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Question
hi sir ,
  please kindly help me in this questions
 
   1.Explain various models of group development . Describe the model being followed in your organization or any organization you are familiar with. what can be done to increase group effectiveness ? Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

   2.discuss how organisational culture can be developed and describe the attributes of work culture and their relevance.

 Regards,
 Richa

Answer
4. Explain various models of group development. Describe the model being followed in your organization or any organization you are familiar with. What can be done to increase group effectiveness? Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.
A number of MODELS  have been developed to explain how certain groups change over time. Listed below are some of the most common models.

Kurt Lewin's Individual Change Process
The the first systematic study of group development was carried out by kurt lewin, who introduced the term "group dynamics"  His ideas about mutual, cross-level influence and quasi-stationary equilibria, although uncommon in the traditional empirical research on group development, have resurged recently. His early model of individual change, which has served as the basis of many models of group development, described change as a three-stage process: unfreezing, change, and freezing.
Unfreezing:   This phase involves overcoming inertia and dismantling the existing "mind set". Defense mechanisms have to be bypassed.
Change   In the second stage change occurs. This is typically a period of confusion and transition. One is aware that the old ways are being challenged but does not have a clear picture to replace them with yet.
Freezing   In the third stage the new mindset is crystallizing and one's comfort level is returning to previous levels. This is often misquoted as "refreezing" (see Lewin, 1947).
==========================================================
Tuckman's Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning
bruce  tuckman reviewed about fifty studies of group development ( in the mid-sixties and synthesized their commonalities in one of the most frequently cited models of group development . The model describes four linear stages that a group will go through in its unitary sequence of decision making. A fifth stage was added in 1977 when a new set of studies were reviewed (Tuckman & Jensen, 1977).
Forming:   Group members learn about each other and the task at hand. Indicators of this stage might include: Unclear objectives, Uninvolvement, Uncommitted members, Confusion, Low morale, Hidden feelings, Poor listening, etc.
Storming:   As group members continue to work, they will engage each other in arguments about the structure of the group which often are significantly emotional and illustrate a struggle for status in the group. These activities mark the storming phase: Lack of cohesion, Subjectivity, Hidden agendas, Conflicts, Confrontation, Volatility, Resentment, anger, Inconsistency, Failure.
Norming:   Group members establish implicit or explicit rules about how they will achieve their goal. They address the types of communication that will or will not help with the task. Indicators include: Questioning performance, Reviewing/clarify objective, Changing/confirming roles, Opening risky issues, Assertiveness, Listening, Testing new ground, Identifying strengths and weaknesses.
Performing:   Groups reach a conclusion and implement the conclusion. Indicators include: Creativity, Initiative, Flexibility, Open relationships, Pride, Concern for people, Learning, Confidence, High morale, Success, etc.
Adjourning:   As the group project ends, the group disbands in the adjournment phase. This phase was added when Tuckman and Jensen's updated their original review of the literature in 1977.
Each of the four stages in the model proposed by Tuckman involves two aspects: interpersonal relationships and task behaviors.
======================================================

Tubbs' Systems Model
Stewart Tubbs "systems" approach to studying small group interaction led him to the creation of a four-phase model of group development:
Orientation:   In this stage, group members get to know each other, they start to talk about the problem, and they examine the limitations and opportunities of the project.
Conflict:   Conflict is a necessary part of a group's development. Conflict allows the group to evaluate ideas and it helps the group avoid conformity and groupthink
Consensus:   Conflict ends in the consensus stage, when group members compromise, select ideas, and agree on alternatives.
Closure   In this stage, the final result is announced and group members reaffirm their support of the decision.

=============================================================
Fisher's theory of decision emergence in groups
Fisher outlines four phases through which task groups tend to proceed when engaged in decision making. By observing the distribution of act-response pairs (a.k.a. "interacts") across different moments of the group process, Fisher noted how the interaction changed as the group decision was formulated and solidified. His method pays special attention to the "content" dimension of interactions by classifying statements in terms of how they respond to a decision proposal (e.g. agreement, disagreement, etc.).
Orientation:   During the orientation phase, group members get to know each other and they experience a primary tension: the awkward feeling people have before communication rules and expectations are established. Groups should take time to learn about each other and feel comfortable communicating around new people.
Conflict:   The conflict phase is marked by secondary tension, or tension surrounding the task at hand. Group members will disagree with each other and debate ideas. Here conflict is viewed as positive, because it helps the group achieve positive results.
Emergence:   In the emergence phase, the outcome of the group's task and its social structure become apparent. Group members soften their positions and undergo and attitudinal change that makes them less tenacious in defending their individual viewpoint.
Reinforcement:   In this stage, group members bolster their final decision by using supportive verbal and nonverbal communication.


