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Question
A) iillustrate the marketing mix for any two of the following?
1.Cafe Coffee Day 2. Dr. Batra's clinic 3.Lux Soap 4. HP(Hewlett Packard)
B)Illustrate with examples, the difference between Product marketing & service marketing?
C)Illustrate with examples, the methods/ ways of evaluating advertising effectiveness?
D) Discuss the factors which contribute in deciding the "price" of the product? Discuss various pricing methods?
E)"Laco Industries" has planned to introduce new baby shampoo in the kids market. The company conducted a research in selected tierII cities in India to know the demand & successfully launched its product. In this context, discuss the characteristics of the good research?

Answer
QUESTIONS

D) Discuss the factors which contribute in deciding the "price" of the product? Discuss various pricing methods?
E)"Laco Industries" has planned to introduce new baby shampoo in the kids market. The company conducted a research in selected tierII cities in India to know the demand & successfully launched its product. In this context, discuss the characteristics of the good research?


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TO
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A)
1.Cafe Coffee Day 2. Dr. Batra's clinic 3.Lux Soap 4. HP(Hewlett Packard)

1.LUX  SOAP
INTEGRATED  Marketing communications has a mix. Elements of the mix are blended in different quantities in a campaign. The marketing communications mix includes many different elements, and the following list is by no means conclusive. It is recognised that there is some cross over between individual elements (e.g. Is donating computers to schools, by asking shoppers to collect vouchers, public relations or sales promotion?) Here are the key of the marketing communications mix.


The Marketing Communications Mix.

Personal Selling ,
-here the marketing communication is used
*to  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  sell  benefits
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to  seek  commitment
*to  help  to  close the  sale.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sales Promotion
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to inform  the  customers
*to  physically present
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Relations (and publicity)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  publicise  the company
*to  publicise  the  product
*to publicise  the  company's  research/ development
*to  publicise the  company  image
*to  create  the  company  brand
*to  inform  public
*to  communicate  with the community.
*to  establish  relations  with government  
*to  establish   community  relations
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Direct Mail
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  inform
*to  talk  to  individuals
*to  focus  on  niche  market
*to inform the  decision  makers  directly
*to   advertise cost efficiently
*to promote selected  market  segments
*to contact individuals  for  one-to-one  marketing
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Advertising (above and below the line)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
ABOVE  THE  LINE
*to  MASS  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create MASS awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  sell  benefits
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
HERE  IS  PR  IS  INCLUDED   AS  A  MASS  COMMICATION
TOOL .
------------------------
BELOW  THE  LINE
*to  physically present
*to make it  visible at  the  point  of sale.
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
*to  display  and promote
*to  merchandise the product
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Packaging -here the  marketing  communication is  used
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  MASS  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create MASS awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  make  it  visible  at  the  point  of  sale
--------------------------------------------------------------
Merchandising (and point-of-sale)  
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to create visiblity  at the point of  sale.
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
*to  display  and promote
*to  merchandise the product
--------------------------------------------------------------------

Branding (and corporate identity)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  create an  unique position  for the company
*to create  an  unique  position  for the product
*to create unique visibility
*to make it  easy to  identify
*to  make it easy to  buy
*to make it  easy  to  sell
-----------------------------------------------------------
ALL  THE  INTEGRATED MARKETING  COMMUNICATION EFFORTS  ARE  DIRECTED
-TO  MAKE  IT EASY  FOR  THE  CUSTOMERS  TO  MAKE  THE BUYING  DECISION.
-HENCE  MORE  SALES.
=========================================================
Integrated marketing communications see the elements of the communications mix 'integrated' into a coherent whole. This is known as the marketing communications mix, and forms the basis of a marketing communications campaign.
marketing communications process
The elements of the promotions mix are integrated to form a coherent campaign. As with all forms of communication. The message from the marketer follows the 'communications process' as illustrated above. For example, a radio advert is made for a car manufacturer. The car manufacturer (sender) pays for a specific advert with contains a message specific to a target audience (encoding). It is transmitted during a set of commercials from a radio station (Message / media). The message is decoded by a car radio (decoding) and the target consumer interprets the message (receiver). He or she might visit a dealership or seek further information from a web site (Response). The consumer might buy a car or express an interest or dislike (feedback). This information will inform future elements of an integrated promotional campaign. Perhaps a direct mail campaign would push the consumer to the point of purchase. Noise represent the thousand of marketing communications that a consumer is exposed to everyday, all competing for attention.
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
2.HP  PRODUCTS
INTEGRATED  Marketing communications has a mix. Elements of the mix are blended in different quantities in a campaign. The marketing communications mix includes many different elements, and the following list is by no means conclusive. It is recognised that there is some cross over between individual elements (e.g. Is donating computers to schools, by asking shoppers to collect vouchers, public relations or sales promotion?) Here are the key of the marketing communications mix.


