Managing a Business/Organisation Development and Management of Change
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1. With appropriate example, write an essay on inter-group and third party peace making interventions.
2. critically examine the methods and techniques of overcoming resistance to change, due to implementation of Information technology.
3. Discuss the role of TQM in organisational development with sufficient theoretical background.
1. With appropriate example, write an essay on inter-group and third party peace making interventions.
INTERVENE “To intervene is to enter into an ongoing system of relationships, to come between or among persons, groups, or objects for the purpose of helping them
INTERVENTION Interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units engage in a series of tasks which will lead to organizational improvement. The intervention is the procedure the OD consultant uses, after diagnosing an organizational situation and providing feedback to management, to address an organization problem or positive future.
CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS 1. The Extent to Which it (the Intervention) fits the needs of the organization. 2. The degree to which it is based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes. 3. The extent to which the OD intervention transfers change-management competence to organization members.
2 Factors that Impact the Success of OD Interventions 1. Factors relating to Change Situation These relate to the environment of the organization and include the physical and human environment. A. Readiness for Change B. Capability to Change C. Cultural Context D. Capabilities of the Change Agent
2. Factors Related to the Target of Change 2 Factors that Impact the Success of OD Interventions These relate to the specific targets at which OD interventions are targeted. The targets of change can be different issues of the organization and at different levels. A. Organizational Issues B. Organizational Levels
A. Organizational Issues 1. Strategic Issues 2. Technology and Structure Issues 3. Human Resource Issues 4. Human Process Issues
B. Organizational Levels OD interventions are aimed at different levels of the organization: individual, group, organization and trans-organization
. TEAM INTERVENTIONS
GROUPS TEAMS 1. A number of persons 1. A form of group 2. Usually reporting to a common superior 2. Has some characteristics in greater degree than ordinary groups 3. Having some face-to-face interaction 3. And a higher degree of interdependency and interaction 4. Persons have some degree of interdependence in carrying out tasks for the purpose of achieving organizational goals.
12. TEAM INTERVENTION The purpose of this team is to help employees/members of the team that are struggling in some way. This usually refers to performance but can include emotional / behavioral / social concerns.
13. DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEAMS 1. Cross-Functional Teams Comprised of individuals with functional home base but they meet regularly to solve ongoing challenges requiring input from a number of functional areas 2. Effective Teams Effective teams are relaxed, comfortable and informal. 3. High Performance Teams Have strong personal commitment to each other commitment to other’s growth and success.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEAM INTERVENTION
These activities focus on task issues such as the way things are done, the skills and resources needed to accomplish tasks, the quality of relationship among the team members or between members and the leader, and how well the team gets its job done.
TEAM BUILDING Interventions focus on: 1. Formal Groups 2. Special Groups
4 MAIN AREAS OF TEAM INTERVENTION 1. Diagnosis 2. Task Accomplishments 3. Team Relationships 4. Team and Organization Processes
Its purpose is to conduct a general critique of the performance of the group and to uncover and identify problems on which they will work on. THE FORMAL GROUP DIAGNOSTIC MEETING “Where we are going” and “how we are going.” After sharing the data throughout the group, next steps are: discussing the issues, grouping the issues in terms of themes, and getting a preliminary look at the next action steps.
Primary emphasis is on processes such as communications, leader and member roles in groups, problem solving and decision making, group norms and group growth, leadership and authority, and intergroup cooperation and competition. PROCESS CONSULTATION INTERVENTIONS It places greater emphasis on diagnosing and understanding process events
. STEPS IN TEAM INTERVENTION
Step 1 - Identify At-Risk Population It must be determined which members are “at-risk”. The lowest 10% in each level will be the target group. Step 2 - Initial Intervention Team Meeting Review data with all personnel in attendance. Brainstorm interventions. Other interventions may have been agreed upon during the initial Intervention Team meeting.
Step 3 - Interventions Begin Step 4 - Second Intervention Team Meeting Step 5 - Request for Further Testing
1. Clarify Direction 2. Inspiring Performance 3. Building Relationships and Trust 4. Conflict Management 5. Relating to the External World TEAM INTERVENTIONS
INTER-GROUP AND THIRD PARTY INTERVENTIONS Cherry Andrea G. Lucero
• The focus of this is on improving intergroup relations. • OD methods provide ways of increasing intergroup co-operation and communication. • Blake, Shepherd and Mouton have developed activities applicable to stressed situations in the forms of steps.
THIRD PARTY PEACE MAKING Intermediaries (or third parties) are people, organizations, or nations who enter a conflict to try to help the parties de-escalate or resolve it.
WALTON’S APPROACH TO THIRD PARTY PEACEMAKING Walton has presented a statement of theory and practice for third-party peacemaking interventions that is important in its own right and important in its own right and important for its role in organization development.
. FOUR ELEMENTS OF WALTON’S MODEL FOR DIAGNOSIS OF CONFLICT SITUATION: 1. The conflict issues. 2. Precipitating circumstances. 3. Conflict relevant acts. 4. The consequences of the conflict.
