Marketing/MS23

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Question
1)   Explain the various kinds of Roles. Describe the factors contributing to Role changes in any organisation you are familiar with. Discuss the uses of role descriptions. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

2)   Discuss the objectives and uses of performance appraisal. Describe the methods which have been used in performance appraisal system in any organisation you are familiar with. Highlight the merits and demerits of those methods. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

3)   Explain the concept and need of Human Resource Informational System (HRIS). Describe the approaches which have been followed in any organisation for managing information at the macro and micro level. Discuss the advantages of computerizing resources information system. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

Answer
2.Explain the various kinds of Roles. Describe the factors contributing to Role changes in any organisation you are familiar with. Discuss the uses of role descriptions. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.

THE CONCEPT OF ROLE
In, any social system, such as the family club, religious community, work organization, etc., Individuals have certain obligations towards the system, which in
turn gives each one of them .a defined place in the society. This system of mutual obligations can be called a role and the individual's place, a position or an office. For
example, when one joins a new club, one is admitted as member is defined in terms of the hierarchical placement and privileges (the power one will enjoy). One also
agrees to abide by ` certain rules, carry out certain activities when required, volunteer for certain work, etc. The other members of the club expect all this from the
individual, and one also expects to dd. the needful. All these expectations, together
with one's response to them comprise the role. Briefly then, and individual occupies a
hierarchical position in a system, along with the ensuing powers and privileges, and performs certain functions in response to his and the member's expectations. In this
case the former is the office (or position) and the latter the role.

Role is the position one occupies in a social system, as defined by the functions on performs in response to the expectations of the 'significant' members of social
system, and one's own expectations from that position or office. Role and office ( or position), though two sides of the same coin, are, however, two separate concepts.
"Office is essentially a relational concept, defining each position in terms of its relationship to other and to the system as a whole".

Exhibit1
Office for Positional and Role
Office/Position--------------- Role
- is based on power relations ----- based on mutuality
- has related privieges --------- has related obligations
- is usually hierarchical --------- is non-hierarchical
- is created by other --------- is created by other and the role occupant
- is part of the structure -------- is part of the dynamics
- is evaluative ---------- is descriptive

Role Dynamics
Exhibit 2
Organization as a Structure of Offices






While office is a relational and power-related concept, role is an 'obligational" concept. Office is concerned with the hierarchical position and privileges, while a,
role is concerned with the obligations of position. Exhibit 1 distinguishes between these two concepts.. While office is a point in the social structure defining an office
holder's power, role is integrated set of behavious expected from a person occupying that office. An organization can be represented accoring to the offices, or the roles.
Exhibits 2 and 3 represent a part of an organization in two different ways.
Exhibit 3
Organization as a System of Roles




An office becomes a role when it is actually defined and determined by the expectations of other office holders (as reflected in the way an office is discharged by
the concerned office holder). Each role has its own system, consisting of the role occupant and those who have a direct relationship with him, and thereby, certain
expectations from the role.
Using the currently accepted terminology , we will term
the "significant' others having expectations from a role as role senders. They ' send' expectations to the role. The role occupant also has expectations from his role, and in
that sense the role occupant is also a role sender:
Let us take an example. In a family the father has both a position (office) and a role.
Thee father's position defines his authority in the family. In some societies he is the final decision make and the other members abide by his decisions. There are certain
expectation from the father that define his role - that he would earn for the family, protect the family against threats, etc. In his position as the head or the family
system, his role is to maintain and protect the family. While the position gives him some privileges, the role places certain obligations on him.
A role is not defined without the expectations of the role senders, including the role occupant. The position of a personnel manager may be created in an organizations,
his role will be defined by the expectations (stated or unstated) that different persons
have from the personnel manager, and the expectations that he in turn, has from the role. In this sense, the role gets defined in each system by the role senders, including
the role occupant.

However, a question that can be raised is: If the role is defined in each case by the role senders, how can we talk about a role in general, e.g. the father's role? While
strictly speaking a role in general. does not make much sense, in a lager social system the expectations from a role are largely shared, and have common elements. These are generalised, and we therefore, talk about the role of the Indian mother, or the role
of a chairman in a public sector concern, etc.
Confusion sometimes arises because the word role has two different connotation. At times it denotes the position a person holds in an organization along with the
expectations from that position (e.g. the role of a teacher, a policeman, etc), and elsewhere it describes only the expected behaviour or activities (for example, a
disciplinarian or an evaluatory role or a teacher, task and maintenance roles, etc.). For the sake of convenience we shall use the word role for a position a person holds in a
system (organization), as defined by the expectations various 'significant' persons, including oneself, have from that person. We will use the tem function to indicate an
interrelated expectations from a role. We can therefore say that while 'sales manager' is a role, developing a sales force and customer contact are the related functions.
Distinction needs to be made amongst certain work-related terms; office, role, job functions, tasks, etc. Although there are no universally accepted definitions, work is generally a wider terms, whereas office, role and job are ways or organizing work or dividing responsibilities. Functions are sub-units of a role. A function can be further subdivided into tasks.

Work-Related Terms
Work is a wider concept linking a person with his tools and with others performing a similar activity.
Office or position is a specific point in an organizational structure, defining the power of the person occupying it.
Role' is the set of obligations generated by the 'significant' others, and the individual occupying an office.