=======================================================
Poole's multiple-sequences model
Marshall Scott Poole’s model suggests that different groups employ different sequences in making decisions. In contrast to unitary sequence models , the multiple sequences model addresses decision making as a function of several contingency variables: task structure, group composition, and conflict management strategies. Poole developed a descriptive system for studying multiple sequences, beyond the abstract action descriptions of previous studies. From Bales’ Interaction Process Analysis System and Fisher’s Decision Proposal Coding System, Poole proposes 36 clusters of group activities for coding group interactions and 4 cluster-sets: proposal development, socioemotional concerns, conflict, and expressions of ambiguity. However, in his latter work, Poole rejected phasic models of group development and proposed a model of continuously developing threads of activity. In essence, discussions are not characterized by blocks of phases, one after another, but by intertwining tracks of activity and interaction.
Poole suggests three activity tracks: task progress, relational, and topical focus. Interspersed with these are breakpoints, marking changes in the development of strands and links between them. Normal breakpoints pace the discussion with topic shifts and adjournments. Delays, another breakpoint, are holding patterns of recycling through information. Finally, disruptions break the discussion threads with conflict or task failure.
Task track:   The task track concerns the process by which the group accomplishes its goals, such as dealing doing problem analysis, designing solutions, etc.
Relation track:   The relation track deals with the interpersonal relationships between the group members. At times, the group may stop its work on the task and work instead on its relationships, share personal information or engage in joking.
Topic track:   The topic track includes a series of issues or concerns the group have over time
Breakpoints:   Breakpoints occur when a group switches from one track to another. Shifts in the conversation, adjournment, or postponement are examples of breakpoints.

================================================================
McGrath's Time, Interaction, and Performance (TIP) Theory
McGrath's (1991) work emphasized the notion that different teams might follow different developmental paths to reach the same outcome. He also suggested that teams engage in four modes of group activity: inception, technical problem solving, conflict resolution, and execution According to this model, modes "are potential, not required, forms of activity" (p. 153) resulting in Modes I and IV (inception and execution) being involved in all group tasks and projects while Modes II (technical problem solving) and III (conflict resolution) may or may not be involved in any given group activity .

McGrath further suggested that all team projects begin with Mode I (goal choice) and end with Mode IV (goal attainment) but that Modes II and III may or may not be needed depending on the task and the history of the group’s activities. McGrath contended that for each identified function, groups can follow a variety of alternative "time-activity paths" in order to move from the initiation to the completion of a given function. Specifically, TIP theory states that there is a "default path" between two modes of activity which is "satisficing" or "least effort" path, and that such default path will "prevail unless conditions warrant some more complex path" .
Mode I: Inception   Inception and acceptance of a project (goal choice)
Mode II: Technical Problem Solving   Solution of technical issues (means choice)
Mode III: Conflict Resolution   Resolution of conflict, that is, of political issues (policy choice)
Mode IV: Execution   Execution of the performance requirements of the project (goal attainment)
This model also states that groups adopt these four modes with respect to each of three team functions: production, well-being, and member support. In this sense, groups are seen as "always acting in one of the four modes with respect to each of the three functions, but they are not necessarily engaged in the same mode for all functions, nor are they necessarily engaged in the same mode for a given function on different projects that may be concurrent" (McGrath, 1991, p. 153). The following table illustrates the relationship between modes and functions.
Functions         
  Production   Well-being   Member Support
Mode I:
Inception   Production
Demand/ Opportunity   Interaction
Demand/ Opportunity   Inclusion
Demand/ Opportunity
Mode II:
Problem Solving   Technical
Problem Solving   Role
Network Definition   Position/
Status Attainment
Mode III:
Conflict Resolution   Policy
Conflict Resolution   Power/
Payoff Distribution   Contribution/
Payoff Relationships
Mode IV:
Execution   Performance   Interaction   Participation

