Marketing/Kindly guide


Dear Sir,
Kindly guide me solve below questions.

Q1) Identify and briefly describes one of the terms which should normally be included in a Software acquisition contract?

Q2) List the five problems which may motivate an organization to rnove towards the database approach. Explain the significance of each one to a manager of an organization?
Q3) What are the various stages of a system development life cycle and how are the efforts distributed over these phases?
Q4) Discuss the various kinds of network topologies. Describe the types of switching available in networks?
Q5) Evaluate Critical Success Factor method for the purpose of Information Requirement Analysis?

Yogesh Mishra




Q1) Identify and briefly describes one of the terms which should
normally be included in a Software acquisition contract?


  This Software Acquisition Agreement ("Agreement") is made this ___ day of       , 199    ("Effective Date"), by and between Software Purchaser with its principal place of business at [address] ("Software Purchaser") and Software Patent Co, Inc., with its principal place of business at [address] ("Software Patent Co").


  A. Software Patent Co owns all right, title, and interest in and to that certain computer program and documentation identified as [name] ("Software"), the functional specifications for which are set forth in Exhibit A hereto;

  B. Software Patent Co desires to sell, assign, grant, convey, and transfer the Software to Software Purchaser, and Software Purchaser desires to buy and acquire the Software, in accordance with the terms and conditions of this agreement;

  NOW, THEREFORE, for good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, Software Patent Co and Software Purchaser, intending to be legally bound, hereby agree as follows:



  1.1. Software means, collectively, the full retail version of the Software, as specified in Exhibit A, delivered to Software Purchaser in source code and object code forms on diskette, together with any and all improvements, corrections, modifications, updates, enhancements or other changes, whether or not included in the current retail version, plus all System Documentation and User Documentation.

  1.2. System Documentation means all documentation used in the development and updating of the Software, including but not limited to, design or development specifications, error reports, and related correspondence and memoranda.

  1.3. User Documentation means the end-user instruction manual that usually accompanies the Software instructing end users in the use of the Software in both printed and electronic form.

  1.4. Software Trade Secret means any scientific or technical information, design, process, procedure, formula, or improvement included in the Software that is valuable, not generally known in the industry, and gives the owner of the Software a competitive advantage over those competitors who do not know or use such information.


  2.1. Software Patent Co hereby transfers, grants, conveys, assigns, and relinquishes exclusively to Software Purchaser all of Software Patent Co's right, title, and interest in and to both the tangible and the intangible property constituting the Software, in perpetuity (or for the longest period of time otherwise permitted by law), including the following corporeal and incorporeal incidents to the Software:

     (a) Title to and possession of the media, devices, and documentation that constitute all copies of the Software, its component parts, and all documentation relating thereto, possessed or controlled by Software Patent Co, which are to be delivered to Software Purchaser pursuant to Section 3 of this Agreement;
     (b) All Copyright interests owned or claimed by Software Patent Co pertaining to the Software, including (without limitation) the U.S. Copyright Registration Nos.      `, together with all other copyright interests accruing by reason of international copyright laws or conventions;
     (c) All right, title, and interest of Software Patent Co in and to the inventions, discoveries, improvements, ideas, trade secrets, know-how, confidential information, and all other intellectual property owned or claimed by Software Patent Co pertaining to the Software; and
     (d) All right, title, interest, and benefit of Software Patent Co in, to, and under all agreements, contracts and licenses, entered into by Software Patent Co, or having Software Patent Co as a beneficiary, and pertaining to the Software, as set forth in Exhibit B.


  3.1. Within ten (10) days after the effective date of this Agreement, Software Patent Co shall deliver to Software Purchaser (1) its entire inventory of copies of the Software in object code form, consisting of        disks; (2) a master copy of the Software (in both source and object code format), which shall be in a form suitable for copying; and (3) all System Docuemntation and User Documentation pertaining to the Software.

  3.2. Shipment of the items set forth in Section 3.1 shall be FOB [designate location]. Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, Software Patent Co will select the mode of shipment and the carrier and will be responsible for and pay all packing, shipping, freight and insurance charges.


  4.1. Purchase Price. In consideration for Software Patent Co's execution of this agreement and performance of the terms and conditions contained herein, Software Purchaser agrees to pay to Software Patent Co on the Effective Date the sum of $         .

