good afternoon sir

please help me complete my assignments

1. Describe “The evolution of retail in India' in your words, highlighting the latest
trends in Indian retail. Critically examine the future of Indian retailing if global
players are allowed to enter India.
2. Many marketers have tried and failed with "Green marketing" programs. Identify
and describe the main problems with such campaigns. Recommend suitable
remedies to overcome the problems.
3. Identify tope three advertising agencies in India, and describe the main reasons
for their success. List out recent successful campaigns of these agencies.
4. In today’s india the growth of online marketing is going with upward trend.
Discuss the pros. & cons. Which segment of consumers and what kind of
products dominates online marketing

3. Identify tope three advertising agencies in India, and describe the main reasons
for their success. List out recent successful campaigns of these agencies.

Advertising a product is a creative strategy that helps in marketing the product of a company. Ad agency is the most dynamic industry which holds the most creative minds and strategic thinking. Indian advertising industry has achieved globalization as most of the companies are interested to increase business by promoting their products through a variety of media. Ad agencies bring awareness about the products, services and make them to appear on television, radio, newspapers, magazines as well as billboards in streets and cities.
As digital media is the advanced way of promoting the products to the audience, modern advertising agencies use TV, Internet and social media as the main source of advertisements. Companies come with innovative technologies and effective ideas to promote the product in a new way. Following is a list of Best Ad Agencies In India that have been succeeded in advertising, marketing and promoting the of company products.


1. McCann-Erickson India Ltd: It is a multinational advertising agency that is a subsidiary of the Interpublic Group of Companies. It was established in the year 1902 and offers its services in more than 120 countries in the world. It holds many branches and trained professional who come with the innovative ideas of promoting the products. Coca-cola, MasterCard commercial, Loreal Paris, Maybelline and Nescafé are some of its notable clients of the company.

2.. Mudra Communications Ltd: It is one of the leading brand management companies in India established in the year 1980. It is an advertising agency that was acquired by Omnicom group and renamed it as DDB worldwide. It holds offices in 15 cities across India and some of its successful campaigns of brands and products are Rasna, McDonalds, HDFC, Akai, Future Group , Ashok Leyland, Asian Paints, and Bigbazaar.

3. JWT Hindustan Thompson Associates: It is one of the oldest advertising agencies that have been involved in advertising and marketing the company products across 90 countries with 200 branch offices globally. It is the fourth largest agency network in the world and it is Flagship Company of WPP group. Nestle, Rolex, Johnson & Johnson, Ford, HSBC, Kellogg’s, Unilever are some of the notable campaigns done by the GWT professionals.
4. Ogilvy & Mather Ltd: Ogilvy & Mather is an international advertising and marketing agency that was founded by David Oglivy in 1948. It operates 450 offices in 120 countries across the world and holds talented professional to advertise the top brands. It is one of the reputed company in the world that advertises the top brands like Cadbury dairy milk and Vodafone in India.


4. In today’s india the growth of online marketing is going with upward trend.
Discuss the pros. & cons. Which segment of consumers and what kind of
products dominates online marketing