=====================================================

Gersick's Punctuated Equilibrium Model
Gersick's study of naturally occurring groups departs from the traditionally linear models of group development. Her punctuated equilibrium model ,suggests that groups develop through the sudden formation, maintenance, and sudden revision of a "framework for performance". This model describes the processes through which such frameworks are formed and revised and predicts both the timing of progress and when and how in their development groups are likely, or unlikely, to be influenced by their environments. The specific issues and activities that dominate groups' work are left unspecified in the model, since groups' historical paths are expected to vary. Her proposed model works in the following way.
Phase I   According to the model, a framework of behavioral patterns and assumptions through which a group approaches its project emerges in its first meeting, and the group stays with that framework through the first half of its life. Teams may show little visible progress during this time because members may be unable to perceive a use for the information they are generating until they revise the initial framework.
Midpoint   At their calendar midpoints, groups experience transitions-paradigmatic shifts in their approaches to their work-enabling them to capitalize on the gradual learning they have done and make significant advances. The transition is a powerful opportunity for a group to alter the course of its life midstream. But the transition must be used well, for once it is past a team is unlikely to alter its basic plans again.
Phase 2   A second period of inertial movement, takes its direction from plans crystallized during the transition. At completion, when a team makes a final effort to satisfy outside expectations, it experiences the positive and negative consequences of past choices.

==================================================
Wheelan’s Integrated Model of Group Development
Building on Tuckman’s model and based on her own empirical research as well as the foundational work of  wilford  bion, Susan Wheelan proposed a “unified” or “integrated” model of group development . This model, although linear in a sense, takes the perspective that groups achieve maturity as they continue to work together rather than simply go through stages of activity. In this model “early” stages of group development are associated with specific issues and patterns of talk such as those related to dependency, counterdependency, and trust which precede the actual work conducted during the “more mature” stages of a group's life. The table below describes each one of these phases.
Stage I Dependency and Inclusion   The first stage of group development is characterized by significant member dependency on the designated leader, concerns about safety, and inclusion issues. In this stage, members rely on the leader and powerful group members to provide direction. Team members may engage in what has been called “pseudo-work,” such as exchanging stories about outside activities or other topics that are not relevant to group goals.
Stage II Counterdependency and Fight   In the second stage of group development members disagree among themselves about group goals and procedures. Conflict is an inevitable part of this process. The group’s task at Stage 2 is to develop a unified set of goals, values, and operational procedures, and this task inevitably generates some conflict. Conflict also is necessary for the establishment of trust and a climate in which members feel free to disagree with each other.
Stage III Trust / Structure   If the group manages to work through the inevitable conflicts of Stage 2, member trust, commitment to the group, and willingness to cooperate increase. Communication becomes more open and task-oriented. This third stage of group development, referred to as the trust and structure stage, is characterized by more mature negotiations about roles, organization, and procedures. It is also a time in which members work to solidify positive working relationships with each other
Stage IV Work / Productivity   As its name implies, the fourth stage of group development is a time of intense team productivity and effectiveness. Having resolved many of the issues of the previous stages, the group can focus most of its energy on goal achievement and task accomplishment
Final   Groups that have a distinct ending point experience a fifth stage. Impending termination may cause disruption and conflict in some groups. In other groups, separation issues are addressed, and members’ appreciation of each other and the group experience may be expressed.
Based on this model, Wheelan has created and validated both a Group Development Observation System (GDOS) and a Group Development Questionnaire (GDQ). The GDOS allows researchers to determine the developmental stage of a group by categorizing and counting each complete thought exhibited during a group session into one of eight categories: Dependency statements, Counterdependency, Fight, Flight, Pairing, Counterpairing, Work, or Unscorable statements. The GDQ is used to survey group members and assess their individual perception of their group’s developmental state .
In the  empirical validation of the model, has analyzed the relationship between the length of time that a group has been meeting and the verbal behavior patterns of its members as well as the member’s perceptions of the state of development of the group. Her results seem to indicate that there is a significant relationship between the length of time that a group had been meeting and the verbal behavior patterns of its members. Also, members of older groups tended to perceive their groups to have more of the characteristics of Stage-3 and Stage-4 groups and to be more productive. Based on this results, Wheelan’s position supports the traditional linear models of group development and casts doubt on the cyclic models and Gersick’s punctuated equilibrium model.
================================================
the organisation I  am referring to