  4.2. Taxes. The amount payable to Software Patent Co by Software Purchaser under this Section 4 is inclusive of any national, state or local sales, use, value-added or other taxes, customs duties, or similar tariffs and fees which Software Patent Co may be required to pay or collect upon the delivery of Software or upon collection of the fee.


  5.1. Software Patent Co represents and warrants that:

     (a) Software Purchaser shall receive, pursuant to this Agreement as of the Effective Date, complete and exclusive right, title, and interest in and to all tangible and intangible property rights existing in the Software, except for those matters addressed in Section 6 of this Agreement.
     (b) it has developed the Software entirely through its own efforts for its own account and that the Software is free and clear of all liens, claims, encumbrances, rights, or equities whatsoever of any third party.
     (c) the Software does not infringe any patent, copyright, or trade secret of any third party;
     (d) the Software is fully eligible for protection under applicable copyright law and has not been forfeited to the public domain; and that the source code and system specifications for the Software have been maintained in confidence;
     (e) all personnel, including employees, agents, consultants, and contractors, who have contributed to or participated in the conception and development of the Software either (1) have been party to a work-for-hire relationship with Software Patent Co that has accorded Software Patent Co full, effective, and exclusive original ownership of all tangible and intangible property arising with respect to the Software or (2) have executed appropriate instruments of assignment in favor of Software Patent Co as assignee that have conveyed to Software Patent Co full, effective, and exclusive ownership of all tangible and intangible property thereby arising with respect to the Software;
     (f) Except as identified in Exhibit B hereto, there are no agreements or arrangements in effect with respect to the marketing, distribution, licensing, or promotion of the Software by any independent salesperson, distributor, sublicensor, or other remarketer or sales organization.


  6.1. Software Patent Co represents and warrants that the only rights in the Software it has granted to third parties were granted pursuant to the Agreements identified in Exhibit B.

  6.2. Software Patent Co represents and warrants that each Agreement is in full force and effect in accordance with its terms without modification or amendment and without default by either party thereto; that each End-User Agreement grants the licensee thereunder solely the nonexclusive right and license to use the Software, for internal purposes only, on a single central processing unit; that each End-User Agreement provides only for rendering of services (including warranty coverage, maintenance, and support) that, to the extent required to have been performed as of the effective date of this Agreement, have been performed in full; and that each End-User Agreement is freely assignable to and assumable by Software Purchaser pursuant to this Agreement, without the requirement of obtaining any consent or approval, giving any prior or subsequent notice, paying any further royalty or fee to any party thereto or to any other third party, or performing any duty that has not already been fully performed by Software Patent Co.

  6.3. Software Patent Co hereby assigns, transfers, and conveys all of the Agreements identified in Exhibit B to Software Purchaser, and Software Purchaser hereby assumes the obligations set forth in such Agreements and agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Software Patent Co from and against any failure of Software Purchaser to perform its obligations under the Agreements in accordance with their terms. Software Patent Co and Software Purchaser shall jointly notify all parties to the Agreements of the foregoing assignment and assumption. It is mutually agreed that Software Patent Co shall retain all amounts previously paid to Software Patent Co under the Agreements and that, to the extent further payments may be made thereunder, Software Purchaser shall be entitled to receive them directly from such contracting parties, and, if such payments nonetheless are made to Software Patent Co, Software Patent Co shall remit such payments to Software Purchaser immediately.


  7.1. Software Patent Co shall execute and deliver such further conveyance instruments and take such further actions as may be necessary or desirable to evidence more fully the transfer of ownership of all of the Software to Software Purchaser. Software Patent Co therefore agrees:

     (a) To execute, acknowledge, and deliver any affidavits or documents of assignment and conveyance regarding the Software;
     (b) To provide testimony in connection with any proceeding affecting the right, title, or interest of Software Purchaser in the Software; and
     (c) To perform any other acts deemed necessary to carry out the intent of this Agreement


  8.1. The parties agree to hold each other's Confidential Information in for a period of five (5) years following the Effective Date of this Agreement. The parties agree, that unless required by law, they shall not make each other's Confidential Information available in any form to any third party or to use each other's Confidential Information for any purpose other than the implementation of this Agreement. Each party agrees to take all reasonable steps to ensure that Confidential Information is not disclosed or distributed by its employees or agents in violation of the terms of this Agreement.