SOURCES OF CONFLICTS SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES EMOTIONAL ISSUES • Involves disagreements over policies and practices, competitive bids for the same resources and differing conceptions of roles and role relationships. • Involves negative feelings between the parties (Examples: anger, distrust, scorn, resentment, fear, rejection) • Require problem -solving and bargaining behaviors between the principals. • Requires restructuring perceptions and working through negative feelings.
WALTON’S OUTLINE FOR PRODUCTIVE CONFRONTATION (PROCESS OF ADDRESSING CONFLICT) 1. Mutual positive motivation. 2. Balance of power. 3. Synchronization of confrontation others.
4. Differentiation and integration of different phases of the intervention must be well paced. 5. Conditions that promote openness should be created. 6. Reliable communicative signals. 7. Optimum tension in the situation.
ORGANIZATION MIRROR INTERVENTION • It is a technique designed to work unites feedback in how other elements of organization view them. • Set of activities in which host group receives feedback about how it is perceived and regarded from reps across organization.
PARTNERING • Used in situations where two or more entities are likely to incur unnecessary and/or cost overruns. • A variation of team building and strategic planning
COMPREHENSIVE OD INTERVENTIONS
These are the interventions that are comprehensive in the terms of the extent to which total organization is involved and/or the depth of cultural change addressed. COMPREHENSIVE OD INTERVENTIONS
GETTING THE WHOLE SYSTEM IN THE ROOM Getting all the key actors of a complex organization or system together in a team building for future planning kind of session.
BECKHARDS CONFRONTATION MEETING The confrontation meeting is developed by Richard Beckhard, is one day meeting of the entire management of an organization, in which they take a reading of their own organizational health.
PROCESS OF CONFRONTATION MEETING PROCESS DURATION 1. Climate Setting 45 – 60 mins 2. Information Collecting 60 mins 3. Information Sharing 60 mins 4. Priority setting and group action planning 75 mins 5. Immediate follow-up by top team 60 – 180 mins 6. Progress Review 120 mins (four-six weeks later)
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES The concept is described by Schendel and Hofers It is defined as the development and implementation of the organization’s grand design or overall strategy for relating to its current and future environmental demands.
6 MAJOR TASKS OF STRATEGIC MGT ACTIVITIES 1. Goal Formulation- Defining Mission & purpose 2. Environmental analysis- SWOT Analysis 3. Strategy formulation 4. Strategy evaluation 5. Strategy implementation 6. Strategic control
STREAM ANALYSIS • Developed by Jerry Porras is a valuable model for thinking about change and for managing change. • Displaying the problems of an organization, examining the interconnections between the problems, identifying core problems and graphically tracking the corrective actions taken to solve the problems.
STEPS OF STREAM ANALYSIS 1. Categorizing the important features of organizational work setting in to four streams. a. Organizational arrangements b. Social factors c. Technology d. Physical Setting
2. Diagnosing the problems and barriers to effectiveness 3. Classifying the problems into four streams. 4. Identifying the core problems by noting the interconnections between the problems. STEPS OF STREAM ANALYSIS
SURVEY FEEDBACK It’s a process of systematically collecting data about the system and feeding back the data for individuals and groups at all levels of the organization to analyze, interpret meanings and design corrective action steps.
2 COMPONENTS OF SURVEY FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES 1. Climate or attitude survey 2. Feedback workshop
GRID ORGANIZATONAL DEVELOPMENT • It’s a six phase program lasting about three to five years, an organization can move systematically from the stage of examining managerial behavior and style to the development and implementation of an ideal strategic corporate model. • It enables individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.
PHASES IN GRID ORGANIZATONAL DEVELOPMENT Phase 1: The Managerial Grid Phase 2: Teamwork Development Phase 3: Intergroup Development Phase 5: Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model Phase 4: Developing an Ideal Strategic Corporate Model Phase 6: Systematic Critique
STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION Nacer Ferreras
. • This class of interventions includes changes in how the overall work of an organization is divided into units, who reports to whom, methods of control, the arrangement of • It is called as techno structural interventions. equipment and people, work flow arrangements and changes in communications and authority. STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION
6 TYPES OF STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION 1. Structural Design is largely associated with experiments attempted to create better fit among the technology, structure and social interactions of a particular production unit.
PREMISES OF SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEM 1. Effective work system must jointly optimize the relationship between their social and technical parts. 2. Such system must effectively manage the boundary separating and relating them to the environment.
2. SELF-MANAGED TEAMS A self-managed team has total responsibility for its defined remit. That remit might be a specific project. A self- managed team thrives on TYPES OF STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION interacting skill sets, on shared motivation and shared leadership.
3. WORK REDESIGN Hackman and Oldham – theoretical model of what job characteristics lead to the psychological states that produce what they call “HIGH INTERNAL WORK MOTIVATION” FIVE CORE JOB CHARACTERISTICS 1. Skill Variety 2. Task Identity 3. Task Significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback from Job
4. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE (QWL) An attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of the organization and to institute a mechanism, which introduces and sustains changes over time.