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*marketing
*manufacturing
*sales
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*distribution
*warehousing/  transportation
*TQM  
==============================================
IN  THIS  ORGANIZATION,   THE  PRACTICE  OF  
group  development.
The following model is a frequently used training tool for helping any groups to improve their functioning. At  this  organization        it is generally used to help staff  understand that development of group cohesion is a predictable process and can be helped along by understanding the dynamics and practicing certain procedures. The model can be taught to staff easily. The critical component is the development of explicit norms (rules) for how the group will work together and enough self-awareness of groups to use the norms.
The stages described below are   useful  stages.
Stage 1. Forming (Orientation and Initiation)
Little trust.
Anxiety is very high.
Conflict is not apparent.
Members skirt and scout to get to know each other. They begin to identify the individual characteristics of their group members, and they form some early hypothesis about their partners.
Stage 2. Storming (Redefinition)

Trust begins to develop
Anxiety diminishes as people begin to see themselves as part of a group, but it still may be somewhat high as adjustments are made to each other.
Conflict may erupt as power struggles emerge, but it usually is denied or ignored, but people worry about how they will get their own opinion or positions heard but they don’t want to create more anxiety.
Members compete or capitulate. Roles become defined. Different levels of motivation become apparent.
Stage 3. Norming (Setting the Rules)

During this stage, the group members work out an agreement about how the group operates. Informal norms exist as well. Those norms often supersede the formal norms.
Trust – In the process of working together, team members build trust, learn to share more than just their work and therefore develop cohesion, and they build skills necessary to do their work.
Anxiety- diminished among most members because they know what the rules of behavior are for the group.
Conflict- managed by the group members, especially if they have become self aware and have done the proper level of norm building. They have an agreed upon plan for managing conflict.
Stage 4. Performing (Getting the job done)
Trust is high.
Anxiety around getting the job done may resurface but there is high performance.
Conflict is submerged in order to heighten performance.
Stage 5. Winding Down
This is the stage when student say goodbye and terminate their work together. It may be short in some teams or may be longer in others. If students have become friends, it may not occur.
###################################

########################
5. Briefly discuss how organizational culture can be developed and describe the attributes of work culture and their relevance.
Organization culture  can  be  a  set  of  key values , assumptions,
understandings  and  norms that  is  shared  by  members of an
organization.

Organization  values  are fundamental beliefs that  an organization
considers  to  be  important , that are  relatively stable over time,
and  they have an  impact on  employees behaviors and  attitudes.

Organization  Norms  are  shared  standards that define what
behaviors  are  acceptable  and  desirable within organization.

Shared  assumptions  are  about  how  things  are  done
in  an  organization.

Understandings  are  coping  with internal /  external  problems
uniformly.
=================================================
LEVELS  OF  ORGANIZATION  CULTURE

LEVEL 1---VISIBLE, that can be  seen  at the surface level
-dress  codes
-office layout  [ open  office]
-symbols
-slogans
-ceremonies[ monthly / annual awards/long service/birthdays etc.
etc etc

LEVEL 2-  INVISIBLE , that can be cannot be  seen but only felt.
-stories  about people performance
-symbols [  flag, trademark, logos, etc]
-corporate mission  statements
-recruitment/selection  [ methods  used]
-fairness in treatment
-social  equality
-risk  taking in  business deals
-formality  in  approach
-discipline
-autonomy  for  departments
-responsiveness  to  communication
-empowerment  of  staff.
etc  etc.
===============================================
Importance of Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is even more important today than it was in the
past. Increased competition, globalization, mergers, acquisitions, alliances, and various
workforce developments have created a greater need for:

-Coordination and integration across organizational units in order to improve efficiency,
quality, and speed of designing, manufacturing, and delivering products and services  

-Product innovation
-Strategy innovation  
-Process innovation and the ability to successfully introduce new technologies, such as
information technology
-Effective management of dispersed work units and increasing workforce diversity
-Cross-cultural management of global enterprises and/or multi-national partnerships
-Construction of meta- or hybrid- cultures that merge aspects of cultures from what were
distinct organizations prior to an acquisition or merger
-Management of workforce diversity
-Facilitation and support of teamwork.
--------------------------------------------------
In addition to a greater need to adapt to these external and internal changes, organizational culture
has become more important because, for an increasing number of corporations, intellectual as
opposed to material assets now constitute the main source of value.