Job is a specific requirement to produce a product or achieve an objective.
Function is a group of expected behaviors for a role.
Example: An individual X may occupy an office of Branch Y of a bank. As a part of this office the individual the. individual reports to the Regional Manager. Similarly, a large number of persons, in turn, report to X. His role is to develop the branch by getting a
successively larger market share of deposits and advances. One of the functions under this
role' is to increase deposits. One task which he performs, as part of this function, is to undertake a survey of potential depositors, another is to contact the prestigious and 'big' depositors personally.

         WORK.
OFFICE------------------------- ROLE ---------------------JOB
-----------------------------------FUNCTION---------------------------
--------------------------------------TASKS -----------------------------


Work is a wider concept linking a person with his tools and with others performing a similar activity.
Office or position is a specific point in an organizational structure, defining the power of the person occupying it.
Role' is the set of obligations generated by the 'significant' others, and the individual occupying an office.
Job is a specific requirement to produce a product or achieve an objective.
Function is a group of expected behaviors for a role.
Example: An individual X may occupy an office of Branch Y of a bank. As a part of this
office the individual the. individual reports to the Regional Manager. Similarly, a large number of persons, in turn, report to X. His role is to develop the branch by getting a
successively larger market share of deposits and advances. One of the functions under this
role' is to increase deposits. One task which he performs, as part of this function, is to  undertake a survey of potential depositors, another is to contact the prestigious and 'big' depositors personally.
WORK.
OFFICE ROLE JOB
FUNCTION
TASKS

Role Dynamics
The concept of role is vital for the integration of the individual with an organization.
The individual and organization come together through a role. As shown in Exhibit 5
Role as an Integrating Point of an Organization and the Individual



Exhibit 6
Role as an Interacting Region between an Organization and the Individual


 
the organization has its own structure and goals. Similarly, the individual has his personality and needs (motivations). These interact with each other and to some
extent get integrated in a role. Role is also a central concept in work motivation. It is
only through a role that the individual and an organization interact with each other, as shown in Exhibit 6.

Exhibit 5
Role as an Integrating Point of an Organization and the Individual
Exhibit 6
Role as an Interacting Region between an Organization and the Individual

THE TWO ROLE SYSTEMS
An organization can be defined as a system of roles. However, a role itself is a system. From the individual's point of view there are two role system; the system of
various roles Which the individual carries and performs, and the system of various role of which his role is a part. The first, we will call role space and the second, a role
set.
Each individual occupies and plays several roles. A person X, is a daughter, a mother, a salesperson, an member of a club, a member of a voluntary organization,
and so on. All these roles constitute the role space of X. At the centre of the role space is the self. As the concept of role is central to that of an organization, so also
the concept of self is central to the several roles of a person. The term 'self refers to the interpretations the person makes about the referent' I".. It is a cognitive structure
which evolves from past experience with other persons and objects. Self can be defined as the experience of an identity arising from a person's interactions with the
external reality - things, persons and systems.
A person performs various roles which are centred the self These roles are at varying distances from the self (and from each other). These relationships define the 'role
space. Role space, is then a dynamic interrelationship between the self and the various role an individuals occupies, and also amongst these roles.

The distance between a role and the self indicates the extent to which the role is integrated with the self. When we do not enjoy a particular role or do not get
involved in it, there is a distance between the self and the role. We shall use the term self-role distance to denote this: Similarly, there may be distance between two roles
that a person occupies. For example, the role of club membership may be, distant from the, role of a husband: This we will term as inter-role distance or inter-role
conflict.

Roles
The role space map of an individual can be drawn by location the self in the centre,
an various roles occupied at varying distances from the self. Exhibit 7 presents the



role space of a person "A", who is personnel manger in a company. The numbers 9 to
1, for the various circles, represent distances. from the self 1 denoting the least
distance and 9 the most. The various roles of A are located in the four quadrants
according to the context (i.e., family, organization., profession or recreation). More
segments or role space can be added in the diagram.
The individual's role in the organization is defined by the expectations of other significant roles, and those or the individual himself The role is pattern of inter
relationships between a role, and the other roles.
The term 'focal person' for the individual who occupies a
role, and role senders, for those within the role set of the individual. Here the terns 'role occupant' have been used and 'other roles' respective for them himself. The role
set map for an individual's role can be also prepared on the same lines as those suggested for preparing a role space map. In a role set map the occupant role will be
in the centre, and all the other roles can be located at various points on the map.

Using a circular model, the roles can be located in concentric circles marked 9 to 1-9
indicating the roles closest to the occupant's role, and 1 indicating those which are the most distant. We will use the tern inter-role distance to indicate the distance between the occupant's role and the other roles. Lesser distance indicates higher role linkages (which can be defined as, the reverse of inter-role distance).