  8.2. A party's "Confidential Information" shall not include information that: (a) is or becomes a part of the public domain through no act or omission of the other party; (b) was in the other party's lawful possession prior to the disclosure and had not been obtained by the other party either directly or indirectly from the disclosing party; (c) is lawfully disclosed to the other party by a third party without restriction on disclosure; (d) is independently developed by the other party; or (e) is required to be disclosed by any judicial or governmental requirement or order (provided that Recipient timely advises the disclosing party of the governmental demand for disclosure).

  8.3. Notwithstanding Sections 8.1 and 8.2, Software Patent Co agrees that from and after the Effective Date, and for so long thereafter as the data or information remains Software Trade Secrets, Software Patent Co shall not use, disclose, or permit any person not authorized by Software Purchaser to obtain any Software Trade Secrets (whether or not the Software Trade Secrets are in written or tangible form), except as specifically authorized by Software Purchaser.


  9.1. In furtherance of this Agreement, Software Patent Co hereby acknowledges that, from and after the effective date of this Agreement, Software Purchaser has acceded to all of Software Patent Co's right, title, and standing to:

     (a) Receive all rights and benefits pertaining to the Software and the Agreements;
     (b) Institute and prosecute all suits and proceedings and take all actions that Software Purchaser, in its sole discretion, may deem necessary or proper to collect, assert, or enforce any claim, right, or title of any kind in and to any and all of the Software, and the Agreements set forth in Exhibit B.
     (c) Defend and compromise any and all such action, suits, or proceedings relating to such transferred and assigned rights, title, interest, and benefits, and perform all other such acts in relation thereto as Software Purchaser, in its sole discretion, deems advisable.


  10.1 Software Patent Co represents and warrants that the Software conforms in all material respects to the functional Specifications set forth in Exhibit A. With that sole exception, OWNER ASSIGNS THE PROGRAM TO SOFTWARE PURCHASER "AS IS," AND OWNER DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WITH RESPECT TO THE PROGRAM, INCLUDING (WITHOUT LIMITATION) ANY WARRANTY OR MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Software Purchaser's exclusive remedy for breach of the foregoing warranty shall be to require Software Patent Co to correct any material nonconformance to such Specifications or, at Software Patent Co's option, to receive repayment in full of the Purchase Price.

  10.2. For a period of ___ months from the Effective Date, Software Patent Co shall provide two engineers, who are presently employees or consultants to Software Patent Co, and who are the most knowledgeable of the Software, to provide consulting services to Software Purchaser. All salaries, benefits and other obligations to these engineers shall be paid by Software Patent Co.

  10.3. For a period of ninety (90) days from the Effective Date, Software Patent Co shall provide primary warranty support for the Software pursuant to Software Patent Co's standard warranty policy. Such support shall not be materially different than the support provided by Software Patent Co for the Software during the six (6) months immediately preceding the Effective Date.


  11.1. Indemnification. Software Patent Co will defend, at its sole expense, any claim, suit or proceeding brought against Software Purchaser which is based upon a claim that (i) the Software infringes any patent, copyright, or trade secret, provided Software Purchaser gives Software Patent Co written notice within thirty (30) days of receiving notice of such claim and provides Software Patent Co reasonable cooperation in the defense of the claim. Software Patent Co will pay any damages and costs assessed against Software Purchaser (or payable by Software Purchaser pursuant to a settlement agreement) in connection with the proceeding.

  11.2. Remedies of Software Purchaser. In the event that a court directs Software Purchaser to cease distribution of the Software, Software Patent Co will either (i) modify the Software so that it is no longer infringing, or (ii) procure for Software Purchaser the rights necessary for Software Purchaser to exploit the Software at no expense to Software Purchaser. If Software Patent Co is unable to comply with either subsection (i) or (ii), Software Purchaser, at its option may either replace the infringing portions of the Software with non-infringing software at Software Patent Co's expense, or terminate this agreement and receive a complete refund of the purchase price.


  12.1. Binding. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of, and be binding upon, the parties hereto, together with their respective legal representatives, successors, and assigns.

  12.2. Choice of Law. This agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States and the State of California, as applied to agreements entered into and to be performed entirely within California between California residents. The application of the United Nations Convention for Contracts for the International Sales of Goods is hereby expressly excluded.