Maximizing the value of
employees as intellectual assets requires a culture that promotes their intellectual participation
and facilitates both individual and organizational learning, new knowledge creation and
application, and the willingness to share knowledge with others. Culture today must play a key
role in promoting

-Knowledge management
-Creativity  
-Participative management  
-Leadership  
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Effects of Organizational Culture
There has been a great deal of anecdotal evidence and some empirical evidence regarding the
performance effects of organizational culture.
-Southwest Airlines (21,775% return on investment ,
-Wal-Mart (19,807% ROI),
-Tyson Foods (18,118% ROI),
Circuit City (16,410% ROI),
and Plenum Publishing (15,689% ROI) .
These winners have strong leadership that promotes unique strategies and a strong culture to help them
realize these strategies.

Growing evidence that excellent companies do not remain excellent for
long also suggests that the traditional notion of a strong culture may need to be replaced with a
more discerning understanding of the types and role of culture and the need to change culture
over the life cycle of the organization.
For example, perhaps a strong consistent culture is useful
in the beginning start-up phase of an organization but a mature organization may need to become
more differentiated as well as more oriented to change and learning.

What is important for long- term organizational success may not be a particular type of organizational culture per se but the
ability to effectively manage and change the culture over time to adjust to changes in the situation
and needs of the organization. This understanding has pointed to the need for a more dynamic
understanding of culture and the role of organizational leaders in ensuring that the culture
contributes both to the organization’s current and future success.


Leadership today is essentially the creation, the management, and at
times the destruction and reconstruction of culture. In fact,“the only thing of importance
that leaders do is create and manage culture” and “the unique talent of leaders is their ability to
understand and work within culture” . Leaders must be able to assess how well the
culture is performing and when and how it needs to be changed. Assessing and improving
organizational culture as well as determining when major cultural transformations are necessary
is critical to long-term organizational success. Managing differentiated cultures and creating
synergies across these cultures is also a critical leadership challenge. Effective culture
management is also necessary to ensure that major strategic and organizational changes will
succeed. Basically, culture management is a key leadership and management competency.

However, effective cultural management does not depend on great individual leaders and charisma.
Charisma may be an advantage in times of crisis and change, but solid instrumental leadership can be as, or
more, effective in more normal circumstances .

Critical  instrumental mechanisms for changing and managing culture include

-Strategic planning and the identification of necessarily cultural requisites  
-Ensuring consistency of culture with mission, goals, strategies, structures and processes  
-Creating formal statements of organizational philosophy and values
-Establishing consistent incentives, recognition systems, and performance measurement
-Maintaining appropriate error-detection and accountability systems
-Coaching, mentoring, informal and formal training, and identifying role models  
-Embracing appropriate rites, rituals, symbols, and narratives  
-Taking advantage of the growth of subcultures
-Managing and promoting strong communities of practice .

Several requisites for organizational success that organizational culture must
now take into account:
-The organization must be proactive, not just reactive.
-The organization must influence and manage the environment, not just adapt.
-The organization must be pragmatic, not idealistic.
-The organization must be future-oriented, not predominantly present/past oriented.
-The organization must embrace diversity, not uniformity.
-The organization must be relationship-oriented, not just task-oriented.
-The organization must embrace external connectivity, as well as promote internal
integration.

These fundamental assumptions are key to eliminating obstacles that will inhibit the kinds of
internal and external organizational adaptations necessary for future success. They are not,
however, sufficient. They must be reinforced by values, behavioral norms and patterns, artifacts
and symbols, as well as accompanied by a particular mission, set of goals, and strategies.

