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Question
i want some theoretical explanation regarding marketing & selling.
i was asked this question in a marketing job interview.
1.define marketing.
2.differentiate marketing & selling.
3.is selling next stage of marketing.
4.will you call selling as success of marketing?
thank you

Answer
1.define marketing.
MARKETING  CONCEPT.
The marketing  concept  is the  philosophy  that  the  firm  should  analyze
the needs of  their  customers[ current /potential ]   and  then make
the  decisions to  satisfy  those needs , better  than the  competition.

DEFINITION  OF  MARKETING.

What  is  Marketing ?

It  is  a  process  by  which  

-one  identifies  the  needs and wants  of  the  people.
-one determines  and  creates a  product/service to meet  the  needs and  wants. [PRODUCT]
-one determines  a way  of  taking the  product/service to the market place. [PLACE]
-one determines the  way of  communicating the product  to the  market  place. [PROMOTIONS]
-one determines the value for the product.[PRICE].
-one determines  the  people, who have  needs/ wants. [PEOPLE]
and then  creating a  transaction for exchanging the product for   a  value. and  thus  creating a  satisfaction to the buyer's needs/wants.

TERMS  to  understand.
1.Product/Service  means  a  product or service or idea to satisfy the  people's  needs /  wants.
2.Needs  mean  when  a  person feels deprived of something.
3.Wants  mean  when a  person's  need  is  formed / shaped by  personality, culture, and  knowledge.
4.Value  means  the  benefits  that the  customer  gains from owning  and  using the  product  and  the  cost  of  the product.
5.Satisfaction  means  the extent  to  which  a  product's
  perceived  performance  matches  a  buyer's expectation.
6.Exchange means the  act of obtaining a needed/ wanted
  object  by  offering  something  in  return.
7.Transactions  mean a  trade  off  between  a  buyer / a seller that  involves  an  exchange  at  agreed  conditions.

Marketing is based on identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs effectively and profitably.
It encompasses
- market research,
-product planning / development ,
-product  pricing,
-product  marketing
-SALES
-promotion,
-distribution,
-customer care,
-BRANDING
-merchandising
-retailing
-website  marketing
and much more.
===========================================

2.differentiate marketing & selling.
DEFINITION  OF  MARKETING.

What  is  Marketing ?

It  is  a  process  by  which  

-one  identifies  the  needs and wants  of  the  people.
-one determines  and  creates a  product/service to meet  the  needs
and  wants. [PRODUCT]
-one determines  a way  of  taking the  product/service to the market
place. [PLACE]
-one determines the  way of  communicating the product  to the
market  place. [PROMOTIONS]
-one determines the value for the product.[PRICE].

-one determines  the  people, who have  needs/ wants. [PEOPLE]

and then  creating a  transaction for exchanging the product for  
a  value.
and  thus  creating a  satisfaction to the buyer's needs/wants.

TERMS  to  understand.
1.Product/Service  means  a  product or service or idea to satisfy
  the  people's  needs /  wants.
2.Needs  mean  when  a  person feels deprived of something.
3.Wants  mean  when a  person's  need  is  formed / shaped
  by  personality, culture, and  knowledge.
4.Value  means  the  benefits  that the  customer  gains from
   owning  and  using the  product  and  the  cost  of  the product.
5.Satisfaction  means  the extent  to  which  a  product's
  perceived  performance  matches  a  buyer's expectation.
6.Exchange means the  act of obtaining a needed/ wanted
  object  by  offering  something  in  return.
7.Transactions  mean a  trade  off  between  a  buyer / a seller
  that  involves  an  exchange  at  agreed  conditions.


Marketing is based on identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs effectively and profitably.

It encompasses
- market research,
-product planning / development ,
-product  pricing,
-product  marketing
-SALES
-promotion,
-distribution,
-customer care,
-BRANDING
-merchandising
-retailing
-website  marketing
and much more.

FROM THE  ABOVE,  YOU   WILL  SEE   ''SALES''  IS  ONE  OF  THE  ELEMENTS  OF  TOTAL   MARKETING.
===========================================================================
DEFINITION   OF   SALES  


What  is  Sales ?

It  is  a  process  by  which  

-one  identifies   the  people, who  have a  need. [ PROSPECTING]
-one determines  the  needs  of  the  people.[ NEEDS ]

-one determines  a way  of  finding  a  solution to the  prospect's  problem.[ PROPOSE]

-one determines the  way of  communicating  your product  as a  solution. [RECOMMENDING]

-one determines the value for the product for  the  prospect.[ ADVOCATING  YOUR PRODUCT].

-one determines  / sells  benefits  of the  product   to the  prospect. [ SELLING BENEFITS]

and then  creating a  transaction for exchanging the product for  
a  value. [ CLOSING  THE SALE ]

and  thus  creating a  satisfaction to the buyer's needs/wants.
[  CREATING  CUSTOMER  SATISFACTION]









I WILL  GIVE  YOU  SOME  OUTLINE OF  THE  PROCESS,
HOW YOU  WILL  SELL TO  A  CUSTOMER.