QWL FEATURES 1. Voluntary involvement on the part of employees 2. Union agreement with process and participation. 3. Assurance of no loss of job 4. Training for team problem solving 5. Use of quality circles 6. Participation in forecasting, work planning 7. Regular plant and team meetings. 8. Encouragement for skill development. 9. Job rotations.
5. REENGINEERING The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.
6. LARGE SCALE CHANGE AND HIGH PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS When a number of OD and other interventions are combined to create major changes in the total culture of an organization, the term large scale is used.
2.critically examine the methods and techniques of overcoming resistance to change,due to implementation of information technology.
It used to be an accepted fact that everyone resists change. We now know that it is not true. There are many reasons why a person resents (negative attitude) and/or resists (active opposition to) a particular change. Likewise, there are many reasons why a person accepts (neutral attitude) and/or welcomes (positive attitude) a particular change.
Why People Resent or Resist Change
There are many reasons why employees of all sizes/ shapes may react negatively to change.
Personal Loss. People are afraid they will lose something. They might be right or they might be wrong in their fear. Some of the things they might lose are as follows:
Security. They might lose their jobs through a
reduction in force or elimination of their jobs.
Automation and a decline in sales often bring about
Money. They might lose money through a reduction in salary, pay, benefits, or overtime. Or, expenses such as travel may be increased because of a move to another location that is farther from their home.
Pride and satisfaction. They might end up with jobs that
no longer require their abilities and skills.
Friends and important contact. They might be moved to another location where they will no longer have contact with friends and important people. This loss of visibility and daily contacts is very serious for people who are ambitious as well as those with a strong need for love and acceptance.
Freedom.They might be put on a job under a boss who
no longer gives them freedom to do it "their way."
Closer supervision that provides less opportunity
for decision making is a dramatic loss to some
Responsibility.Their jobs might be reduced to menial
tasks without responsibility. This may occur when a
new boss takes over or through changes in methods or
Authority. They might lose their position of power and authority over people. This frequently happens when re organization takes place or when a new boss decides to usurp some of the authority that an individual had.
Good working conditions. They might be moved from a large private office to a small one or to a desk in a work area with only a partition between people.
Status.Their job title, responsibility, or authority
might be reduced from an important one to a lesser
one with loss of status and recognition from others.
This also happens when another layer of management
is inserted between a subordinate and manager.
The typical reaction is, "What's the matter with the way things are now?" Or, "I don't see any reason why we should change."
More Harm Than Good.
This is even stronger than the previously mentioned "No Need". People really feel it is a mistake that it will cause more problems that it is worth. Sometimes this reaction is justified. It is particularly common when people at the "bottom" of an organization feel that top management makes changes without knowing what is going on "down on the line."
Lack of Respect.
When people have a lack of respect and/or negative attitude toward the person responsible for making the change, there is a strong tendency to resent and even resist it. Their feelings do not allow them to look at the change objectively.
Sometimes change is ordered in such a way that the people resent and/or resist because they do not like being told what to do.
People with a negative attitude toward the organization, the job and/or the boss are very apt to resent or resist change no matter what it is.
One of the most significant reasons is the fact that the people who felt they should have been asked were not asked for their ideas concerning the change.
Whether or not the change is actually criticizing the things that were previously done or the way in which they were done, people may look upon the change as a personal criticism.
Some changes add more work and with it confusion, mistakes and other negative results.
The change will obviously require more effort. Much of the effort accomplishes very little, if anything. Whenever changes require more time and effort, people are apt to resent and even resist them, particularly if no rewards accompany the extra effort.
The timing of a change is very important to its acceptance. If it comes at a time when people are already having problems, the change is usually resented and probably resisted by those who are supposed to implement it.
Challenge to Authority.
Some people are testing their power and influence by simply refusing to do it.
Some people are very sensitive about the way they learned of the change. If they found out about if from a secondhand source, they might resist it until they hear it "from the horses mouth."
What is the Real Reason for Resentment or Resistance?
Managers often have difficulty in determining the real reason why subordinates resent and/or resist a change. They may feel that the subordinates are just being stubborn or that they are afraid they will lose something. The real reason may be entirely different.
IN MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
ONE SET OF PEOPLE ACCEPT CHANGE--WHY?
WHY PEOPLE ACCEPT OR WELCOME CHANGE
While some people resent and/or resist change, others accept and welcome it. The degree to which these opposites occur depends on many factors. Some of the reasons for positive reaction to change are described in this section.
When changes are made, some people may gain such things as the following:
They feel more secure in their job because of the change. Perhaps more of their skills will be used.
They may get a salary increase, more benefits, an incentive or profit sharing programme, or more overtime.
They may be promoted to a position of greater authority, or they may get a new boss who gives them more authority than they had under the previous boss.
They may get a new title, a new office, or a new responsibility, their boss may have assigned more responsibility, or they may have a new boss who assigns more responsibility than the previous one did.