Others emphasize more specific cultural mandates, such as that the modern organizational culture
must be:  
-Team-oriented.
-Knowledge and learning oriented .
-Alliance and partnership oriented .
-Another emerging mandate is to
-Know when to emphasize and how to balance cultural maintenance and cultural
innovation.
-Managers must actively work to keep the existing organization culture relevant to the present and
future while maintaining some sense of continuity with the past.

Companies with long-term success had a limited but strong set of timeless core values that did
not prevent organizational change over time. These companies were able to preserve the core
while stimulating progress.
--------------------------------------------------------------
Cultural Change
Cultural change typically refers to radical versus limited change. It is not easy to achieve; it is a
difficult, complicated, demanding effort that can take several years to accomplish. There are
three basic types of cultural change

-Revolutionary and comprehensive efforts to change the culture of the entire organization
-Efforts that are gradual and incremental but nevertheless are designed to cumulate so as
to produce a comprehensive reshaping of the entire organizational culture
-Efforts confined to radically change specific subcultures or cultural components of the
overall differentiated culture.

Strategies for effecting cultural change include  

-Unfreezing the old culture and creating motivation to change
-Capitalizing on propitious moments—problems, opportunities, changed circumstances,
and/or accumulated excesses or deficiencies of the past
-Making the change target concrete and clear
-Maintaining some continuity with the past
-Creating psychological safety through a compelling positive vision, formal training,
informal training of relevant groups and teams, providing coaches and positive role
models, employee involvement and opportunities for input and feedback, support groups,
and addressing fears and losses head on
-Selecting, modifying, and creating appropriate cultural forms, behaviors, artifacts, and
socialization tactics
-Cultivating charismatic leaders
-Having a realistic and solid transition plan
-Exercising risk management by understanding and addressing the risks and the benefits
as well as the potential inequitable distribution of these risks and benefits.
===================================================

Four essential strengths of the organizational culture approach:
•   It focuses attention on the human side of organizational life, and finds significance and learning in even its most mundane aspects (for example, the setup in an empty meeting room).
•   It makes clear the importance of creating appropriate systems of shared meaning to help people work together toward desired outcomes.
•   It requires members—especially leaders—to acknowledge the impact of their behavior on the organization’s culture. Morgan proposes that people should ask themselves: "What impact am I having on the social construction of reality in my organization?" "What can I do to have a different and more positive impact?"
•   It encourages the view that the perceived relationship between an organization and its environment is also affected by the organization’s basic assumptions. Morgan says:

We choose and operate in environmental domains according to how we construct conceptions of who we are and what we are trying to do. . . . And we act in relation to those domains through the definitions we impose on them. . . . The beliefs and ideas that organizations hold about who they are, what they are trying to do, and what their environment is like have a much greater tendency to realize themselves than is usually believed.
===========================
Importance of Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is even more important today than it was in the
past. Increased competition, globalization, mergers, acquisitions, alliances, and various
workforce developments have created a greater need for:

-Coordination and integration across organizational units in order to improve efficiency,
quality, and speed of designing, manufacturing, and delivering products and services  

-Product innovation
-Strategy innovation  
-Process innovation and the ability to successfully introduce new technologies, such as
information technology
-Effective management of dispersed work units and increasing workforce diversity
-Cross-cultural management of global enterprises and/or multi-national partnerships
-Construction of meta- or hybrid- cultures that merge aspects of cultures from what were
distinct organizations prior to an acquisition or merger
-Management of workforce diversity
-Facilitation and support of teamwork.
--------------------------------------------------
In addition to a greater need to adapt to these external and internal changes, organizational culture
has become more important because, for an increasing number of corporations, intellectual as
opposed to material assets now constitute the main source of value.

Maximizing the value of
employees as intellectual assets requires a culture that promotes their intellectual participation
and facilitates both individual and organizational learning, new knowledge creation and
application, and the willingness to share knowledge with others. Culture today must play a key
role in promoting

-Knowledge management
-Creativity  
-Participative management  
-Leadership  
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Effects of Organizational Culture
There has been a great deal of anecdotal evidence and some empirical evidence regarding the
performance effects of organizational culture.
-Southwest Airlines (21,775% return on investment ,
-Wal-Mart (19,807% ROI),
-Tyson Foods (18,118% ROI),
Circuit City (16,410% ROI),
and Plenum Publishing (15,689% ROI) .
These winners have strong leadership that promotes unique strategies and a strong culture to help them
realize these strategies.