The ethernet switch and router market in India grew 7.24 per cent to over USD 226.4 million in the first quarter, indicating stronger demand ahead after seasonal lows and a slowdown, research firm IDC today said.
As per IDC’s APeJ Quarterly Switch and Router tracker, the Ethernet Switch market stood at $107.8 million in Q1 2014 growing 9.9% Quarter-on-Quarter (QoQ) but showing a decline of 9.8% from Q1 2013 Year-on-Year (YoY).
The router market for Q1 2014 in India outpaced the earlier quarters and stood at $82.7 million, with 68.2% QoQ and 40.1% YoY rise as a combination of optimism as well as deferred deals registered by some of the vendors in the market.
The Wireless LAN market in India witnessed a 17.6% increase QoQ and 10.5% YoY during 1Q 2014, according to IDC’s Quarterly APeJ Wireless LAN tracker. The Q1 2014 WLAN India market was pegged at $35.9 million. Despite the past trend of seasonal low in the last quarter of a year combined with the noticeable slow-down due to the elections, the numbers above show a relatively positive sentiment and have put the LAN & WLAN markets in India in a strong position for the upcoming quarters.
Enterprises made the largest contribution to the Ethernet Switch and Router market in India, continuing the trend from the last few quarter whereas the service provider segment showed signs of revival with the highest growth rate in the recent quarters.
IDC believes that the wider acceptance of 3rd Platform that represents the increasing popularity of social networking, mobility, big data & analytics, and cloud among enterprises was the prime reason for the growth and future prospects in the market.
“The investments in the conventional networking infrastructure will be affected by the highly-revered Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) and will evolve with time to give a noticeable revenue stream to vendors. Additionally, the in-house manufacturing of white-label box network devices by the big customers is also a blow to the incumbent networking vendors who are already reeling under margin pressures,” said Suman Bisht, Market Analyst – Enterprise Networking, IDC India.
“Inexorable data growth, strong competition, and consumer demands are the major factors driving the growth of network market in India. With market-friendly policies and leapfrog disruptions like LTE rollouts, the market is expected to sail through the tough waters ahead,” commented Gaurav Sharma, Research Manager – Enterprise, IDC India.

The Indian Ecommerce Industry today maybe in nascent stage today but has the positive potential of an amplified growth in the near future.It is changing the way businesses are done and sowing the seeds for a whole new economy. Rising incomes and a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country. The internet is opening up new avenues for the people in rural India which is changing the lifestyles, the quantity and quality of consumption which is helping change mindsets in the rural areas.

A quick glance at the eBay India Census 2012 report indicates that e-commerce is here to stay. eBay Census 2012 research findings were based on an analysis of all online buying and selling transactions by Indians on eBay between July 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. At eBay India today, every one minute a mobile accessory changes hands and every two minutes a mobile handset. It has 4,306 e-commerce hubs today, of which 1,015 are hubs in rural India, indicating that consumers in the smaller towns of India are a major force in this online growth story.

According to IBEF (Indian Brand And Equity Foundation) The sector is classified into four major types, based on the parties involved in the transactions –

•   Business-to-Business (B2B)
•   Business-to-Customer (B2C)
•   Customer-to-Business (C2B) and
•   Customer-to-Customer (C2C)

According to an Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) report, the overall e-commerce market in India has recorded a robust CAGR (Componded Annual Growth Rate) of 54.6 per cent and crossed USD10.0 billion during 2007–11. It is estimated to add another USD4 billion and reach USD14 billion by end-2012. Segment-wise, B2C dominated the sector with a 56.0 per cent share in 2010–11. Together, the B2C-C2C segments have shown significant growth; their aggregate market size stood at USD9.9 billion in 2011, while that for B2B segment was estimated at around USD48.8million. However, B2B’s acceptance is on an upward trend due to its rising awareness amongst Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), which are close to 13 million in number.

The United Nations estimates that just 31% of India’s population lives in urban areas, compared to 50% in China, 74% in Russia and 85% in Brazil. As a result, sales from consumers outside of metropolitan areas already make up half of total sales at some leading online retailers in India.

Flipkart today is valued at Rs1,000 crore, and speculation is rife that the e-firm, in fact, is worth at Rs5,000 crore. It recently raised $20 million. Other Indian players – Myntra, Jabong, India Plaza and Junglee – are also eating into the e-commerce pie.

Notably as can be seen in the image below, on the investment front, the sector enjoyed inflow of around USD800 million in 2011, up from USD110 million in 2010. Investments made in e-commerce businesses by PE firms alone more than quadrupled to USD467 million in 2011 compared to USD99 million in 2010. The number of deals increased to 78 compared to just 22 in 2010. The robust deal activity continued in 2012, with USD242 million invested during the January-April period. The trend over the period reflects that the average deal size has more than doubled due to increasing traction in e-commerce activities, which requires larger investments for growth.

However, the major issues which the ecommerce companies face are as follows:

1. The challenge of having a good distribution network but many ecommerce giants are developing their own distribution networks as delivering charges form a major component of the product cost – ranging between USD1.0–4.0 per item.