The Marketing Communications Mix.

Personal Selling ,
-here the marketing communication is used
*to  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  sell  benefits
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to  seek  commitment
*to  help  to  close the  sale.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sales Promotion
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to inform  the  customers
*to  physically present
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Relations (and publicity)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  publicise  the company
*to  publicise  the  product
*to publicise  the  company's  research/ development
*to  publicise the  company  image
*to  create  the  company  brand
*to  inform  public
*to  communicate  with the community.
*to  establish  relations  with government  
*to  establish   community  relations
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Direct Mail
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  inform
*to  talk  to  individuals
*to  focus  on  niche  market
*to inform the  decision  makers  directly
*to   advertise cost efficiently
*to promote selected  market  segments
*to contact individuals  for  one-to-one  marketing
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Trade Fairs and Exhibitions
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  inform  individuals
*to  provide  visibility
*to  talk  to  individuals
*to inform the  decision  makers  directly
*to   advertise cost efficiently
*to promote person to  person
*to contact individuals  for  one-to-one  marketing
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Advertising (above and below the line)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
ABOVE  THE  LINE
*to  MASS  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create MASS awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  sell  benefits
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
HERE  IS  PR  IS  INCLUDED   AS  A  MASS  COMMICATION
TOOL .
------------------------
BELOW  THE  LINE
*to  physically present
*to make it  visible at  the  point  of sale.
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
*to  display  and promote
*to  merchandise the product
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sponsorship
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  MASS  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create MASS awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  sell  benefits
--------------------------------------------------------------
Merchandising (and point-of-sale)  
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to create visiblity  at the point of  sale.
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
*to  display  and promote
*to  merchandise the product
--------------------------------------------------------------------
EMarketing (and Internet promotions)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  inform
*to  talk  to  individuals
*to  focus  on  niche  market
*to inform the  decision  makers  directly
*to   advertise cost efficiently
----------------------------------------------------------------
Branding (and corporate identity)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  create an  unique position  for the company
*to create  an  unique  position  for the product
*to create unique visibility
*to make it  easy to  identify
*to  make it easy to  buy
*to make it  easy  to  sell
-----------------------------------------------------------
ALL  THE  INTEGRATED MARKETING  COMMUNICATION EFFORTS  ARE  DIRECTED
-TO  MAKE  IT EASY  FOR  THE  CUSTOMERS  TO  MAKE  THE BUYING  DECISION.
-HENCE  MORE  SALES.
=========================================================
Integrated marketing communications see the elements of the communications mix 'integrated' into a coherent whole. This is known as the marketing communications mix, and forms the basis of a marketing communications campaign.
marketing communications process
The elements of the promotions mix are integrated to form a coherent campaign. As with all forms of communication. The message from the marketer follows the 'communications process' as illustrated above. For example, a radio advert is made for a car manufacturer. The car manufacturer (sender) pays for a specific advert with contains a message specific to a target audience (encoding). It is transmitted during a set of commercials from a radio station (Message / media). The message is decoded by a car radio (decoding) and the target consumer interprets the message (receiver). He or she might visit a dealership or seek further information from a web site (Response). The consumer might buy a car or express an interest or dislike (feedback). This information will inform future elements of an integrated promotional campaign. Perhaps a direct mail campaign would push the consumer to the point of purchase. Noise represent the thousand of marketing communications that a consumer is exposed to everyday, all competing for attention.
#########################