Better working conditions.
They may get a new working schedule, new equipment, or other conditions that make the job easier or more enjoyable.
They may get new satisfaction or feeling of achievement because of the change. Perhaps the new job gives them more of a change to use their abilities, or the boss may eliminate some of the obstacles that had prevented them from doing their best.
Better personal contacts.
They might be located in a place where they will have closer contact with influential people. Their visibility is very important to some people.
Less time and effort.
The change may make their job easier and require less time and effort.
Provides a New Challenge.
While some people look at a change negatively because it requires effort and perhaps risk, others will be eager for it because it provides a new challenge.
Likes/Respects the Source.
If people have a positive attitude toward the person or the department they represent, they will probably accept and even welcome the change.
People who are asked to do things instead of told to do them may react very positively. Someone described the most important words in the English language as follows:
Five most important words:"I am proud of you."
Four most important words:"What is your opinion?"
Three most important words:"If you please."
Two most important words:"Thank you."
One most important word:"You (or possibly We)."
The tone may have much to do with resentment or acceptance.
Changes that are designed to reduce boredom will be welcomed by some.
One of the most powerful approaches to get acceptance is to ask for input before the final decision is made.
Some people will react to change by thinking or saying, "It's about time." In other words, they have been anxious for the change to occur.
Some changes will open up new avenues for future success in the organization. People will be provided with opportunities to show what they can do. Future possibilities include promotion, more money, more visibility, more recognition and more self¬satisfaction.
Some changes come at just the right time. If more money is needed to pay current bills or to buy a luxury item like a video recorder or a boat or to take a vacation, the change will be welcomed.
IN MANAGING THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE,
WE NEED TO MANAGE BOTH THE TYPES OF PEOPLE GROUP.
the organisation I am referring to
The organization, I am familiar with is a
-a large manufacturer/ marketer of safety products
-the products are used as [personal protection safety] [ industrial safety]
-the products are distributed through the distributors as well as sold directly
-the products are sold to various industries like mining/fireservices/defence/
as well as to various manufacturing companies.
-the company employs about 235 people.
-the company has the following functional departments
ADOPT THE FOLLOWING MODEL FOR CHANGE
1.Explain the reason for change with facts. If there are risks ,
acknowledge them but explain why it is worth taking the risks.
2.Objectively explain the benefits that could result from the
3.Get ready and sell the benefits at all times.
5.Listen in depth.
6.Seek questions and clarifications / answer them.
7.Invite participation and ask for suggestions .
8.Avoid surprise because this stirs up unreasoning opposition.
9.Acknowledge the rough spots and show you plan to
10.Establish a timetable.
11.Set standards and explain your expectations.
12.Contact the informal leaders and use their resources.
13. Acknowledge the staff cooperation / support.
14.Provide feedback on the progress.
15.Reinforce the positive .
16.Keep the two way communication open.
HOW DO YOU INITIATE CHANGE
Often it is easier to carry out a job if there is a specific plan to follow. When major changes are to be installed, careful planning and preparation are necessary. Strengthening the forces promoting the change and weakening resistance to it are the main tasks.
CREATE A CLIMATE FOR CHANGE
How people react to proposed changes is greatly influenced by the kind of climate for change that the manager/supervisor has created in the department.
HOW IS THE RIGHT KIND OF CLIMATE CREATED?
Supervisors and managers who have enthusiasm for progress and change build a healthy climate.
Creating the right climate is more than just passing on changes. It involves:
Encouraging employees to seek ways of improving their jobs.
Seeking suggestions and ideas from employees.
This requires the manager/supervisor to listen and seriously consider suggestions. It is easy to see that there is a great deal of ego involvement in coming forth with an idea for improvement. Change can become an exciting and dynamic way of life. The manager/supervisor determines the climate in which they initiate change.
GET READY TO SELL
Much of the difficulty in getting co operation stems from the employees lack of understanding of how the change will affect them. With a little effort, managers/supervisors can find most of the answers to employees' questions before they are even asked. Answers to these questions would be useful.
What is the reason for the change? Whom will it benefit and how? Will it inconvenience anyone, if so, for how long? Will training or re training be necessary? When does it go into effect?
Armed with the answers to these questions a manager/supervisor can head off many objections and can develop a plan to present the change.
IDENTIFY THE SOURCES OF HELP
Why should you, the managers and supervisors, shoulder the burden alone? Staff can frequently be a great help in preparing to sell a change by explaining technical aspects and demonstrating new techniques.
One of the most overlooked sources of help in introducing changes are the informal leaders in the work group. With their help the job becomes easier. Giving recognition to informal leaders puts them in a co operative frame of mind.
Since union stewards are often informal leaders, their co operation ought to be solicited. The backing of union stewards makes the job easier.
Change that upsets routines, requires new knowledge or skills, or inconveniences people are bound to meet with some objections or resistance. Looking at a change from the employees point of view will usually be enough to help determine what their objections are likely to be. Knowing the objections, we can, with a little creative thought, turn these objections into advantages.