  12.3. Notices. Any notices given by either party hereunder will be in writing and will be given by personal delivery, national overnight courier service, or by U.S. mail, certified or registered, postage prepaid, return receipt requested, to Software Patent Co or Software Purchaser at their respective addresses specified above. All notices will be deemed effective upon personal delivery, or five (5) days following deposit in the U.S. mail, or two (2) business days following deposit with any national overnight courier service.

  12.4. Entirety and Amendment. This Agreement and all exhibits hereto constitutes the entire agreement and understanding between the parties with respect to the subject matter hereof and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous agreements, any representations or communications. The terms of this Agreement may not be amended except by a writing executed by both parties.

  12.5. Force Majeure. Neither party will be in default if its performance is delayed or becomes impossible or impractical by reason of any cause beyond such party's reasonable control.

  WHEREAS, the parties have executed this agreement in counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, as of the Effective Date first written above.

Q2) List the five problems which may motivate an organization to rnove
towards the database approach. Explain the significance of each one to
a manager of an organization?

Basic Principles to Remember
1. Motivating employees starts with motivating yourself
It's amazing how, if you hate your job, it seems like everyone else does, too. If you are very stressed out, it seems like everyone else is, too. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you're enthusiastic about your job, it's much easier for others to be, too. Also, if you're doing a good job of taking care of yourself and your own job, you'll have much clearer perspective on how others are doing in theirs.
A great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding your own motivations. The key to helping to motivate your employees is to understand what motivates them. So what motivates you? Consider, for example, time with family, recognition, a job well done, service, learning, etc. How is your job configured to support your own motivations? What can you do to better motivate yourself?
2. Always work to align goals of the organization with goals of employees
As mentioned above, employees can be all fired up about their work and be working very hard. However, if the results of their work don't contribute to the goals of the organization, then the organization is not any better off than if the employees were sitting on their hands -- maybe worse off! Therefore, it's critical that managers and supervisors know what they want from their employees. These preferences should be worded in terms of goals for the organization. Identifying the goals for the organization is usually done during strategic planning. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees (various steps are suggested below), ensure that employees have strong input to identifying their goals and that these goals are aligned with goals of the organization. (Goals should be worded to be "SMARTER". More about this later on below.)
-corporate  goals/ objectives.
-set up  the  standards  for  performance.
-set up  the  key  performance  indicators.
-align  the  kpi  with  the  corporate  goals.
-use  it  for  the  performance  appraisal.
3. Key to supporting the motivation of your employees is understanding what motivates each of them
Each person is motivated by different things. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees, they should first include finding out what it is that really motivates each of your employees. You can find this out by asking them, listening to them and observing them.
-to evaluate    staff  performance  performance.
-update   the  performance  data  monthly.
4. Recognize that supporting employee motivation is a process, not a task
Organizations change all the time, as do people. Indeed, it is an ongoing process to sustain an environment where each employee can strongly motivate themselves. If you look at sustaining employee motivation as an ongoing process, then you'll be much more fulfilled and motivated yourself.
-to  set  up  performance  management  system.
-to  set  up  individual  development  system.
5. Support employee motivation by using organizational systems (for example, policies and procedures) -- don't just count on good intentions
Don't just count on cultivating strong interpersonal relationships with employees to help motivate them. The nature of these relationships can change greatly, for example, during times of stress. Instead, use reliable and comprehensive systems in the workplace to help motivate employees. For example, establish compensation systems, employee performance systems, organizational policies and procedures, etc., to support employee motivation. Also, establishing various systems and structures helps ensure clear understanding and equitable treatment of employees.
-to  set  up  the  performance  review system/ policies/procedures.
-to  set up  a  performance  recognition  system.
-to  set  up  the  performance  rewards  system.

Q3) What are the various stages of a system development life cycle and
how are the efforts distributed over these phases?
Systems analysis is the study of sets of interacting entities, including computer systems analysis. This field is closely related to requirements analysis or operations research. It is also "an explicit formal inquiry carried out to help someone (referred to as the decision maker) identify a better course of action and make a better decision than he might otherwise have made
System Analysis
Systems analysis is a process of collecting factual data, understand
the processes involved, identifying problems and recommending fea-
sible suggestions for improving the system functioning. This involves
studying the business processes, gathering operational data, un-
derstand the information flow, finding out bottlenecks and evolving
solutions for overcoming the weaknesses of the system so as to
achieve the organizational goals. System Analysis also includes sub-
dividing of complex process involving the entire system, identifica-
tion of data store and manual processes.
The major objectives of systems analysis are to find answers for each
business process: What is being done, How is it being done, Who is
doing it, When is he doing it, Why is it being done and How can it be
improved? It is more of a thinking process and involves the creative
skills of the System Analyst. It attempts to give birth to a new effi-
cient system that satisfies the current needs of the user and has
scope for future growth within the organizational constraints. The
result of this process is a logical system design. Systems analysis is
an iterative process that continues until a preferred and acceptable
solution emerges