B) Illustrate with examples, the differences between Product marketing & (10 Marks)
Services marketing?
A.PRODUCT MARKETING
Product marketing deals with the first of the "4P"'s of  MARKETING , which are PRODUCT , PRICING , PLACE , and PROMOTIONS.Product marketing, deals with more outbound   MARKETING  tasks. For example, product management deals with the nuts and bolts of  PRODUCT  DEVELOPMENT   within a firm, whereas product marketing deals with marketing the PRODUCT  to PROSPECTS CUSTOMERS , and others.
EXAMPLE : LUX  TOILET  SOAP.

Role of product marketing
Product marketing in a business addresses five important strategic questions:
1   What products will be offered (i.e., the breadth and depth of the PRODUCT LINE ?
2   Who will be the target customers (i.e., the boundaries of the market segments to be served)?
3   How will the products reach those (i.e., the distribution channel)?
4   How much should the products be priced at?
5   How to introduce the products (i.e., the way to promote the products)?


THE  MOST  APPROPRIATE / SELECT  A  COMBINATION   FOR    YOUR  SITUATION
SAY, LUX  TOILET  SOAP.

-your  product  has a  '' unique  advantage/benefits.

-your  product  offers  the  most  competitive  ''value  for  money''.

-your  product is  one  of   the  affordable   in the   market  for  its  range.

-your  product  positioning  in the  niche  market.

-your  product  distribution  is  matchless  in the  market,  available  at   arms  length.

-your  product  merchandising   is   the  most  attractive  at  the  retail   level.

etc etc.
----------------------------------------------------------------------

SERVICE  MARKETING

SERVICE IS ANY ACT OR PERFORMANCE THAT ONE PARTY CAN OFFER TO ANOTHER THAT IS ESSENTIALLY INTANGIBLE AND DOES NOT RESULT IN ANY OWNERSHIP
Services marketing is  MARKETING  based on relationship and value.
Marketing a service-base business is different from marketing a goods-base business.
There are several major differences, including:
The buyer purchases are intangible
The service may be based on the reputation of a single person
It's more difficult to compare the quality of similar services
The buyer cannot return the service
The major difference in the services marketing versus regular marketing is that instead of the traditional "4 P's," Product, Price, Place, Promotion, there are three additional "P's" consisting of People, Physical evidence, and Process. Service marketing also includes the servicescape referring to but not limited to the aesthetic appearance of the business from the outside, the inside, and the general appearance of the employees themselves.

EXAMPLE:  EDUCATION

Service quality is not one-dimensional; it encompasses numerous factors that are important to customer satisfaction. Satisfaction basically is related to expectations and perceived delivery on these dimensions and as shown by the equation given below.
The quality of service delivery results in customer satisfaction & their retention as it reinforces the perception that the value of the service received is grater than the price paid for it.
Quality is defined as the ability of the service provider to satisfy customer needs. Customer perception , service quality & profitability are interdependent variable.
Even in the case of products, quality is difficult to define because it is highly dependent upon customer perception. The task is made more complicated in the case of service because of the intengible nature of service & the variation in services offered to different customers.
There are several reasons why customers must be given quality service. Most important of them are

1. Industry has become so competitive that customers now have variety of alternatives. If the customers are lost, it can be extremely difficult to win back the individual.

2. Most customers do not complain when they experience problems, these customers simply opt out & take their business elsewhere.

What is CUSTOMER  Satisfaction?
CUSTOMER  Satisfaction = function of {CUSTOMER -Expectation and Perceived delivery}
A person is said to be dissatisfied when the perceived delivery is lower than expectation; he/she is satisfied when they match; delighted when the delivery exceeds expectation and astonished when the delivery far exceeds expectation. The following equations explain these relationships.
Perceived Delivery < Expectation --> Dissatisfaction
Perceived Delivery = Expectation --> Satisfaction
Perceived Delivery > Expectation --> Delight
Perceived Delivery >> Expectation --> Astonishment
Dimensions of Service Quality:
There   are  various aspects that a customer expects from different services.