Showing the staff with reason or logic will not do the job. Managers/supervisors have to convince people that the change is really best for them and that will not happen until their objections are dealt with seriously.
Everyone is concerned with, "What's in it for me?"
"Will the change mean more satisfying work. greater security. opportunity to show what I can do. more responsibility. more pay. less fatigue. less confusion. greater independence?"
The benefits used to motivate people to co operate should be put on as personal a level as possible. It would be dishonest, however, not to recognise any disadvantages that a change may bring. These can usually be countered with long range benefits.
One of the techniques that is helpful in identifying the characteristics and values of the proposed changed condition is a "Word Picture". The picture makes the new condition desirable in the minds of the staff.
A)One of the ways this concept of "word picture" is used, is the physical change in office layout or new equipment or any other physical changes.
B)To picture or model a change in policy, organization or operation is more difficult than the physical change. The principle is the same. The picture can help in communicating the desirability of the change and in fine tuning the change because it makes it possible to discuss how things will operate. It may take the form of a flow chart, an organization chart or a description of relationships.
To use this approach for deciding whether to initiate a change, you can take the following steps:
Describe as clearly as possible the present situation.
Describe as clearly as possible the desired situation.
Analyse what specific changes will have to take place in the key factors involved to produce the desired situation. Look at such key factors as bosses, employees, equipment, physical environment, policies and procedures, work methods, materials and time. Identify the relevant factors.
Assess the strengths of the forces promoting the desired situation and of those resisting it.
Determine what action to take. Choices are:
A)Do nothing, the resistant forces are stronger than the forces promoting change.
B)Act to strengthen the promoting forces and/or to weaken resistance, by concentrating one's efforts on the key factors.
LISTEN IN DEPTH
Employees have a right to be heard. If employees are treated with respect, they probably will respond in kind. They will feel better too, if they know their concerns have been considered.
After having conscientiously sold the benefits of a change, it is tremendously important that the managers/supervisors see that their promises have materialized. A sincere interest in how the change has affected the employee and a willingness to make adjustments, help build the climate in which future changes will be initiated.
CHANGES AND COMMUNICATION
The following steps will help you to minimize resistance:
1.Explain why. Provide all the facts about the reason for changing. If there are risks, acknowledge them but explain why the risk is worth taking.
2.Objectively explain the benefits that could result from the change.
3.Seek questions/clarifications and answer them.
4.Invite participation and ask for suggestions because the people involved know the situation best.
5.Avoid surprise because this stirs unreasoning opposition more than any other factor.
6.Acknowledge the rough spots and explain how you plan to smooth the change.
7.Set standards and explain your expectations.
8.Contact the informal leaders and use their resources.
9.Acknowledge and reinforce the staff's co operation and give them feedback on the progress.
10.Keep the two way communications open for suggestions and corrections.
3.discuss the role of TQM in organizational development with sufficient theoretical background.
Total Quality Management for organizational development
Total quality management (TQM) is a management approach which an organization can apply for its overall development. Quality is the main thrust of this approach. It is based on the participation of all of the employees of an organization for the achievement of long term success through customer satisfaction. It brings benefit to the members of the organization and to the society. It is a procedure based system with the integration of the organizational environment, continuous improvement, & employee participation. Its aim is not only to satisfy but also to delight internal and external customers of the organization. It is a problem-solving approach by working systematically in a team to make a client-oriented organization.
By integrating all the functions of an organization like marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service, etc. TQM emphasizes on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives. TQM creates a positive environment in the organization where the whole organization, from top to bottom become concerned for ensuring Quality of products it produces and quality of services it provides. TQM is equally applicable to any type of organization from small business firm to government organizations, from schools to construction firms, from manufacturing company to service providers, and from play ground to hospitals. TQM is not an organization specific methodology; it is a management philosophy which can be applied where quality improvement is necessary.
The concept of Total quality management originated in USA, but flourished in Japan after the Second World War. Japan welcomed this concept and applied it competently, especially in the industrial sector. As a result they have acquired the quality of their products and gradually Japan earned the reputation to be the country of quality products. Japan marketed their products throughout the world and controlled the world economy. Till today Japan is the second largest economy of the world. Japan also has successfully implemented this concept in the public service sector. Thus their citizens are getting quality service from the Government.
Kaizen is the main principle of TQM. The word Kaizen is derived from two Japanese words ‘Kai’ & ‘Zen’. In Japanese language, Kai means change and Zen means better or developed or enhanced etc. Kaizen activity indicates continuous development. It is the process of development of a mindset to work efficiently to delight of our clients. Kaizen is the improvement in a small, gradual and continual way. The aim of Kaizen is to start any small improvement work and perform according to own capacity. For the accomplishment of a Kaizen activity easy and general techniques and ideas should be employed within existing resources to solve a problem. Kaizen is for the welfare of people. We can term Kaizen as work improvement activities. Work improvement activities are performed to attain a preferred standard of products or services first and then improve it gradually with continuous efforts. The logical approach for continuing Kaizen activities for elongated time to make the system of a sustainable work culture in the organization requires a plan, which is known as Kaizen action plan. Kaizen action plan should be SMART (Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound) to enhance quality.