Role linkage is an  important concept in role satisfaction and role conflict. Exhibit 8 gives the„ role set
map of a person "A".
Role Dynamics
Exhibit 8







Roles Set Map of "A"
MAPPING ROLE SYSTEMS
As suggested above there are two role systems for every person the role space and the
role set. Role space is the system of various roles that a person takes and performs,
whereas the role set is the system of his organizational role. In the former, the self is in the centre and all roles that are performed are arranged around it. In the latter, the
organizational role is in the centre. With all the interacting roles arranged around it.
Knowledge of these two role systems in useful in understanding some role-related problems, and thereby dealing with them in an effective manager. For example, and individual's knowledge of how distant the self is from his different roles, can help in reducing this distance. If the professional role of the individual (say, the Secretary of
a professional society) is distant from his self, he may like to analyse in detail, why is it so, it may be tat the role requires extensive travel which the individual does not
like. This can be dealt with by negotiating with another office bearer on the latter's willingness to share the travel load. Various methods of reducing self-role distance
will be discussed later, however, it is necessary to diagnose distances. This can be done by preparing a role space map.
Similarly, a role set map can help an individual in formulating a visual impression of
the proximity (or distance) of various roles in role set from his focal role. This insight may help in developing strategies for interrole linkages, A role set map may also give an overview of the various important roles with which the individual interacts. Both the role set and role space maps are, in effect, preliminary diagnostic tools.

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*marketing
*manufacturing
*sales
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*distribution
*warehousing/  transportation
*TQM  
=====================================================
IN  THIS ORGANIZATION
BUILDING   ROLES  OF   THE  INDIVIDUALS.
WE  PRACTISE  THE  FOLLOWING  APPROACH

a. Making the people as the center of the ORGANIZATION  and  development objective;
b. Making the people self reliant  and  resourceful,
c. Making the training  and  development process participatory involving the people in real sense i.e.
in planning process, implementation and evaluation  programs.
d. Maintaining flexibility in planning, implementation and evaluation of the programs taking into consideration of the people’s personal culture and organization  traditions.

-PROVIDE  clarity of the vision of   the  organiztion.
- PROVIDE  knowledge on how to WORK  within  the  organization process and system.
- PROVIDE   RESOURCES  for activism.
- PROVIDE  the  required  institutional materials and financial resources.
- PROVIDE  the  training  for  building  confidence, assertiveness  etc
- PROVIDE  expertise in the field of their work

Individuals within organizations are motivated to work toward goals that ultimately result in increased compensation, promotion, and peer recognition. Most often, however, these individual motivations are not directly aligned with the organization's broader goals. The negative consequence is that while individuals in the organization strive toward personal motivations, very few people, if any, are directly concerned with the organization's ultimate aim: delivering products and/or services to market.

The differences between individual and organizational purposes is propagated in several ways at organizations I've visited in my role as a consultant. The root origin of most of these issues is a strong emphasis on TOO  MUCH  on  functional roles.

THE  PROCESS  USED  IS  AS  FOLLOWS:
ENTRY  STAGE
MOTIVATORS
~Understanding the organization, structure, culture
~Obtaining essential skills to perform job
~Establishing linkages with internal partners
~Exercising creativity and initiative
~Moving from dependence to independence
ORGANIZATIONAL  STRATEGIES
Peer mentoring program
~Professional support teams
~Leadership coaching
~Orientation/job training
------------------------------------------------
SECOND   STAGE
MOTIVATORS
~Developing area of expertise
~Professional development
~Becoming an independent contributor in problem resolution
~Gaining membership and identity in professional community
~Expanding creativity and innovation
~Moving from independence to interdependence
ORGANIZATIONAL  STRATEGIES
In-service education
Specialization RESOURCES
Professional association involvement
~Formal educational training
~Service on committees or special assignments
--------------------------------------------------
THIRD  STAGE
MOTIVATORS
~Acquiring a broad-based expertise
~Attaining leadership positions
~Engaging in organizational problem solving
~Counseling/coaching other professionals
~Facilitating self renewal
~Achieving a position of influence and stimulating thought in others
ORGANIZATIONAL   STRATEGIES
~Life and career renewal retreats
~Mentoring and trainer agent roles
~Assessment center for leadership
~Organizational sounding boards
Continuing professional development for employees is critical to meet the demands and expectations of the evolving workplace.
===========================================================================
The MANAGEMENT   support team has responsibilities to:
•   Provide an environment for motivation,
•   Provide recognition of successes,
•   Identify areas for change or improvement,
•   Set goals for future performance,
•   Identify training and professional development needs, and
•   Collaborate to evaluate performance.

AND  PROVIDE  COACHING  IN  THESE  BEHAVIOR  SKILLS.
•   Organizational skills,
•   Interpersonal skills,
•   Sensitivity,
•   Communication skills,
•   Change-management skills,
•   Diplomacy,
•   Decision-making skills,
•   Conflict-management skills,
•   Collaborativeness,
•   Self directedness,
•   Visionary skills, and
•   Assertiveness.

Personalized attention – A high faculty- to-STAFF ratio provides the individual attention that fosters development.
Assessment and feedback – The power of 360-degree feedback, combined with individual assessments, offers a well-rounded picture of strengths, development needs and leadership styles – frequently cited as the most valuable part of our programs.
A safe environment – Creating a confidential environment allows for candid sharing and the experimentation with new behaviors vital to development.
Goal setting – Participants are given time to integrate the lessons of their experience and are encouraged to create personal and professional goals.
Networking – Participants in open enrollment programs interact with peers from other companies who face similar challenges.
Custom program participants often spend time with managers from across their business, facilitating internal collaboration.
=================================================


Formative Factors
three principles that govern  this  operation.