Systems are created to solve problems. One can think of the systems approach as an organized way of dealing with a problem. In this dynamic world, The subject System Analysis and Design, mainly deals with the software development activities.
After going through this lesson, you should be able to:
•   understand a system
•   understand the different phases of system developments life cycle
•   know the components of system analysis
•   know the components of system designing
29.3 Defining A System
A collection of components that work together to realize some objective forms a system. Basically there are three major components in every system, namely input, processing and output.

In a system the different components are connected with each other and they are interdependent. For example, Human body represents a complete natural system. We are also bound by many national systems such as political system, economic system, educational system and so forth. The objective of the system demand that some output is produced as a result of processing the suitable inputs.

Let us now describe the different phases and the related activities of system development life cycle in detail.
(a) System Study
System study is the first stage of system development life cycle. This gives a clear picture of what actually the physical system is? In practice, the system study is done in two phases. In the first phase, the preliminary survey of the system is done which helps in identifying the scope of the system. The second phase of the system study is more detailed and in-depth study in which the identification of user’s requirement and the limitations and problems of the present system are studied. After completing the system study, a system proposal is prepared by the System Analyst (who studies the system) and placed before the user. The proposed system contains the findings of the present system and recommendations to overcome the limitations and problems of the present system in the light of the user’s requirements.
To describe the system study phase more analytically, we would say that system study phase passes through the following steps:
•   problem identification and project initiation
•   background analysis
•   inference or findings
(b) Feasibility Study
On the basis of result of the initial study, feasibility study takes place. The feasibility study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability, meeting user’s requirements, effective use of resources and .of course, the cost effectiveness. The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to achieve the scope. In the process of feasibility study, the cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy.
(c) System Analysis
Assuming that a new system is to be developed, the next phase is system analysis. Analysis involved a detailed study of the current system, leading to specifications of a new system. Analysis is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system. During analysis, data are collected on the available files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Interviews, on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used for system analysis. Using the following steps it becomes easy to draw the exact boundary of the new system under consideration:
•   Keeping in view the problems and new requirements
•   Workout the pros and cons including new areas of the system
All procedures, requirements must be analysed and documented in the form of detailed data flow diagrams (DFDs), data dictionary, logical data structures and miniature specifications. System Analysis also includes sub-dividing of complex process involving the entire system, identification of data store and manual processes.
The main points to be discussed in system analysis are:
•   Specification of what the new system is to accomplish based on the user requirements.
•   Functional hierarchy showing the functions to be performed by the new system and their relationship with each other.
•   Function network which are similar to function hierarchy but they highlight the those functions which are common to more than one procedure.
•   List of attributes of the entities - these are the data items which need to be held about each entity (record)
(d) System Design
Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system, the new system must be designed. This is the phase of system designing. It is a most crucial phase in the development of a system. Normally, the design proceeds in two stages :
•   preliminary or general design
•   Structure or detailed design
Preliminary or general design: In the preliminary or general design, the features of the new system are specified. The costs of implementing these features and the benefits to be derived are estimated. If the project is still considered to be feasible, we move to the detailed design stage.
Structure or Detailed design: In the detailed design stage, computer oriented work begins in earnest. At this stage, the design of the system becomes more structured. Structure design is a blue print of a computer system solution to a given problem having the same components and inter-relationship among the same components as the original problem. Input, output and processing specifications are drawn up in detail. In the design stage, the programming language and the platform in which the new system will run are also decided.
There are several tools and techniques used for designing. These tools and techniques are:
•   Flowchart
•   Data flow diagram (DFDs)
•   Data dictionary
•   Structured English
•   Decision table
•   Decision tree
Each of the above tools for designing will be discussed in detailed in the next lesson.
(e) Coding
After designing the new system, the whole system is required to be converted into computer understanding language. Coding the new system into computer programming language does this. It is an important stage where the defined procedure are transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer language. This is also called the programming phase in which the programmer converts the program specifications into computer instructions, which we refer as programs. The programs coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system.
It is generally felt that the programs must be modular in nature. This helps in fast development, maintenance and future change, if required.
(f) Testing
Before actually implementing the new system into operations, a test run of the system is done removing all the bugs, if any. It is an important phase of a successful system. After codifying the whole programs of the system, a test plan should be developed and run on a given set of test data. The output of the test run should match the expected results.
Using the test data following test run are carried out:
•   Unit test
•   System test
Unit test: When the programs have been coded and compiled and brought to working conditions, they must be individually tested with the prepared test data. Any undesirable happening must be noted and debugged (error corrections).
System Test: After carrying out the unit test for each of the programs of the system and when errors are removed, then system test is done. At this stage the test is done on actual data. The complete system is executed on the actual data. At each stage of the execution, the results or output of the system is analysed. During the result analysis, it may be found that the outputs are not matching the expected out of the system. In such case, the errors in the particular programs are identified and are fixed and further tested for the expected output.
When it is ensured that the system is running error-free, the users are called with their own actual data so that the system could be shown running as per their requirements.
(g) Implementation
After having the user acceptance of the new system developed, the implementation phase begins. Implementation is the stage of a project during which theory is turned into practice. During this phase, all the programs of the system are loaded onto the user's computer. After loading the system, training of the users starts. Main topics of such type of training are:
•   How to execute the package
•   How to enter the data
•   How to process the data (processing details)
•   How to take out the reports
After the users are trained about the computerised system, manual working has to shift from manual to computerised working. The following two strategies are followed for running the system:
i.   Parallel run: In such run for a certain defined period, both the systems i.e. computerised and manual are executed in parallel. This strategy is helpful because of the following:
o   Manual results can be compared with the results of the computerised system.
o   Failure of the computerised system at the early stage, does not affect the working of the organisation, because the manual system continues to work, as it used to do.
i.   Pilot run: In this type of run, the new system is installed in parts. Some part of the new system is installed first and executed successfully for considerable time period. When the results are found satisfactory then only other parts are implemented. This strategy builds the confidence and the errors are traced easily.
(h) Maintenance
Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the system during its working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working environment. It has been seen that there are always some errors found in the system that must be noted and corrected. It also means the review of the system from time to time. The review of the system is done for:
•   knowing the full capabilities of the system
•   knowing the required changes or the additional requirements
•   studying the performance
If a major change to a system is needed, a new project may have to be set up to carry out the change. The new project will then proceed through all the above life cycle phases.