1. Reliability: This refers to the ability of the company to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Reliability is probably the single most important dimension of quality. Customers expect that companies will do what they say and they will do when they say they will do it.

2. Tangibles: This refers to the appearance of the physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication materials. As services are intangible, the tangibles give an impression to the customers about the quality of service they can expect from a firm. A bank in a shabby building will make the customer wonder whether their money will be safe in such a bank.

3. Responsiveness: This refers to the willingness of the employees to help customers and provide prompt service. When you go to a bank the minimum that you expect is that the employees would attend to you rather than chit-chat amongst themselves.

4. Assurance: This factor is linked to several minor factors such as competence, courtesy, credibility and security. Competence depends on the service provider's possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the service. The politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of the service providers can be bundled into the term courtesy. Credibility refers to the perceived trustworthiness, believability, and honesty of the service provider. Security refers to the fact that the service should be free from danger, risk, and doubt. In sum, the assurance factor refers to the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence.

5. Empathy: Empathy refers to the caring, individualized attention the firm provides to its customers. It includes access, communication and understanding. Access refers to the approachability and ease with which the customer can contact the firm. Communication refers to keeping the customer informed in the language they can understand and listening to them. Understanding has to do with the efforts made by the service provider to know customers and their needs.
The Service Quality Gaps:
Gaps between perceived & expected levels of service quality delivery result in the failure of the service provider.
These are the  5   gaps.
-The First gap does not know what customers expect. rea
-The second gap is between what the customer expects and what the management understands as the customers' expectation from the company.
-The third gap is with reference to the management's understanding of the customer expectations and the service quality standards set by the management.
-The fourth gap is between the quality specifications and actual service delivery.
-The fifth gap is between what is communicated to customers and what is actually delivered.
It is possible to measure the gaps and take corrective actions to fill them to the extent possible. The most difficult gap to fill is the one between customer expectations and the perceived service delivery. The expectation of the customers keeps rising with every good experience. When a customer visits the service organization, he/she expects a better service than what was experienced in the last encounter.
====================================
The service marketing  challenges  are
-to generate  re-sales
-to create  a  waiting list
-to create a positive word of  mouth advertising
as  a  lot  of  new  business  is generated  from  satisfied  customers.
WHICH  MEANS  THAT  THERE  IS  NO/LITTLE GAP  BETWEEN
SERVICE  EXPECTATIONS AND SERVICE  DELIVERY.
====================================
HOW DO  YOU MATCH  SERVICE  EXPECTATION  WITH  DELIVERIES
IN PRODUCT  MARKETING , WE  RELY  ON  4 P's
-product  attributes/benefits
-pricing  strategy
-place [ right / easy  place to buy]
-promotions [ selected  weighted  mix]
--------------------------------------------------------------
IN CASE  OF  THE  SERVICE, THE PRODUCT  IS
-intangible, the greater the  intangibility the  more  complex
the  promise.
-perishable /heterogeneous, the  production  and consumption are  often  simulaneous.
IN SERVICE  MARKETING, WE  RELY  ON  7 P's
-product service [ features/benefits]
-place [ flexibility]
-price [ flexi]
-promotions [ selected  weighted  mix]
-people [ ability,competent, right  attitude ]
-physical  evidence
-process
====================================
IN SERVICE  BUSINESS,
-SERVICE  MARKETING  PROMOTES  AND  
SERVICE  MANAGEMENT  GENERATES  RESULTS, through
*service  delivery
*service  quality
*customer satisfaction/ relation   management
-service  recovery
-service  management  audit.
=======================================
SERVICE  MANAGEMENT  PROVIDES SATISFACTORY SERVICE
-by designing  the  customer  oriented business  process
-cost  effective  service
-continuous  improvements through research/development
-improving  people's  abilities/competences.
====================================
SERVICE  MARKETING  MEETS SERVICE  MANAGEMENT
-by  managing  customer behavior
-by conducting  customer research
-by  managing  customer expectations
-by reverse-engineering  the  product/service  portfolio.
-by determining  what  service  the  market  needs/ we can  offer.
-what  do  we  need  to  do  to  fill  the  gap.
=======================================
THE  INTEGRITY  OF  PRODUCT-SERVICE  DELIVERY
when the  service  marketing  is intergrated with service  management
that is ,what you  promise [either explicitly or  implicitily]  and  
what  you deliver
IN THIS  CASE  , ''INTEGRATED'' =  ''INTEGRITY''
There  is no  gap
WHICH  MEANS  CUSTOMER  SATISFACTION,
WHICH IT  TURN  MEANS = SUCCESSFUL  SERVICE  MARKETING.