People make the difference in any enterprise, and they alone determine whether the organization exists or fails to exist. The right people, therefore, are the single source for achieving all the esteemed benefits produced by an  organization. They are the heart, head, and sinew of such companies. It is from their substance that all other elements of  the  organization emerge.
The right people have these qualities: (1) they align to a purpose larger than self-interest, (2) they are teamed in their performance, (3) they are energized from within, (4) they have or acquire whatever expertise their tasks demand, and (5) they are always pioneering. People who create and sustain  the  organization  align to a business intent that commits to commerce through excellence and to producing benefits for all stakeholders inclusively. They team with the other members of the business they implement as well as across the company. Their inner desire to produce excellence energizes their performance. Their first step in every endeavor is to acquire the knowledge and proficiency needed to execute their tasks. Throughout, they are pioneering, driving to achieve the previously unachievable, to probe new opportunities, and to create new benchmarks of accomplishment.
The enlightening yet disturbing implication of this single source of effect is that you cannot change your company without changing its people / their  role.
Three Principles
The three principles that explain the performance of an organization  describe its relationship with the people who power it, clarify what these people focus on, and explain how they view the rest of what surrounds them.
Principle 1 asserts that the right people are the origin and end of such  organization. This means that aligned, teamed, energized, capable, and pioneering people create high  performance organiztion, and that, reciprocally, high  performance organizations attract, nurture, and develop these people. The relationship is circular and self-sustaining. An  organization  never acts in a way that compromises this relationship.
Principle 2 states that enterprise and learning are the only activities on which people in an organization  focus. Their single imperative is to maximize enterprise through learning.
Principle 3 declares that all elements other than people are optional. If these elements exist, it is on a "just-in-time" and "only-for-so-long-as-useful" basis. This paraphernalia includes structure, strategy, systems, procedures, equipment, tools, and facilities.
The  ROLE  DRIVER   is  a  systematic way to capture, manage and adjust job responsibilities and organizational structure.

"Role Driving  literally transforms job descriptions. It is an amazing managerial  approach.
Role clarity is crucial to performance. Most job descriptions fail to capture what employees really do and become meaningless pieces of paper. Role Driving   is a job description system that allows employees to fully capture their accountabilities and functions.
Role Driving   turns these job descriptions into a managerial tool. It surgically captures, manages and alters job responsibilities across the entire organization. It also creates role-based organization charts (not people-based) that provide exciting new vision for success - new career paths, better pay scales and better focus on results.

1. Each employee completes their Role Driving  job profile in groups of three to five, at their own computer, guided by a Performance Shift consultant. It takes two half-days to complete the work using Excel. When they are done, employees typically say two things: "This drained my brain!" and "This is the first time I've ever seen my job captured accurately."
2. Then each employee reviews their four page job profile with their manager who MUST agree with the content. This takes about 1 1/2 hours and results in a job profile that both sides agree is accurate and complete.
3. The outputs are reviewed for recommended actions. Role Driving  provides reports roll up the workload of the entire organization in paid hours per year. The workload can then be viewed not just by person, but also by role (people occupy multiple roles), by function (department) and by accountability. Performance appraisal data, outputs and productivity, competencies and teamwork are examined too.
4. The organization structure is transformed. Without changing a single person or job, Role Driving  transforms the org-chart from a traditional people-based chart (one person per box) to a role-based chart (multiple boxes per person). From there, the work of the organization is re-aligned by function or by products/services to fit the three year growth goals of the organization. New career paths are now identified that motivate and retain your talent. A new vision of your organization takes root.
5. Jobs are adjusted as needed. Role Driving  provides the accurate detail needed to surgically alter job descriptions that adapt to the changing needs of the organization. It forecasts workload by accountability, shifts responsibilities logically and invites continuous improvement to how things get done. It also allows for employee involvement in the process. The result is higher quality performance, more committed staff and a lighter managerial burden.
====================================================================
THIS  ROLE  DEFINITION  HELPS  TO   MAKE

-the  people  more  responsible  for  their  output.

-everyone  has  an  outcome  from  their  job.

-everyone  can  feel  their  accountability

-their  performance   can  be  appraised /   assessed/  rewarded.
================================
THE CONCEPT OF ROLE
In, any social system, work organization, etc., Individuals have certain obligations towards the system, which in
turn gives each one of them .a defined place in the society. This system of mutual obligations can be called a role and the individual's place, a position or an office. For
example, when one joins a new club, one is admitted as member is defined in terms
of the hierarchical placement and privileges (the power one will enjoy). One also agrees to abide by ` certain rules, carry out certain activities when required, volunteer
for certain work, etc. The other members of the club expect all this from the individual, and one also expects to dd. the needful. All these expectations, together
with one's response to them comprise the role. Briefly then, and individual occupies a hierarchical position in a system, along with the ensuing powers and privileges, and
performs certain functions in response to his and the member's expectations. In this case the former is the office (or position) and the latter the role.
Role is the position one occupies in a social system, as defined by the functions on
performs in response to the expectations of the 'significant' members of social system, and one's own expectations from that position or office. Role and office ( or
position), though two sides of the same coin, are, however, two separate concepts.
"Office is essentially a relational concept, defining each
position in terms of its relationship to other and to the system as a whole".