2. The huge investment made in ecommerce ventures has the potential to give beneficial returns in the long run only if the customer base increases.

3. The turn around time for delivering a product can be reduced to 1-2 days only if the distribution system is improved and this also will help retain old customers and add to the list of new customers.

4. Retaining an existing customer is more profitable for a company since acquiring a new customer; on average costs USD15.0–20.0.

5. Only the ones who can face these issues and retain customers and survive online can get a piece of the pie of the online market as fundamentally weaker companies would lose out to established players . Hence a focus on improving the distribution system and retaining the existing customers is the key to ecommerce success.

On an average day on eBay in India:

According to a study by Forrester , India is expected to record the highest growth in the Asia Pacific region during 2012–16. The trend would shift with the online retail segment contributing equally to the total market size, considering it is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. The B2C segment would continue to lead the e-commerce market, thanks to the budding Indian Internet population, supporting demographics, ease of payment modes and customer-centric innovative policie
Customer Retention shows a sharp increase as a marketing goal in the 2015 edition of Octane India Annual e-Marketing Study. While majority of marketers still vote for Customer Acquisition as their primary marketing goal, Customer Retention sees an 80% growth since 2011.
Other key findings of this annual research study:
* Top 3 marketing investment areas for India marketers in 2015: Social Media Marketing, Websites & Email Marketing
* Content Marketing is earning its place with India marketers. 61% marketers believe ‘Blogs and Newsletter’ is the most effective content marketing tool. However for Education (63%), Retail & e-commerce (71%) and Travel (55%) sectors, Social Media acts like a more robust tool for content marketing
* India marketers report Increased Brand exposure as the leading benefit of Social Media Campaigns. Lead generation from Social Media is reported lowly at No. 5 in terms of benefits/Social Media ROI.
* 57% India marketers think that in 2015 integrated campaigns will lead to ‘significant impact’ on conversion rates, this shift saw an increase of 84% (57% in 2015 vs 31% in 2011) over the last 5 years
* Mobile marketing continues to grow. 40% India marketers think that over 50% of emails in 2015 will be viewed on mobile devices, seeing a YoY growth of 25%
* Over the last 2 years marketers are getting more dependent upon their ESPs (Email Service Providers) for their campaign success, seeing a growth of 70% since 2012
Octane has released the 5th edition of its Annual India e-Marketing Study today. This Study captures key trends on how online marketing in India has changed over the last 4 years (2011 – 2014) and predicts what India marketers are planning for 2015 in-terms of strategy, budgets and plan for online marketing. These insights are derived from a study with an active participation of 465+ India marketers from 399 organizations and 12 industry verticals and notably the support of Industry associations – DMAi, IAMAI and RAI. is India’s first multi-channel platform for integrated Digital 1:1 marketing campaigns on Email & SMS. Marketers can send integrated campaigns on a clean, spam-free marketing platform; built on intelligent software which is available on demand online (pay as you go, zero upfront cost, zero lead time to start) or onsite (deployed at location). More information at:
Commenting on its release, Punit Modhgil, Managing Director & Co-founder, Octane Marketing ( said, “Digital in India has arrived. In 2015, it is no longer the future. Therefore, the theme of this year’s report reflects upon how online marketing is indeed the DNA of India marketing plans.”
The study report also looks at the forecast for India online marketing for 2015, in-terms of specific trends and predictions for 2015. According to Mr. Modhgil, “Digital 1:1 marketing (Email and SMS) is growing in India, with BFSI and Retail sectors at the forefront of employing this technique for greater marketing ROI. Additionally, more India marketers feel that integrated campaigns have a significant impact on campaign success with more and more marketers deploying such campaigns.”
Before the Internet, organizations had only two options for attracting attention for their business: To buy expensive advertising or get third party ink from the media.
The web has changed the rules in today’s marketing world and organizations that are keeping up with the changes are finding great success.
Let’s take a look at some of the Internet marketing differences in today’s fast-paced world.
Pros and Cons of Internet Marketing – The Rules Have Changed
We’re fortunate to be living in this time in history, the time of another important communications revolution, but if you are not on board with the new rules of change as an Internet marketer, you might be hanging up your belt sooner than you think.
There is no doubt that people are solving the issues they face by turning to the web, but what we as network marketers need to understand is that there are certain ways of doing business on the web in order to be successful.
Inbound Marketing Tools Used for Internet Marketing
It has come to the attention of many businesses that the importance of Internet marketing, particularly as an inbound marketing tool, provides better results and revenue than traditional marketing.
More and more business are investing in content marketing campaigns, website upgrades and social media to name just a few.
To gain an understanding of why Internet marketing has grown in such popularity over the years, a person should first gain an insight of the advantages that this digital marketing tool presents for any size of business.
Some Highlighted Good Points of Internet Marketing
Marketing via the Internet can reach targeted customers more effectively delivering immediate results… real time marketing tools can bring business more benefits than other tools.
Web-based marketing is more cost effective… this form of marketing does not require large amounts of investment compared to what businesses have done in the past for mass media marketing.
The world just became smaller with Internet marketing, allowing business from one part of the world to market to another part of the world as if they lived in the same town.
Internet marketing can bring personalized and measurable results by customizing campaigns based on consumer profiles and behaviors allowing the marketer to gauge which particular marketing tool works best for their business.
Internet-based marketing can leverage the power of social media which in turn can help build relationships. Engagement is key and being able to interact with targeted customers in real-time can help build customer, supplier relationships.
Marketing on the Internet can level the playing field for small and large businesses alike, and is available 24 hours a week, 365 days a year.
Like every good thing, there are some down falls to this type of marketing.
The Cons of Internet Marketing
People are DROWNING in data because of the flood of information and the explosive blast of Internet marketing noise that has invaded our home and our mind.
Because of this, many consumers are ignoring Internet advertising making legitimate businesses lose traffic and of course revenues in the process.
Much of the marketing done on the Internet is not being taken seriously if it’s not done professionally.
First impressions matter whether you use the Internet or traditional marketing and advertising channels, so it would be a smart move to stay consistent and professional in whatever you do for marketing.
Unfortunately because of the flood of businesses popping up all over the net, this leaves you with large amounts of competition to deal with… the more competition, the more difficult and expensive it is to gain the attention of your targeted audience.
Getting a better understanding of the power of Internet marketing by giving a comprehensive look at its advantages and disadvantages will prepare business owners and digital marketers for years to come.