Growing evidence that excellent companies do not remain excellent for
long also suggests that the traditional notion of a strong culture may need to be replaced with a
more discerning understanding of the types and role of culture and the need to change culture
over the life cycle of the organization.
For example, perhaps a strong consistent culture is useful
in the beginning start-up phase of an organization but a mature organization may need to become
more differentiated as well as more oriented to change and learning.

What is important for long- term organizational success may not be a particular type of organizational culture per se but the
ability to effectively manage and change the culture over time to adjust to changes in the situation
and needs of the organization. This understanding has pointed to the need for a more dynamic
understanding of culture and the role of organizational leaders in ensuring that the culture
contributes both to the organization’s current and future success.


Leadership today is essentially the creation, the management, and at
times the destruction and reconstruction of culture. In fact,“the only thing of importance
that leaders do is create and manage culture” and “the unique talent of leaders is their ability to
understand and work within culture” . Leaders must be able to assess how well the
culture is performing and when and how it needs to be changed. Assessing and improving
organizational culture as well as determining when major cultural transformations are necessary
is critical to long-term organizational success. Managing differentiated cultures and creating
synergies across these cultures is also a critical leadership challenge. Effective culture
management is also necessary to ensure that major strategic and organizational changes will
succeed. Basically, culture management is a key leadership and management competency.

However, effective cultural management does not depend on great individual leaders and charisma.
Charisma may be an advantage in times of crisis and change, but solid instrumental leadership can be as, or
more, effective in more normal circumstances .

Critical  instrumental mechanisms for changing and managing culture include

-Strategic planning and the identification of necessarily cultural requisites  
-Ensuring consistency of culture with mission, goals, strategies, structures and processes  
-Creating formal statements of organizational philosophy and values
-Establishing consistent incentives, recognition systems, and performance measurement
-Maintaining appropriate error-detection and accountability systems
-Coaching, mentoring, informal and formal training, and identifying role models  
-Embracing appropriate rites, rituals, symbols, and narratives  
-Taking advantage of the growth of subcultures
-Managing and promoting strong communities of practice .

Several requisites for organizational success that organizational culture must
now take into account:
-The organization must be proactive, not just reactive.
-The organization must influence and manage the environment, not just adapt.
-The organization must be pragmatic, not idealistic.
-The organization must be future-oriented, not predominantly present/past oriented.
-The organization must embrace diversity, not uniformity.
-The organization must be relationship-oriented, not just task-oriented.
-The organization must embrace external connectivity, as well as promote internal
integration.

These fundamental assumptions are key to eliminating obstacles that will inhibit the kinds of
internal and external organizational adaptations necessary for future success. They are not,
however, sufficient. They must be reinforced by values, behavioral norms and patterns, artifacts
and symbols, as well as accompanied by a particular mission, set of goals, and strategies.

Others emphasize more specific cultural mandates, such as that the modern organizational culture
must be:  
-Team-oriented.
-Knowledge and learning oriented .
-Alliance and partnership oriented .
-Another emerging mandate is to
-Know when to emphasize and how to balance cultural maintenance and cultural
innovation.
-Managers must actively work to keep the existing organization culture relevant to the present and
future while maintaining some sense of continuity with the past.

Companies with long-term success had a limited but strong set of timeless core values that did
not prevent organizational change over time. These companies were able to preserve the core
while stimulating progress.
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Cultural Change
Cultural change typically refers to radical versus limited change. It is not easy to achieve; it is a
difficult, complicated, demanding effort that can take several years to accomplish. There are
three basic types of cultural change

-Revolutionary and comprehensive efforts to change the culture of the entire organization
-Efforts that are gradual and incremental but nevertheless are designed to cumulate so as
to produce a comprehensive reshaping of the entire organizational culture
-Efforts confined to radically change specific subcultures or cultural components of the
overall differentiated culture.