EXAMPLES---PRODUCT  MARKETING
------------------------------------------------------------------
Company launching non aerated fruit juice,
CONSUMERS  SALES  PROMOTIONS
consumer coupons
consumer  volume   discounts and sales,  
consumer  contests
point of purchase displays
free samples  
gifts


RESELLERS  TRADE  SALES  PROMOTION  
-stockholding  bonus
-sales  target
-bonus  for performance
-retailer contests.
-special   rebate  for  above  target  performance.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Consumer durable product like Air conditioner, where dealer support is necessary to achieve target,
CONSUMERS   SALES  PROMOTIONS
consumer  contests
point of purchase displays
free samples  
gifts
incentive items


RESELLERS  TRADE  SALES  PROMOTIONS
-stockholding  bonus
-sales  target
-bonus  for performance
-retailer contests.
-special   rebate  for  above  target  performance.

--------------------------------------------------------------
Toilet Soaps,A detergent facing Heavy Competition.
CONSUMERS  SALES  PROMOTION
consumer coupons
consumer  volume   discounts and sales,  
consumer  contests
point of purchase displays
free samples  
gifts
incentive items
free travel, such as free flights

RESELLERS   TRADE SALES  PROMOTION
-stockholding  bonus
-sales  target
-bonus  for performance
-retailer contests.
-special   rebate  for  above  target  performance.



SERVICE  MARKETING
EXAMPLE   Low Cost domestic Airliner
Consumer sales promotion techniques
-Price deal: A temporary reduction in the price, such as off-season.
•Loyalty rewards program: Consumers collect points, miles, or credits for purchases and redeem them for rewards.

•Price-pack deal: The packaging offers a consumer a certain percentage more of the product for the same price
[ buy  one ticket  and  get  another  for half  the price]
•Coupons: coupons have become a standard mechanism for sales promotions-discount  coupons.

•Free-standing insert (FSI): A coupon booklet is inserted into the local newspaper for delivery.
•On-line couponing: Coupons are available on line. Consumers  buy  ticket  for   a  discounted  rate.
•Contests/sweepstakes/games: The consumer is automatically entered into the event by purchasing the ticket,
like  a trip  to  a  resort for 2.
 
•   Point-of-sale displays:
•   Aisle interrupter: A sign the juts into the aisle from the shelf  at  the  travel  agents.
•   Dangler: A sign that sways when a consumer walks by it  at  the  travel  agents.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TRAVEL  AGENT --Trade sales promotion techniques
•   Trade allowances: short term incentive offered to induce THE  TRAVEL AGENT  to SELL  up on a product.
•   Trade contest: A contest to reward  TRAVEL   AGENTS  that sell the most product.
Point-of-purchase displays: Extra sales tools given to  TRAVEL  AGENTS  to boost sa les.
========================================================

###############################




C)  

ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS
Proving the commercial value of advertising, that is, its contribution to shareholder value, rather than just its creative merit.
The Need to Measure Advertising Effectiveness
-To justify money spent (budgets), ROI
-To determine if the advertising campaign should be stopped or continued
-To determine possible areas of modifications in the campaign messages
-In the longer interest of the profession (some evidence of the relevance of advertising & the practitioners