\ Online Display Advertising
Picture display advertising online as clickable magazine and billboard advertisements. Filled with eye-catching visuals and concise copy.

One word, visual. Even if someone doesn’t end up clicking on your display ad, they’re still getting an impression of your company. It’s a more modern add on to a TV or billboard promotion because it allows the viewer to click on it.

In that same vein, banner ads have adapted to not just being one static image. There’s incredible versatility in the way companies are able to present their brand through visuals.

Without putting resources into effective audience targeting, it’s very difficult to reach the demographics your company is searching for. Unlike social media where you’re able to tell who your audience is based on bio and conversational attributes, this freedom of information does not carry over to display advertising.

Unfortunately, despite the growing focus on including rich visuals in advertising, display seems to be becoming a thing of the past. There’s no way to you to post a display banner on Twitter and no social proofing or viral factor is built in. In HubSpot’s 10 Horrifying Stats About Display Advertising, it states “you are more likely to complete NAVY SEAL training than click a banner ad” and if that doesn’t sum up where display advertising is headed, we’re not sure what will.

An age old and much loved technique to reach a large targeted audience usually through the purchasing of an email contact list.

Email allows you to have complete control over content. You can put as much or as little content as you want with the added bonus of adding video or imagery.

By using applications like MailChimp you’re able to track how successful each email campaign was through open rate, click-through rate, etc. Knowing this will help you optimize future campaigns. These analytics will also help tell you which email addresses are no longer active allowing you to keep your email list up to date.

