suspicion, and distrust. If we are uncertain of his motives or intent, this uncertainty itself is feedback, however, and should be revealed.
14   It is checked to insure clear communication. One way of doing this is to have the receiver try to rephrase the feedback. No matter what the intent, feedback is often threatening and thus subject to considerable distortion or misinterpretation.
15   It is checked to determine degree of agreement from others. Such "consensual validation" is of value to both the sender and receiver.
16   It is followed by attention to the consequences of the feedback. The supervisor needs to become acutely aware of the effects of his feedback.
17   It is an important step toward authenticity. Constructive feedback opens the way to a relationship which is built on trust, honest, and genuine concern and mutual growth.
Part of the feedback process involves understanding and predicting how the other person will react. Or in the case of our receiving feedback, we need to understand ways that we respond to feedback, especially threatening feedback.
People often react negatively to threatening feedback. This reaction can take a number of forms including:
1   selective reception and selective perception
2   doubting motive of the giver
3   denying validity of the data
4   rationalizing
5   attack the giver of the data
Following the guidelines to effective feedback can go a long way to limit these kinds of reactions but we need to be conscious of them nonetheless and be ready to react appropriately.
When we are on the receiving end of feedback we should be careful to avoid these pitfalls. Try to keep these points in mind.
1   try not to be defensive
2   check on possible misunderstanding ("Let me restate what I am hearing")
3   gather information from other sources
4   don't overreact
5   ask for clarification

Managing a Business

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Leo Lingham


In Managing a business, I can cover all aspects of running a business--business planning, business development, business auditing, business communication, operation management, human resources management , training, etc.


18 years of working management experience covering such areas
as business planning, business development, strategic planning,
marketing, management services, personnel administration.


24 years of management consulting which includes business planning, strategic planning, marketing, product management, training, business coaching etc.




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