The practise , generally, follows the theory closely..

1.The existing system is evaluated and the deficiencies  are noted.

2.The system / information engineering and modeling is  carried out.

3.The new system requirements are analysed and
requirements are defined.

4.The proposed system is designed.

5. The plans for hardware and software are laid out,
as well as operating sytems, programming, communication, and security issues.

6.The new system is developed.

7.The system code is generated and test is carried.

8.The system is put into running for a while.

9. Establishment of the maintenance program.

10.Setting the review procedures.


When SDLC works, the system's

-need is well defined
-purpose has been established
-project is documented
-enhancement are programmed.

The system has been evaluated, monitored and
maintenance programmed.



When the SDLC doesn't ,

-there are problems in operating systems

-the process slows down

-often, the systems is carried out manually.

-the cost blows out.

The customers do not receive required service
and the hospitals earns bad reputation.



The role of the SDLC are the following

-identify the needs

-define the new requirements

-planning of the system

-designing of the system

-development of the system.
leading / directing
-acquisition of hardware / software systems

-testing / maintenance of the system


The criticism of SDLC is

-the development phase is not related to resources
and often the cost overshoots the budget.

The role of the SDLC  is  important  to    work  assignment.

work  assignment -- stage  1 [ introduction ]
The  SDLC   helps  the  stage  1  of  the  work assignment  by

-identify the needs   of  the  tasks  involved
-establish   the  purpose
-define the new requirements
-document  the  project

work assignment --stage 2  [ planning  /  development ]
The  SDLC   helps  the  stage  2  of  the  work assignment  by
-planning of the system  for  the  workload/tasks

-designing of the system  for  work process

-development of the system  for the  work process

work assignment --stage 3  [  implementation ]
The  SDLC   helps  the  stage  3  of  the  work assignment  by

-acquisition of hardware / software systems
-implementation   of the  system / the  process

-testing / maintenance of the system


work  assigment   --stage  4  [  monitoring  /  making  changes]

The  SDLC  helps  the  stage  4  of  the  work  assignment by

-controlling  the  flow  of  work

-monitoring  the  variance  in  work.