How many of you open every email you receive from a mailing list you’re on? If you’re someone who does, I applaud you, but many of us just move the message immediately to the trashcan. Email has become saturated. So saturated, in fact, that many people just ignore emails that seem blatantly salesy and promotional. Because of this, it’s extremely difficult to consistently get your message out to customers that matter.

Similar to display advertising, social proof is not built in, and depending on where you’re getting your email list, there’s a risk that it may not be up to date.

Search Engine
Search engine optimization and marketing is a form of Internet marketing that promotes websites by helping to promote their visibility in search engine results. This is through paid and keyword advertising.

Unlike these previous forms of advertising, search engine is highly optimized. Someone has entered in a keyword that has described your product and is directly interested in what you have to offer.

Search is also the most popular medium for locating any and all information. This means that if your target customer is looking for a specific service or product you offer, you’re able to use paid advertising through search in order to reach them.

Search’s biggest pro (its ability to target) is also one of its biggest disadvantages for lesser-known companies. If someone doesn’t know what you offer, there’s a huge decrease in the possibility that they’ll be able to find you through search if they aren’t actively looking

SEM and SEO are expensive! You pay-per-click, which means that if you’re using a competitive keyword like ‘Social Media Marketing’ you’ll be paying a lot in order to remain relevant on search. SEO also takes a long time to spin up, which means you could be waiting a while to see your ROI.

Social Media Traffic
Social media traffic pertains to gaining traffic, attention, or a following through social media sites.

As we mentioned above, social media allows businesses to target a certain demographic. Unlike these other advertising methods, social proof and a viral factor is built in.

Promoting your brand successfully on social media can also be free, if you’re willing to put in the time. By using keywords to find your target audience, you’re able to curate relevant content, join in industry-related Twitter conversations, and engage with other professionals and target customers all in your sphere.

The relationships that are attainable on social media help businesses to craft more optimized and targeted campaigns in other areas of advertising due to the insight gained on these social mediums.

The real-time nature of social media, while one of its greatest qualities, can also be a hindrance for advertising. The endless updates and posts can easily distract your customer from your brands message. It’s hard to break through the noise and get your potential customer to focus on your what you’re selling.

Maintaining and growing a following on social media as a brand, that’s not already largely established, takes a pretty big time commitment. Posting regularly and engaging frequently is just part of what will bring you success on social media. If you’re not willing to put in the man-hours, it may be in your interest to look at search engine or email, where money can take care of time commitment.

However, Socedo addresses both of these issues. By bringing you the relevant messages from target customers based on bio and conversational keywords, Socedo is able to make sure you don’t miss out on the opportunity to find your ideal buyer persona. Worried about spending time on engagement? Socedo also takes care of that by automatically favoriting the relevant Tweet, and following that user. Socedo also offers automated direct message capabilities and in-depth analytics to help you track your success and improve upon your social media presence.

Long story short, if you’re willing to put in the time, social media prevails in providing the best lead generation, customer outreach, and brand development when it comes to advertising your company

Advantages of Internet Marketing
Low-cost promotion strategy. There’s no doubt that Internet marketing requires no large capital investment and there is no physical capital to worry about, as everything is online.
Each a global market. Online marketing also lets your business reach customers around the world. Because your business isn’t limited to a particular geographic location, you can reach a much wider target audience and have a higher chance of success.
Reach your target market easily. Online marketing can also help you reach your target market immediately and potential customers will be able to find you with a quick search.
Convenient payment collections. With e-commerce enabled on your website, you’ll also be able to collect payment easily and conveniently.
24/7 advertising. Your online marketing will be available and visible 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Affiliate marketing. You can earn passive income from affiliate marketing combined with your Internet marketing.