Strategies for effecting cultural change include  

-Unfreezing the old culture and creating motivation to change
-Capitalizing on propitious moments—problems, opportunities, changed circumstances,
and/or accumulated excesses or deficiencies of the past
-Making the change target concrete and clear
-Maintaining some continuity with the past
-Creating psychological safety through a compelling positive vision, formal training,
informal training of relevant groups and teams, providing coaches and positive role
models, employee involvement and opportunities for input and feedback, support groups,
and addressing fears and losses head on
-Selecting, modifying, and creating appropriate cultural forms, behaviors, artifacts, and
socialization tactics
-Cultivating charismatic leaders
-Having a realistic and solid transition plan
-Exercising risk management by understanding and addressing the risks and the benefits
as well as the potential inequitable distribution of these risks and benefits.
===================================================

Four essential strengths of the organizational culture approach:
•   It focuses attention on the human side of organizational life, and finds significance and learning in even its most mundane aspects (for example, the setup in an empty meeting room).
•   It makes clear the importance of creating appropriate systems of shared meaning to help people work together toward desired outcomes.
•   It requires members—especially leaders—to acknowledge the impact of their behavior on the organization’s culture. Morgan proposes that people should ask themselves: "What impact am I having on the social construction of reality in my organization?" "What can I do to have a different and more positive impact?"
•   It encourages the view that the perceived relationship between an organization and its environment is also affected by the organization’s basic assumptions. Morgan says:

We choose and operate in environmental domains according to how we construct conceptions of who we are and what we are trying to do. . . . And we act in relation to those domains through the definitions we impose on them. . . . The beliefs and ideas that organizations hold about who they are, what they are trying to do, and what their environment is like have a much greater tendency to realize themselves than is usually believed.
===========================
Today, people live in an environment that is increasingly moving towards services-based economy. The concepts of
service quality and satisfaction in marketing activities during the past decades have been the focus of attention.
There is the advantages of satisfaction and consider them as indicators of the competitive advantage of organizations, although the exact nature of customer judgments and the relationship between these two is still hung in the balance . Willingness to provide quality services in today's world plays an important role in the
service industries. Because service quality is considered crucial for organization's survival and profit making.
Service quality plays a significant role in customer's satisfaction, maintenance, and stability. In addition, the chain of services - profit - income is associated with the stated factors .

strategic benefits of quality, market share and return on investment in partnership development and in reducing production costs and in enhancing productivity . But before discussing service quality, it is essential to understand the concept of quality. Quality is the customer's satisfaction and enjoyment or simply fulfilling or
surpassing customer's expectations .  Internal service quality leads to the satisfaction of staffs [maintenance of staffs] which in turn leads to external service quality and customer satisfaction
whose final product is profitability, growth, and development. Internal service quality is the most essential element to achieve high quality of external services and it is imperative that be reviewed in most sport environments. Several
factors contribute to the Internal service quality in An  organization. Among these factors, organizational learning culture, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, learning motivation, organizational atmosphere and
organizational justice. Organizational learning leads to competitive advantage for the
staff who have a clear vision of the importance of quality service. Organizational learning can be defined as a dynamic process of creating, acquiring and gathering knowledge and resources to develop the capacity and resources, which leads to better performance of the organization . Certainly the culture of organizational learning
will play a significant role in the internal service quality .There is a significant relationship between organizational learning culture and internal service quality in the staff of the
ORGANIZATION  departments There is a significant positive relationship between
organizational learning culture and internal service quality in  ORGANIZATION. There is a significant relationship between organizational learning culture and internal service quality;
and organizational learning culture would account for 5% of the variance of internal service quality. Hays and Hill
That for having a superior external service quality, organizations need staffs [internal customers]
committed to the goals and prospects of the company and require customer oriented behavior and the internal
service quality [satisfaction of organizational units from each other],  shows that there should be a
close interaction between internal service quality and external quality.
internal service quality had a significant positive effect on staff retention due to the
role of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction increases when internal service quality increases. Satisfaction of internal
customers is a strongly associated with internal service quality which in turn has strong relationships with customers
who receive external service. Management should meet the needs and expectations of internal customers so that the
staff have high levels of satisfaction and give high quality external service to external customers
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