STAGE 1 --ESTABLISHING  YOURSELF

-how you will  introduce yourself  to  the  customer.
-how you will approach  the customer
-how you will  create interest  for the  customer
-how you will  grab the attention of the customer
-how you will  establish rapport with the customers

STAGE  2 --DEVELOPING  CUSTOMER  NEEDS

-how you will  you profile the customer  
-how you will  define the  needs of the customer
-how you will  probe  the  customers
-how you will  determine the  customer needs

STAGE  3 --PROPOSING  YOUR  PRODUCT AS SOLUTION

-how you will  advocate your solution  
-how you will  recommend your  products as a  solution
-how you will  sell  benefits  of your  products
-how you will  motivate the customer  to make a  decision in your favour

STAGE 4 --HANDLING  OBJECTIONS

-how you will  manage cutomer resistance  
-how you will  handle the customer  objections

STAGE 5 - CLOSE THE  SALES
-how you will  seek  customer  commitment
-how you will  help  the  customer to  close the  sale.
-how you will  take the  order.




###########################
3.is selling next stage of marketing.

SELLING  is  the    major  element  of  marketing  functions.
You  can see this  in the  previous  answers.
It  performs  the  transaction  process.
THIS  SELLING  IS  SUPPORTED  BY  
INTEGRATED  MARKETING  COMMUNICATION

FROM   THE  MIX  BELOW,  YOU   WILL SEE  THAT
THE   SALES   IS  A  MAJOR / INTEGRAL  PART
OF  INTEGRATED  MARKETING .

The Marketing Communications Mix.

Personal Selling ,
-here the marketing communication is used
*to  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  sell  benefits
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to  seek  commitment
*to  help  to  close the  sale.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sales Promotion
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to inform  the  customers
*to  physically present
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Public Relations (and publicity)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  publicise  the company
*to  publicise  the  product
*to publicise  the  company's  research/ development
*to  publicise the  company  image
*to  create  the  company  brand
*to  inform  public
*to  communicate  with the community.
*to  establish  relations  with government  
*to  establish   community  relations
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Direct Mail
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  inform
*to  talk  to  individuals
*to  focus  on  niche  market
*to inform the  decision  makers  directly
*to   advertise cost efficiently
*to promote selected  market  segments
*to contact individuals  for  one-to-one  marketing
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Trade Fairs and Exhibitions
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  inform  individuals
*to  provide  visibility
*to  talk  to  individuals
*to inform the  decision  makers  directly
*to   advertise cost efficiently
*to promote person to  person
*to contact individuals  for  one-to-one  marketing
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Advertising (above and below the line)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
ABOVE  THE  LINE
*to  MASS  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create MASS awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  sell  benefits
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
HERE  IS  PR  IS  INCLUDED   AS  A  MASS  COMMICATION
TOOL .
------------------------
BELOW  THE  LINE
*to  physically present
*to make it  visible at  the  point  of sale.
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
*to  display  and promote
*to  merchandise the product
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sponsorship
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  MASS  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create MASS awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  sell  benefits
---------------------------------------------------------
Packaging -here the  marketing  communication is  used
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  MASS  inform the customers/ prospects
*to  create MASS awareness
*to  present  the product
*to  influence the  customer
*to  make  it  visible  at  the  point  of  sale
--------------------------------------------------------------
Merchandising (and point-of-sale)  
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to create visiblity  at the point of  sale.
*to influence  the  customers
*to help  the  customers  to feel the  product
*to help  the  customer to  make the  buying  decision
*to offer  consumer incentives
*to  help  the  final  transactions
*to  display  and promote
*to  merchandise the product
--------------------------------------------------------------------
EMarketing (and Internet promotions)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  inform
*to  talk  to  individuals
*to  focus  on  niche  market
*to inform the  decision  makers  directly
*to   advertise cost efficiently
----------------------------------------------------------------
Branding (and corporate identity)
-here the  marketing  communication is  used
*to  create an  unique position  for the company
*to create  an  unique  position  for the product
*to create unique visibility
*to make it  easy to  identify
*to  make it easy to  buy
*to make it  easy  to  sell
-----------------------------------------------------------
ALL  THE  INTEGRATED MARKETING  COMMUNICATION EFFORTS  ARE  DIRECTED
-TO  MAKE  IT EASY  FOR  THE  CUSTOMERS  TO  MAKE  THE BUYING  DECISION.
-HENCE  MORE  SALES.
=========================================================
Integrated marketing communications see the elements of the communications mix 'integrated' into a coherent whole. This is known as the marketing communications mix, and forms the basis of a marketing communications campaign.
marketing communications process
The elements of the promotions mix are integrated to form a coherent campaign. As with all forms of communication. The message from the marketer follows the 'communications process' as illustrated above. For example, a radio advert is made for a car manufacturer. The car manufacturer (sender) pays for a specific advert with contains a message specific to a target audience (encoding). It is transmitted during a set of commercials from a radio station (Message / media). The message is decoded by a car radio (decoding) and the target consumer interprets the message (receiver). He or she might visit a dealership or seek further information from a web site (Response). The consumer might buy a car or express an interest or dislike (feedback). This information will inform future elements of an integrated promotional campaign. Perhaps a direct mail campaign would push the consumer to the point of purchase. Noise represent the thousand of marketing communications that a consumer is exposed to everyday, all competing for attention.
#######################################


4.will you call selling as success of marketing?

SELLING  IS  INTEGRATED  INTO  MARKETING
ALL  THE  INTEGRATED MARKETING  COMMUNICATION EFFORTS  ARE  DIRECTED
-TO  MAKE  IT EASY  FOR  THE  CUSTOMERS  TO  MAKE  THE BUYING  DECISION.
-HENCE  MORE  SALES.
############################

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