Steps of a kaizen action plan are:
1. Visualization of work 2. Selection of a theme 3. Setting the desired situation 4. Grasping the current situation 5. Setting the target for improvement 6. Analyzing causes 7. Proposing solution 8. Bringing best solution and confirming results 9. Standardization and follow up 10. Review.
Kaizen or Work Improvement activity is accomplished by the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) cycle. PDCA Cycle is a sequence of activities which are performed for improvement.
1. Plan means Schedule, Plan, Current situations are analyzed and data are collected for preparing a plan for improvement. 2. Do means Training and education, implementation work 3. Check means Evaluation, confirmation, the implementation is evaluated to observe whether the desired improvement has been achieved or not. 4. Act means Correction, countermeasure. Necessary measures are undertaken to correct any kind of deviations from the stipulated plan. We can begin our work in a small scale and perform what we can achieve according to our capability but we should continue efforts for our improvement effort by rotating the PDCA Cycle continuously involving the employees of the organization. Management efficiency is increased through Kaizen because effective management is enforced by the standardization and improvement activity. Workplace effectiveness and satisfaction of the customers are earned by the Kaizen activities.
TQM looks beyond not only for meeting customer demands in delivering products, processes or services but also to improve the process from status quo to upwards. TQM should be applied all over the organization. Before TQM concept has been flourished Quality Control is performed during the final stage of the product or service delivery. If faults or deviations are found then the total delivery is rejected or reworked. Here additional costs are required for producing the rejected quantity according to specified quality. TQM aims at making it accurate every time so that additional costs can be avoided.
TQM looks for the source of each defect and tries to identify it and prohibits it from entering into the final product. TQM achieves the effectiveness of the system by monitoring the quality assurance using a continuous process. This process involves finding out the "root causes" which are the most prevalent causes which are affecting the system. Few vital causes are the source of many trivial causes. If the vital causes are minimized then trivial causes can be automatically managed. TQM formulates the strategy to implement solutions for the minimizing, controlling and eradicating these causes.
TQM is a process which is necessarily dependant on people. For the successful implementation of TQM people in the organization should be cultured and matured. If we want to get the utmost benefit of TQM we should organize our people and they should be oriented with positive mindset. So the strategy of the organization should be involving responsibility to every employee for the quality of their work and the work of their team.
TQM is a systematic approach towards development. Scientific and mathematical tools and techniques are used to implement TQM in any organization. The popular tools are Seven QC (Quality Control) tools and Seven New QC (Quality Control) tools. Some of these are as follows:
The Tools are used for Generating Ideas: Check Sheet, Scatter Diagram, Cause and Effect Diagram
The Tools for Identifying Problems: Histogram, Statistical Process Control Chart
The Tools to Organize the Data: Pareto Charts, Flow Charts (Process Diagram)
The Tools to control processes: Affinity Diagrams, Matrix Charts, Process Display Program charts (PDPC)
The Tools to control projects: Program Evaluation Review Techniques (PERT), Critical Path Method (CPM).
TQM activities are performed by small groups in the organization. These groups are called Quality Circle (QC). This QC groups can be formed in all departments of the organization. This small group continuously performs quality control activities as part of the organizational development. Their self-development and mutual-development is enhanced through this process. They sought for control and improvement activities within the organization with the participation of all the members in the organization utilizing quality control techniques.
5-S Technique: This is a Japanese technique. 5-S originated from five Japanese words starting with the letter ‘S’: seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, shitsuke
This 5S technique is used to create and uphold a quality atmosphere in an organization for improving the daily management of an organization.
1. Seiri (Sorting)
Seiri is to take out all the needless items from our working place which we do not require for our present or future work. It refers to taking apart unnecessary things and to make immediate arrangements for their disposal.
2. Seiton (Setting in order)
Seiton means that we arrange required items in order of their importance so that they can be easily found and used in order to perform a job systematically. It refers to an accurate method of arranging necessary objects to get them immediately when needed. It also refers to the selection of a correct method for the quick and easy solution of a problem.
3. Seiso (Shining)
Seiso means that we can make a work friendly environment by keeping everything neat and clean to make the environment congenial in order to get the best effort of the employees. It refers to attaining the desired level of 5S by that kind of management which is observable. This is done with the purpose of recognizing problems and solving them taking remedial actions quickly.
4. Seiketsu (Standardizing)
Seiketsu means that we need to create a consistent way of performing our tasks and procedures. We should focus on standardizing best practices in workplaces. The employees in the organization should be encouraged and permitted in the development of such standards. This is accomplished with the aim of ensuring that the condition does not worsen back to the condition it was before implementing 1S, 2S and 3S.