Problems With Measuring Advertising Effectiveness
•   Irrational consumer behaviour
•   Lack of widely acceptable scientific approach
•   The difficulties of determining consumer influences (multiple factors)
•   The validity and reliability of data gathered
•   Suitability of research methods & instruments used
•   Poor research skills & Sampling issues
•   Inadequate resources/funding
•   Setting non-SMART objectives
•   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
•   Stages of Advertising Campaign Measurement
•   Pre-production/campaign stages - (copy testing, message & symbols testing etc)
•   Production/campaign stages - (visibility, awareness research etc)
•   Post-production/campaign stages (behavioural change, objectives, effectiveness research)
•   Feedback is needed at every stage to  influence future campaign efforts
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Methods of Measuring Advertising Effectiveness
•   Checking advertising objectives  set before the campaign with results achieved afterwards
•   Measuring the volume of sales before the campaign & the volume afterwards
•   Calculating the number of returned coupons & ref no. quotes
•   Calculating sales leads and responses as a result of advertising (ad to sales ratio)
•   Asking customers directly …How did you hear about us…Were you…
•   -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
•   
•   Examples of Advertising Objectives & How Success can be Measured (1)
•   Stimulate an increase in sales- Number of enquiries from advert, - Number of enquiries converted into sales
•   Remind customers of the existence of a product- Test customer awareness both before and after the advertising campaign, - Number of enquiries
•   Inform customers- Test customer awareness, - Number of requests for further information
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Examples of Advertising Objectives & How Success can be Measured (2)
•   Build a brand image- Test customer awareness of brand recognition and perceived values
•   Sales- Levels of repeat purchase
•   Build customer loyalty and relationship- Levels of customer retention
•   Change customer attitudes- Measure demographic profile of purchases
- Measure type of goods ordered by new purchasers
- Compare with previous data
•   --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
•   
•   Advantages & Disadvantages
Please note that for each method used in
measuring advertising effectiveness,
there are advantages and disadvantages,
what are they?
Research Methods
•   Primary & Secondary Research
•   Past sales records/Current sales records
•   Observations
•   Testing (pilot surveys), focus groups etc
•   Questionnaires
•   Interviews (one-on-one, group) etc

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How to do an Advertising Effectiveness Study via Mail Survey (Conversion Study)
Audience: Primarily intended for tourism associations doing marketing for a variety of businesses.
Step 1: Identify the Issues
The issues identified for the  XXXXX  area were:
Effectiveness of TV and Outdoor Magazines to determine if they are worth the investment
Measure the use of area services
Measure the ability of promotion to attract new customers
Step 2: Determine How the Issues Will Be Measured
In the Ely study, the effectiveness measure was Return On Investment (ROI).
Return = $ spent by tourists adjusted for influence of information
•   Dollars spent in area
•   proportion of travelers influenced by information
Make sure that 1 or 2 questions on the survey will elicit data appropriate to each issue.
Step 3: Write the Survey
Print our   SURVEY  FORM  and customize it to fit your needs.
Step 4: Send Out a Sample Mailing
Choose a small group of people to test the survey. Evaluate the responses and correct any ambiguous questions.
Step 5: Determine Your Sample
In determining the size of the group to receive the survey (sample) there are a few rules of thumb:
•   Your goal should be a 50% response rate to your survey.
•   You must have at least 400 surveys for significant findings
•   Some of the surveys you mail will be returned as undeliverable
•   Therefore, the sample size should be at least 825.
Once your size is determined, you must select your sample. You must use a scientifically selected random sample to create your survey group.
You will most likely have to do 3 or 4 mailings to reach the 50% response rate.
* If you don't have 800+ inquiries from visitors, simply send a mailing to everyone. This is called a census. Your minimum response rate should still be 50%.
5A: Comparing different groups or populations
If you want to compare a subset of your population (i.e., you want to know how people responding to television ads responded compared to the population as a whole), use a second survey to measure the conversion rate of that sub-population.
Examples of comparisons from the XXXX Area Survey follow.
Conversion Rates by Population