Exhibit1
Office for Positional and Role
Office/Position-------------- Role
- is based on power relations ----based on mutuality
- has related privieges --------- has related obligations
- is usually hierarchical - -------------is non-hierarchical
- is created by other --------------- is created by other and the role occupant
- is part of the structure ------------ is part of the dynamics
- is evaluative ------------------------- is descriptive

While office is a relational and power-related concept, role is an 'obligational"
concept. Office is concerned with the hierarchical position and privileges, while a,
role is concerned with the obligations of position. Exhibit 1 distinguishes between
these two concepts.. While office is a point in the social structure defining an office
holder's power, role is integrated set of behavious expected from a person occupying
that office. An organization can be represented accoring to the offices, or the roles  
An office becomes a role when it is actually defined and determined by the
expectations of other office holders (as reflected in the way an office is discharged by
the concerned office holder). Each role has its own system, consisting of the role
occupant and those who have a direct relationship with him, and thereby, certain
expectations from the role.
Using the currently accepted terminology , we will term
the "significant' others having expectations from a role as role senders. They ' send'
expectations to the role. The role occupant also has expectations from his role, and in
that sense the role occupant is also a role sender:








Definitions:

Manager:   Someone who gets things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals.

Organization:   A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
  
B.  Management Functions
  
1.   French industrialist Henri Fayol wrote that all managers perform five management functions: plan, organize, command, coordinate, and control. Modern management scholars have condensed to four: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

2.   Planning requires a manager to:

•   Define goals (organizational, departmental, worker levels)
•   Establish an overall strategy for achieving those goals
•   Develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities.

3.   Organizing requires a manager to:

•   Determine what tasks are to be done
•   Who is to be assigned the tasks
•   How the tasks are to be grouped
•   Who reports to whom
•   Where decisions are to be made (centralized/decentralized)

4.   Leading requires a manager to:

•   Motivate employees
•   Direct the activities of others
•   Select the most effective communication channels
•   Resolve conflicts among members   

B.  Management Functions (cont.)
  
5.   Controlling requires a manager to:

•   Monitor the organization’s performance
•   Compare actual performance with the previously set goals
•   Correct significant deviations.   

C. Management Roles
  
1.   In the late 1960s, Henry Mintzberg studied five executives to determine what managers did on their jobs. He concluded that managers perform ten different, highly interrelated roles or sets of behaviors attributable to their jobs.

The ten roles can be grouped as being primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships, the transfer of information, and decision making.   (Exhibit 1-1)

2.   Interpersonal roles

•   Figurehead—duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature
•   Leadership—hire, train, motivate, and discipline employees
•   Liaison—contact outsiders who provide the manager with information. These may be individuals or groups inside or outside the organization.

3.   Informational roles

•   Monitor—collect information from organizations and institutions outside their own
•   Disseminator—a conduit to transmit information to organizational members
•   Spokesperson—represent the organization to outsiders

4.   Decisional roles

•   Entrepreneur—managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization’s performance
•   Disturbance handlers—take corrective action in response to unforeseen problems
•   Resource allocators—responsible for allocating human, physical, and monetary resources
•   Negotiator role—discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit
  

D.  Management Skills
  
1.   Robert Katz has identified three essential management skills: technical, human, and conceptual.

2.   Technical skills

•   The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job.

3.   Human skills

•   The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups, describes human skills.
•   Many people are technically proficient but interpersonally incompetent.   

D.  Management Skills
  
4.   Conceptual skills

•   The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

•   Decision making, for example, requires managers to spot problems, identify alternatives that can correct them, evaluate those alternatives, and select the best one.   






THE VARIOUS  APPROACH   ARE

Major Roles During Change
The process of organizational change can include a variety of key roles. These roles can be filled by
various individuals or groups at various times during the change process. Sometimes, individuals or
groups can fill more than one role.
Change Initiator
It is conventional wisdom among organizational development consultants that successful change is
often provoked by a deep “hurt” or crisis in the organization, for example, dramatic reduction in
sales, loss of a key leader in the organization, warnings from a major investor, or even actions of a
key competitor. It is not uncommon then that someone inside the organization reacts to that deep
hurt and suggests the need for a major change effort. Often the person who initiates the change is
not the person who becomes the primary change agent.
Change Agent
The change agent is the person responsible for organizing and coordinating the overall change effort.
The change agent role can be filled by different people at different times during the project. For
example, an outside consultant might be the first change agent. After the project plan has been
developed and begins implementation, the change agent might be an implementation team comprised
of people from the organization. If the change effort stalls out, the change agent might be a top
leader in the organization who intercedes to ensure the change process continues in a timely fashion.
Champion for Change
Change efforts often require a person or group who continues to build and sustain strong enthusiasm
about the change. This includes reminding everyone of why the change is occurring in the first
place, the many benefits that have come and will come from the change process. The champion
might be the same person as the change agent at various times in the project.
Sponsor of Change
Usually, there is a one key internal person or department that is officially the “sponsor,” or official
role responsible for coordinating the change process. In large organizations, that sponsor often is a
department, such as Human Resources, Strategic Planning or Information Technology. In smaller
organizations, the sponsor might be a team of senior leaders working to ensure that the change effort
stays on schedule and is sustained by ongoing provision of resources and training.

===========================
factors contributing to role changes in any organization.
LEADERSHIP, LEARNING, MOTIVATION & PRODUCTIVITY.