5. Shitsuke (Sustaining)
Shitsuke is allowing an organization to uphold its 5S program. It refers to maintaining standard to ensure that 5S becomes a part of the organizational culture in line with the organizational vision, mission and objectives.
After the complete implementation in the organization, the 5S technique can increase morale of the employees, create positive impressions on customers and increase efficiency in the market place.
TQM Activities in Bangladesh:
In Bangladesh TQM is being applied both in public and private sectors. Many manufacturing organizations are practicing TQM now-a-days. They have formed quality control circles in their departments and are working for organizational development. BSTQM (Bangladesh Society for Total Quality Management) is promoting and organizing TQM activities in Bangladesh. The pioneer in TQM in the private sector is Bengal Glass Factory which formed Quality Circle in 1982 and in the public sector, Power Development Board (PDB) started TQM in Nov. 1999 and BPATC from Jan. 2007 through the project ‘Enhancing Capacity of Public Service Training in Bangladesh.’
The Total Quality Management approach so far has been proved suitable for Bangladesh. It can be applied both in our industrial and service sector. There are so many areas in our country where we can apply TQM competently for ensuring expected quality of service delivery to our citizens, quality industrial products to be supplied to our people and thus we can derive customer satisfaction and delight and boost the overall development of the country both in quality and magnitude.
Now-a-days customers are more quality conscious than the price for purchasing goods or services.
Quality and reliability have become overriding factors for the customers in their buying decision. Meeting
customers specifications, dependability of service and speed of delivery are very distinguishing features for the
success of an organization. The primary role of management is to lead an organization in its day-to-day
operations as well as to maintain it as a viable entity in the future. Quality has become an important factor to
success in this strategic responsibility. Providing high quality was recognized as a key element for success. At
the end of the twentieth century, business organizations were involved in what has become a quality revolution.
It began in Japan and has spread to other parts of the world. It involves entirely new way of thinking about and
dealing with quality that encompasses the entire organization. This new approach has gained the popularity with
different names viz., “Six sigma” at Motorola, “Leadership through quality” at Xerox, “Perfect Design Quality
at Intel and “Total Quality Control” at Hewlett-Packard, but more often referred to as “Total Quality
“Total Quality Management (TQM) is a philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a
continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction”. There are two key philosophies in TQM,
one is a never ending push to improve (i.e. continuos improvement or Kaizen in Japanese) and the other is a
goal of customer satisfaction which involves meeting or exceeding customer expectation.
It will be relevant to mention at the outset that as TQMs‟ emphasis is on creating an organizational
culture, which involves extensive participation, an emphasis on teams and teamwork, cooperation between units,
generation of valid data and continuous learning, TQM is highly congruent with organization Development
(OD) approaches and values. Most of the companies are interested to improve quality of their products and
services through the TQM.
II. CONCEPT OF TQM:
The concept of TQM and what does the three terms in total quality management mean are explained in
the following chart:
Total----- Quality =----------Management
TQM is a strategy that is formulated by the top level management and then diffused at all levels.
Everyone in the organization, from CEO to lowest paid workers/clerks are involved in the TQM process.
Under TQM, not only the “Customer is King”, but so are internal customers such as co-workers or
other departments. In essence, TQM becomes the dominant culture of the organization. Some core values of
every one are, involved in effective TQM and they are as follows:
Make it right for the customer at any cost
Customer is always right
Internal customers are as important as external customer
Respond to customer inquiry or complaint by the end of the day
Answer the phone bell within two rings
Not only meet customer expectations but delight customers in the process
Team work and co-operation are important
Every one involved in quality effort
Respond to every employees suggestion for quality improvement
Always strive for continuous improvement. Never be satisfied with level of quality.
Organization Process towards TQM:
Quality is not absolute but continuously changing the perception.
2) Every employee responsible for continuous improvement and should be aware of the benefits, TQM will
bring, e.g. communicate the need for TQM and educate employees.
4) Organization should induce sense of belonging in the employees and involve them in every proactive
process, e.g. communicate vision, develop supportive culture, develop them.
6) All employees are committed to satisfy internal and external customer and TQM becomes way of life, e.g.
develop teams, goals, recognition systems, promote change etc.
8) Good initiative and innovative technique should be recognized which encourages employees to give their
best, e.g. recognize achievements, reward success, empowerment, etc.
III. TQM AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Samson and Teriovski (1999) used a large database of 1,024 usable responses from Australia and New
Zealand manufacturing organizations to examine the relationship between TQM practices, individually and
collectively and firms performance. The study showed that the relationship between TQM practice and
organizational performance is significant in a cross-sectional sense. The performance elements include quality
performance, operational and business performance indicators. Some but not all of the categories of TQM
practices were particularly strong predictors of performance. The categories of leadership, management of
people and customer focus were the strongest significant predictors of operational performance.