Average Number of Nights in Area

Step 6: Sending Out the Survey
You must expect to send out multiple mailings to reach the 50% response rate goal. To send out multiple mailings you will need to keep track of who in your sample, has returned their survey to you. There are many ways to do this. Here is the method used in the XXXX   Area survey.
Assign each person in the sample a number
Write the number on the survey being mailed to that person
Mark off the names associated with the numbers on the incoming surveys
Send out the next mailing only to those whose survey has not been received
The mailings should be sent in 10 day increments. Here is the schedule we used along with the cumulative response rate for each mailing:
Number of Days Elapsed   Mailings   Response Rate After Mailing
0   1st Mailing   23%
10   2nd Mailing   39%
20   3rd Mailing   48%
30   4th Mailing (postcard)   51%
You may also want to consider sending an abbreviated survey as your last mailing. Send only 2 or 3 questions total on a self-addressed, stamped postcard.
Step 7: Gathering the Data
Enter your survey responses into a spreadsheet. A standard program such as Microsoft Excel or Quattro Pro is all that is needed.
Simply create a column for each question on the survey and put the responses for each survey in a separate row.
Step 8: Analyzing Your Data
In analyzing your data there are usually only two kinds of numbers you will generate:
Averages
Percentages
Both require that you analyze the data for the question based on the number of people who responded to that question, not the number of people who sent in surveys.
Step 9: Extrapolating From Your Data
Once you have analyzed your data, you know that 35% of the people in your survey that reached you with inquiries actually came to visit. You can assume that at least 35% of your total inquiries have come to visit, but what about the 49% of your sample that did not respond? That's 49% of your total inquiries that are unrepresented in the data.
The people that did not respond are not as likely to have traveled to your area as the people who did respond. However, that does not mean that none of them came.
The simplest method follows.
All examples are based on the data in theXXXX Area Survey:
Conversion Rate of those who replied: 35%
Response Rate: 51%
Total Number of Inquires: 29,949.
1. Find the Best Case Scenario
Take the conversion rate from the respondents and assume that the conversion rate will hold for the non-respondents as well
e.g.:
If the conversion rate of those who responded is 35%, then in the "Best Case Scenario" that figure holds and 35% of both the respondents and non-respondents visited
2. Find the Worst Case Scenario
Take the conversion rate from your data (i.e., 35% of the respondents visited the area) and assume that no one else came.
e.g.:
If the conversion rate of those who responded is 35%, and no one else visited, then the conversion rate of the whole is 35% of the 51% response rate
35% x 51% = 17.85% Conversion Rate for all
3. Find the Most Probable Scenario
It is unlikely that either the Best or Worst Case Scenarios are true. The following is the most accurate method for finding the reality that lies in between the two extremes.
Add your best and worst case scenario conversion rates and divide by 2. The average of the two numbers is the best estimate you are going to get without resorting to statistics.
e.g.:
35% + 17.85% = 52.85%
52.85 / 2 =26.43%
Example:

Extrapolated Total Expenditures of Visitors in the XXXX Area

Inquiries Generated for Information on the XXXX Area
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And How would you measure the effectiveness of the following Marketing Communication programmes:
1.Road shows for a newly launched car with a limited period “Price-Off”,
1.Survey  a   sample  number  of  people  about  the  ''awareness''.
2.Survey  a sample  number  of  people  about  the  ''intention'' of buying.
3.Survey  a  sample  of  current  users of   cars, about  the  possibility  of  ''TRADE-IN''.
4.Survey  all the  dealership  in the  region,  who  are  franchised  to sell
the  car ,  about  the  sales for  the  limited  period.
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A sales production programme for a TV, Apex fare for an airline

1.Survey  a   sample  number  of  people  about  the  ''awareness''.
2.Survey  a sample  number  of  people  about  the  ''intention'' of buying  under  the  scheme.
3.Survey  a  sample  of  current  fliers , about  the  possibility  of   using  the scheme.
4.Survey  all the  travel  agents   in the  region,  who  are  franchised  to sell
the  tickets,  about  the  sales for  the  limited  period.
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