-making  changes  if  required.

-looking  at  the  option  of   new  system.


Q4) Discuss the various kinds of network topologies. Describe the
types of switching available in networks?

Kinds of network topologies.
A topology describes the configuration of a communication network. The way in which the elements of a network are mapped or arranged is known as a network topology. A topology describes the physical and the logical interconnection between the different nodes of a network. Network topologies are classified as physical, logical and signal topologies. A physical topology describes the mapping of the network nodes and the physical connections between them. Signal topology describes the paths, which the signals take while they pass over the network. The mapping of the paths taken by data as they travel over the network is known as a logical topology. The terms, signal topology and logical topology are closely related. Let us see the different types of network topologies in detail.

Types of Network Topologies

Bus Topology: In this type of network topology, all the nodes of a network are connected to a common transmission medium having two endpoints. All the data that travels over the network is transmitted through a common transmission medium known as the bus or the backbone of the network. When the transmission medium has exactly two endpoints, the network topology is known by the name, ‘linear bus topology'. In case the transmission medium, also called as the network backbone, has more than two endpoints, the network is said to have a distributed bus topology. Bus topology is easy to handle and implement and is best suited for small networks. But the downside of this topology is that the limited cable length limits the number of stations, thus limiting the performance to a less number of nodes.

Ring Topology: In a ring topology, every node in the network is connected to two other nodes and the first and the last nodes are connected to each other. The data that are transmitted over the network pass through each of the nodes in the ring until they reach the destination node. In a ring network, the data and the signals that pass over the network travel in a single direction. The dual ring topology varies in having two connections between each of the network nodes. The data flow along two directions in the two rings formed thereby. The ring topology does not require a central server to manage connectivity between the nodes and facilitates an orderly network operation. But, the failure of a single station in the network can render the entire network inoperable. Changes and moves in the stations forming the network affect the network operation.

Mesh Topology: In a full mesh network, each network node is connected to every other node in the network. Due to this arrangement of nodes, it becomes possible for a simultaneous transmission of signals from one node to several other nodes. In a partially connected mesh network, only some of the network nodes are connected to more than one node. This is beneficial over a fully connected mesh in terms of redundancy caused by the point-to-point links between all the nodes. The nodes of a mesh network require possessing some kind of routing logic so that the signals and the data traveling over the network take the shortest path during each of the transmissions.

Star Topology: In this type of network topology, each node of the network is connected to a central node, which is known as a hub. The data that is transmitted between the network nodes passes across the central hub. A distributed star is formed by the interconnection of two or more individual star networks. The centralized nature of a star network provides a certain amount of simplicity while also achieving isolation of each device in the network. However, the disadvantage of a star topology is that the network transmission is largely dependent on the central hub. The failure of the central hub results in total network inoperability.

Tree Topology: It is also known as a hierarchical topology and has a central root node that is connected to one or more nodes of a lower hierarchy. In a symmetrical hierarchy, each node in the network has a specific fixed number of nodes connected to those at a lower level.

Apart from these basic types of network topologies, there are hybrid network topologies, which are composed of a combination of two or more basic topologies. These network mappings aim at harnessing the advantages of each of the basic topologies used in them. Network topologies are the physical arrangements of network nodes and wires. What is interesting is that the inanimate nodes and wires turn 'live' for the transmission of information!

Network topologies are the most important part of the communication and the communication begins in the network. There are many kinds of network, the cabled network, the wireless technology, mobile technology, satellite communications and a combination of all these. Wireless network are increasingly becoming popular among many companies so that they need not spend too much on cabling and it is convenient too. However there are security issues in wireless technology and if the network has to be highly secure then cable is still the best bet.

A company may choose to sue any type of network but they still need a topology to design the communications system and plan the data flow and which order data will take while traveling. This is very important and for this you need to decide one of the topology formats. Even wireless networks need to conform to a star, mesh, or a tree topology.




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