Leadership

Senior management
must articulate a clear vision of the future
“ideal” organization in order to successfully
implement  CHANGE . Once the vision is established,
senior management must establish
and create understanding and commitment
among organization members to share the
vision of the ideal identity – and the actions
that are necessary to achieve it.

The actual transformation of a system occurs
as a consequence of a “vision” of the corporation’s
future and the will to achieve it. It has
also been suggested that organization leaders
have roles to play in order to implement a
clear vision: separate from the past, create a
sense of urgency, develop enabling structures,
communicate, involve people and be honest,
reinforce and institutionalize change .

Leadership dimensions and technology
First, transactional leadership sees
technological change as needing primarily
technical solving skills, with little attention
given to people problem solving . Under this leadership dimension, the
manager lacks the skills required to influence
the perception of organizational members
exhibiting resistance to the change.
Therefore, technical managers handling
projects incorporating organizational
change need to take time to hear out the
protests and problems of others caught up in
the change and listen to the views of subordinates
who are likely to understand the implications
of the new technology .

The second approach, transformational
leadership, views technological change as
needing a combination of technical and
human relations aspects. This dimension
contends that managers are given the role in
translating top management’s vision through
exercising skills of pathfinding ,
problem solving, and implementing to
introduce technological change .

Leadership culture and middle
management
It is through leadership that organizational
members are able to achieve senior
management’s “ideal” vision of the future
organization. The extent of the gap between
the current organization and the ideal organization
can have an impact on the success
of the SOC initiatives. If the gap is
sufficiently large, change efforts are likely to
be frustrating and potentially devastating,
because members will perceive the change
either too threatening or impossible to
achieve . Therefore, it is
senior management’s responsibility to
“manage” the CHANGE effort by ensuring that
the gap between the “as is” and the “to be”
vision is wide enough to challenge the organization
and not too wide to demoralize the
change effort.
================================

Learning

Learning
to change, learning the new organizational
vision and goals, organizational design
and technology and organizational culture.

The initial challenge will be to explore how
organizations learn to change.

The implementation of a new vision and
strategy via the involvement of senior and
middle management will depend very much
on how the individual players and the organization
itself are motivated to learn. When
people have the right attitudes and commitment,
learning automatically follows. Organizations themselves
will also need to be part of the process as they
try to learn to reformulate strategy and
realign their organizations continuously, if
they are to survive in an increasingly turbulent
environment .

At the organizational level, it has been
argued that ideas which challenge the core
elements of an organization’s culture and its
accepted management practices are rarely
openly discussed among key managers. This may be one of the
core elements in identifying critical problems
in need of solutions.
Among the reasons identified as being
organizational barriers to learning are poor
interfunctional coordination, poor vertical
communication, unclear strategic priorities
and poor teamwork .

At the individual level, workers can be
motivated to actively learn if the organization
teaches how to break down their defenses
that block learning: people must learn to
identify what individuals and groups do to
create organizational defenses and how these
defenses contribute to organizational problems.

Learning the new organizational vision and
goals
The motivation to pursue a new organizational
vision by top management is closely
linked to how managers perceive (self efficacy)
they can influence corporate strategic
objectives and goals. The degree of control
that managers have over internal corporate
factors such as sale, cost, marketing
programs objectives will determine how
committed they will become to organizational
change. Approaches that use objective measures
of performance are better motivators
than those that use subjective measures

Concerns for motivating individuals to
learn new skills can help to reduce the
defenses that block learning: instead of being
rewarded for moving up in the hierarchy,
people are rewarded for increasing their
skills while adapting them to change in organizational
goals.

Learning, organizational design and
technology
The role of the organization at this stage in
the learning process is to create new training
and education programs that will be in
line with the new strategic vision. Strategic
organizational changes that are not supported
by rigorous training and educational
initiatives will become harder if not impossible
to implement and will result in failure.

Successful training can only take place if we emphasize
the importance of developing behavioral
objectives before deploying instruction. Now
the key to performance (becomes) behavioral
analysis and task analysis .
The idea for training and education in the
corporate world is best exemplified by
Motorola’s commitment in the late 1980s to
invest $120 million annually in training and
education by creating “Motorola University”.
In the words of Motorola’s corporate vicepresident
for training and education at that
time:
…Our commitment is not buildings or a
bureaucracy but to creating an environment
for learning, a continuing openness to new
ideas. We do teach vocational subject, but we
also teach supervocational subjects – functional
skills … We not only teach skills, we
try to breathe the very spirit of creativity
and flexibility into manufacturing and
management .

In order to motivate people to learn a new
technology, we must empower them with the
right knowledge, technique and skills to
implement the new technology. The current
era of flexible manufacturing technologies
requires that individual workers develop
benchmarks (e.g. zero defects, total quality
management, activity-based costing, etc.)
and create evolving standards that will measure
their ability to implement strategic
organizational change throughout the organization.