An empirical study (Easton and Jarrell, 1998) compared financial performance of TQM and non-TQM firms,
and reported an improved financial performance of the adopting TQM. However, many researchers have state
that to be global competitive firms should only use productivity measures based on financial perspective (e.g.
return on assets and return on sales) but should also view their operations from internal business and customer
perspectives (The General Accounting Office Study,(GAOS),1990). The GAO Study (1990), categorizes
performance measures for a manufacturing firms in three groups;
(1) Financial measure; (2) measures from customer perspective and (3) measures from internal business
The financial measures of performance according to the study are; market share, sales per employee,
return on assets, and return on sales. The measures of performance from customer perspective are; overall
customer satisfaction, customer complaints, customer retention, and order processing time, defects produced,
reliability and cost of quality. Finally the measures of internal businesses prospective are; employee satisfaction,
attendance, turnover, safety/health and employee suggestions received.
Techniques of TQM:
There are mainly three innovative techniques of TQM, which are play a very significant role in the organization
development, they are;
2) Benchmarking, and
Reengineering is defined as “the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to
achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service
and speed”. Reengineering involves asking basic questions about business processes such as:
1) Why do we do it?
2) Why is it done this way?
The purpose of such questions is to uncover obsolete, erroneous or inappropriate assumptions. Radical
redesign involves abandoning existing procedures and reinventing the process, not just incrementally improving
it. But the goal is to achieve quantum leaps in performance.
For the successful adopting of reengineering process the organization has to comply with the following
• Fundamental understanding of processes
• Creative thinking to break away from old traditions and assumptions and
• Effective use of information technology.
There are several examples of reengineering in India and abroad. For example, Ford Motors,
implemented reengineering in purchasing department, where over 500 clerks handled accounts, purchase orders
invoices and other documents. After this, number of employees was reduced and things started working faster.
Benchmarking is the process of “measuring your performance against that of best-in-class companies,
determining how the best-in-class achieve those performance levels and using the information as a basis for
your own company‟s targets, strategies and implementation”. In short, benchmarking means “the search of
industry‟s best practices that lead to superior performance”. The term „best practices‟ refers to approaches that
produce exceptional results, are usually innovative in terms of the use of technology or human resources and are
recognized by customers or industry experts.
Benchmarking helps a company to discover its strengths and weakness and those of other industry leaders and to
learn how to incorporate the best practices into its own operations. It can provide motivation to achieve “stretch
goals” by helping employees to see what others can accomplish.
(a) This technique helps organizations to compare against successful company‟s for identifying improvement
(b) Enables to learn from others
(c) Helps a need for change, by showing the organization how procedures and work assignments should be
(d) It has gained importance due to global and domestic competition.
(e) Broadens people‟s experience base and increase knowledge and
(f) It is a tool for continuous improvement.
Empowerment is the process of delegating decision-making authority to the lower levels within the
organization. Empowerment gives both responsibilities for delivering quality and authority to identify problems
and then formulate and implement solutions to employers free employees from the need to ask for permission
from a manager. Employees simply do whatever they must to solve the problem.
As employees become more empowered in their work, the feeling of ownership and responsibility becomes
more meaningful. Further the act of empowering employees provides evidence of the management‟s trust in the
There are several basic conditions necessary for empowerment to become part of organization culture.
• Participation: Participation encourages people to improve daily work process and relationships.
Empowerment helps to take decisions.
• Innovation: Empowerment encourages innovation because employees have the authority to try out new
ideas and make decisions. For an example, in one company, two engineers spent large amount to design and
develop a new household product but were unsuccessful. CEO called these two engineers and treated them
as guest of honour and appreciated their efforts by encouraging their innovative effort through
empowerment. CEO also ensured that two engineers would continue to try new ideas to market a new
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• Access to Information: When employees are given access to information, their willingness to cooperate and
to use their empowerment is enhanced.
• Accountability: Accountability is not intended to punish but they will give their best effort and behave
• Putting empowerment into action: There are number of ways that organization‟s go about implementing
empowerment. One of the most common is to tie the technique to an action approach. For example,
Cummins Engin provides 5 days training programme that combines empowerment with Kaizen, Japanese
term that means “continuous improvement”. This principle means:
(a) Discard conventional, fixed ideas about doing work
(b) Think about how to do it
(c) Start by questioning current practices
(d) Begin to make improvements immediately, even only 50% of them can be completed and
(e) Correct mistakes immediately.
Total Quality Management is the much broader concept it encompasses product, service and process
quality improvements, but also costs, overall productivity, the development and involvement of all employees at
all levels. TQM is seen to emphasis problem prevention more than problem solving. It is customer driven, both
internal and external, that is a customer is anyone, including work colleagues, who receive our individual work
output. TQM is more of a long-term organizational strategy. Within TQM various emphases are possible and
some writers distinguish between a „hard‟ TQM approach which relies heavily on statistical analysis, and „soft‟
TQM which emphasizes teamwork, employees empowerment, open communication, involvement and
participation, skill development. Overall there is probably a shift toward s „soft‟ TQM. TQM is a strategy that is
formulated at the top management level and then diffused at all levels. Every in the organization, from CEO to
lowest paid workers/clerks are involved in the TQM process.