Learning and organizational culture
The impact of learning on management practices
and the culture of the organization are
reflective of a transitional process between
two learning modes.
The first learning mode is referred to as
single-loop learning and consists of learning
to detect and correct errors based on existing
organizational norms and values. The entire
learning mechanism is derived from the
organization’s previous experiences through
repetitive reinforcement to detect casualties
and correct the deviative pattern emerging
thereof. An example of a single-
loop learning would be the traditional
budgetary process that most organizations go
through every year.
The second learning mode is referred to as
double-loop learning. As the name implies, a
double-loop is formed as one tries to identify
the organizational processes that deviate
from established values and standards, and
second (i.e. second loop), questions the standards
and the values themselves on which
organizational processes are based . A typical example of double-loop learning
would be the utilization by an organization
of a “zero-based” budgeting system.
In the context of strategic organizational
change, when the fundamental norms and
values are no longer appropriate, single-loop
learning and the resulting use of standard
operating procedures introduce significant
response delays into organizations’ decision
systems . As for double-loop
learning, a potential is created for perpetual
organizational change and flexibility.


Motivation, AND  productivity

REVIEW  vision, performance management systems
and technology and the linkage between
motivation, performance and culture.
To implement a new organizational vision
and CHANGE , it has
been suggested that organizations
undergo transformational change. By transformational
(change) we mean areas in which
alteration is likely caused by interaction with
environmental forces and will require
entirely new behavior sets from organizational
members . For
senior teams of organizations, it will require
the following of decision strategies that will
lead to superior organizational performance.
Such strategies might involve creating value
by introducing new products, penetrating
new markets, introducing flexible manufacturing
capabilities and implementing activity-
based costing within a new management
control system framework.
The basic idea behind strategic CHANGE  is to provide a clear focus and
to help establish the gaps in performance and
the areas greatest concern and opportunity
for change management .

The success of strategic organizational
change will in turn be measured by improving
key strategic organizational variables
such as market shares, sales volume, earnings
per share, stock price, cost reduction and
stakeholders (i.e. suppliers, customers, public
at large, etc.) satisfaction.

Performance management system and technology

Performance management
systems are being introduced in order
to monitor the performance of implemented
transformational activities in the organization.
In a performance management system,
strategic initiatives (are) broken into clearly
defined accountabilities and responsibilities
and then integrated into the performance
objective of all employees who are responsible
for turning them into actions . For transformational change to
occur, every employee in the organization
needs to know what his/her responsibilities
are, how his/her performance is to be evaluated
and how his/her performance will be
monitored against a predetermined set of
goals.
At the organizational level, performance
improvement will occur when management
provides the entire work force with all the
necessary training and technical infrastructure
to support the transformational change
initiatives . All is needed for (strategic organizational)
change is to determine the right
training program, technology (requirements)
and the appropriate incentives for each situations.

Motivation, performance and organizational culture

The rules and principles governing how people
accomplish their jobs in an organization
can have profound impact on the latter’s
ability to introduce any type of strategic organizational
change. As was stated earlier, the
biggest challenge for management is to have
their change initiatives supported by the
employees of the organization. These change
initiatives are likely to encounter serious
resistance from various levels in the organization,
and especially middle management.

At the individual level, it has been argued
that the organization members’ willingness
to buy into a culture of change can be facilitated
by applying the principles of behavior
modification. These principles, derived from
operant conditioning concepts, are not
applicable to all behavior modification
attempts. In designing jobs, organizations
have to assess individuals’ capabilities to
adapt to change. For example, it has been
advanced that the degree to which individuals
will translate organizational change initiatives
into higher performance achievement
(BM) is related to their “locus” of control.
Since internally oriented individuals
(internal “locus”) believe that their own
actions determine outcomes, internals are
more likely to take an active posture with
respect to their environment. Externals
(external locus), in contrast, may adopt a
passive role .

The ability of any organization to motivate
individuals, whether they have an external or
internal locus of control, to superior levels of
performance is closely related to their reward
systems. Therefore, strategic organizational
change efforts must ascertain that different
types of rewards are offered to employees who
might have quite a different attitude set
towards organizational change.
Although it has been suggested that ideal
organizational climate would provide opportunities
for independence, recognition, and
responsibilities , some employees’ performance under an
organizational change environment might
still be motivated by extrinsic job satisfaction
factors (e.g. pay, job security, fringe benefits,
working conditions, explicit working rules,
etc).
As pointed out earlier in this section, individuals
need control over the job attributes
(intrinsic or extrinsic) that will determine
how successful they are at reaching their
performance objectives.
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3.Discuss the objectives and uses of performance appraisal. Describe the methods which have been used in performance appraisal system in any organisation you are familiar with. Highlight the merits and demerits of those methods. Briefly describe the organisation you are referring to.
Performance Appraisal is defined as structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, where the work performance of the subordinate is to be taken into consideration, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills  development . Appraisal results are used to determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses, and promotion .  Simultaneously appraisal results are also used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling, or in extreme cases, demotion, dismissal or decrease in pay.
  
Performance Appraisal is a part of   ORGANIZATIONAL   DEVELOPMENT   AND  career development.

THE  OBJECTIVES  ARE

1    Know what your employees have achieved and can achieve
2   Know what your employees’ weaknesses are
3   Understand how each employee’s role fits into the overall business
4   Compare the efficiency of different staff members
5   Set realistic goals
6   Identify ways your business can be expanded or enhanced
They allow your staff to:
1   Feel valued
2   Understand what is expected of them
3   Understand the business they are involved in
4   Understand their weaknesses
5   Identify their strengths
6   Identify areas they need further training in
Offer opinions and insights that may improve the business as a whole

A performance appraisal   system links achievements at all levels of the organisation with corporate, business and unit's  objectives. It provides the framework for:
• clarifying expectations, roles, responsibilities and resources required to achieve goals;
• improving communication and understanding between managers and employees in terms of work requirements, expectations, performance criteria and achievements;
• linking individual, team or unit performance with quality assurance, continuous improvement and evaluation processes of the organisation;
• facilitating, encouraging and assessing performance;
• encouraging structured feedback from employees and supervisors on performance and career planning and from the community on organisational performance;
• introducing an outcomes focused culture and increasing motivation;
• collecting data and information needed for management decision making or external review ;
• increasing the organisation’s capability to meet future requirements and to improve outcomes for the community;
• identifying performance which requires improvement; and
• recognising and acknowledging performance.
======================================================
FOR  INDIVIDUAL  EMPLOYEES,

-an  opportunity  for  self  appraisal.

-an  opportunity  for  the  manager  to appraise  the  staff.

-helps  to  determine  the  strengths  of  the  employee.

-helps  to  determine  areas  for  improvements

-helps  to  determine  the  employee  training  needs.

-helps  to  determine  the  types  of  training  programs

-helps  to  determine  the  merit  rewards  for   the  employees.

-an  opportunity  to   acknowledge /  offer  recognition  for  performance

-an  opportunity  to  improve  the  employee's  capability/competencies.

-helps  to  develop  individual  development  plan.


Benefits of performance appraisals.
At a macro level performance appraisals   assists organisations to match outcomes with organization objectives. It provides a system for improving organization  performance and outcomes, within the  organization's  policy framework, while maintaining good industrial relations. It generates benefits throughout organisational functions and processes.
Performance appraisal  recognises that people are the organisation’s most valuable resource, and that people are the key to an innovative, professional and service-oriented public service. Performance management emphasises the relationship between the management and development of people and an effective organisation, and provides a fair and equitable environment for improving performance.
A performance appraisal   system links achievements at all levels of the organisation with corporate, business and unit's  objectives. It provides the framework for:
• clarifying expectations, roles, responsibilities and resources required to achieve goals;
• improving communication and understanding between managers and employees in terms of work requirements, expectations, performance criteria and achievements;
• linking individual, team or unit performance with quality assurance, continuous improvement and evaluation processes of the organisation;
• facilitating, encouraging and assessing performance;
• encouraging structured feedback from employees and supervisors on performance and career planning and from the community on organisational performance;
• introducing an outcomes focused culture and increasing motivation;
• collecting data and information needed for management decision making or external review ;
• increasing the organisation’s capability to meet future requirements and to improve outcomes for the community;
• identifying performance which requires improvement; and
• recognising and acknowledging performance.
===================================================


IN  THE  ABOVE  LISTED  ORGANIZATION, THE  PM  IS CONDUCTED  AS  FOLLOWS:


1. The objectives of the system are clearly defined

Objectives of the system, and its underlying principles, are clearly defined in terms of potential benefits to the organisation, its employees and its clients.  Guidelines are clear and unambiguous.


2. The system is aligned with corporate objectives, priorities and strategies

The system reflects the organisation's goals and priorities and is linked with corporate and business plans.  The system has a strong strategic focus, with recognition given to performance and achievements that advance corporate priorities.

The system is designed in full consultation with employees and their representatives as it needs to be supported at all levels of the organisation to be accepted and workable.


3.  The system is equitable

The system is equitable; open; free from gender, race and other bias; and fairly and consistently applied.


4.    The organisation focuses on performance improvement

The organisation fosters performance recognition and realisation of the individual’s potential by taking a positive approach to cultural change and focusing on outcomes, continuous improvement and training.  Performance management is not used as a primarily punitive means of dealing with unsatisfactory performance or disciplinary matters.



5.    Commitment and ownership of the process is demonstrated

Managers and supervisors perceive performance management as a fundamental and ongoing management function and a key planning and evaluation mechanism.  The organisation fosters ‘whole of organisation’ ownership of performance management processes rather than managerial or human resource specialist ownership.


6.    Comprehensive training is provided

Training and education needs are determined and all employees, including supervisors and managers, receive adequate training.  Follow up support and maintenance training is provided.  Managers and supervisors obtain the necessary interpersonal and communication skills required for providing quality feedback.


Performance criteria and standards are clearly defined in workplans and are objective, job related and based on performance over which the team or individual can exert control.  Outcomes are measurable in terms of individual, work group or team achievement and goals are challenging yet attainable.



7.  Confidentiality is assured

Employees are confident in the system’s ability to provide anonymity and confidentiality and appropriate safeguards against bias.  Agreement is reached on documentation to be produced and guidelines for its retention.



8.  Data generated is used appropriately

Performance data is analysed when decisions are being made on organisational improvement strategies and training and development initiatives.  Inappropriate generation and use of performance data does not occur.


9.  The system is linked to a sound grievance handling process

The performance management process includes a complaint mechanism, or link to the organisation’s existing grievance and harassment policy and procedures.



10.  The system is regularly reviewed

Review mechanisms are in place to ensure that the system is effective, relevant and that it remains in line with corporate objectives and priorities.  The system is compared with other performance indicators (such as absenteeism, turnover, productivity levels) in order to gauge its effectiveness.  Attitude surveys are used to measure levels of motivation, commitment and job satisfaction.    


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