Disadvantages of Online Marketing
No instant trust. Because online advertising is everywhere, there is no way for potential customers to tell if the marketing is good or bad. It can take some time for a business marketing online to gain the trust of users.
Competition. One of the biggest downsides to online marketing is the stiff competition. It can be very difficult to make your business and information stand out with companies around the world competing.
Skill and knowledge required. Online marketing today also requires a great deal of knowledge and skill to be successful.
Many businesses find it helpful to consult with or hire an advertising firm or design company to help them with their marketing strategy.
Because online marketing comes with so much competition, it’s worth a second thought before you jump in and try to market your own business online.
Internet marketing offers so many benefits when done properly and helps you connect with a broader customer base.
Avoid wasting your time and money and consider a web design and marketing company to help you stand out and see better sales.

1. Describe “The evolution of retail in India' in your words, highlighting the latest
trends in Indian retail. Critically examine the future of Indian retailing if global
players are allowed to enter India.

Retailing in India came with evolutionary patterns from Kirana store to Super market. This sector was un-organized in the initial stage, and after that it carried forward by the textiles industries through the dealer model. Now it is growing as supermarket and hypermarket. The main drivers of the retail evolution in India are buying behavior of the customer, increase in disposable income of middle class, infrastructure development and changing customer choice. The target segments of retailers are the younger middle class earners which belong to more than 20% of total population.
The growth in retail sector also comes through innovative ideas. As retailers are providing the innovative buying options at different store like as cash & Carry, lowest price day (Sabse Sasta din) which help to increase the customer base. Initially organize retail was involve in the apparels and footwear. Now retail has included the food chains, book & CD store (landmark) and electronics (CROMA store a Tata retail chain). These all changes occurred at a passage of time so; it is an evolution rather than revolution..

Evolution of Retail in India:

The journey of retail started long back through the Kirana store in India. This is first effort by local shopkeeper. The shopping centre concept comes into the existence in year 1869, with Mumbai Crawford market and Kolkata’s New Market in year1874. The underground shopping complex Palika Bazaar in New Delhi was established in the late 1970s and mini malls on the Banglore’s Brigade Road come into existence in 1980s.

Government of India entered into the rural India by franchisees called Khadi Bhandar. These stores serve as outlets for products made by village industry i.e. Khadi, matchsticks, incense sticks, decorative items made from wood and earth, ahinsak (non-violent) honey, ahinsak leather items etc.

The industries came in the retailing in 1980s through dealer network. In 1980s, the big group of textile industry i.e. Raymond, S.Kumar, Bombay dyeing and Grasim came with this concept of retailing. In the manufacturing sector, the pioneers were DCM group & Bata. Titan came with an organized retail concept and establishes number of showroom for premium watches.

All the above effort for retailing came by the manufacturer. But the pure retailer approach came in the existence in 1999s with the establishment of “Ansal's Plaza” in Delhi and Crossroads in Mumbai. After the 2003, many other organizations either planning to come into the retail market through the retail store or initiated the establishment work. Currently some popular groups which are operating the organized retail in different formats are following.

Table-1: India’s leading retailers and their format
Retailer Format
RPG Retail Hyper market(Spencer's),Specialty Store(Health & Glow)
Piramal's Discount store(Trumart)
Pantaloon Retail Super Market(Food Bazaar), Hyper market(Big bazaar),Mall(Central)
K Raheja Group Supermarket(TBA), Hyber market(TBA)
Tata/Trent Hyper market(star Bazaar India)
Landmark Group Hyper market(TBA)
Reliance Group Super market
Others Discount store(Subhiksha, Margin free, Apna Bazaar),Super market(Nilgiri's), Specialty Electronics(Vivek's, Vijay sales)

From the above long journey shows that organized retailing in India came through a long path and many changes. It means it is an evolution rather than sudden, revolutionary change.

Drivers of Evolution:
Accelerating Household Income in India:

After the 1991, the income of the educated middle class houses is increasing at the rate of 3.6%. It is expected that this rate will be 5.3% in future. The rate of growth in the urban middle class is 4.6% as compare to the growth rate in the rural middle class households. It is also expected that average real household disposable income (income minus taxes, adjusted for inflation) will reach $6,977. Following graph is showing the estimated growth in disposable income of Indian middle class.

Average household disposable Income
(thousands, Indian rupees)

Change in Population Structure and Choice:
The Indian population structure is changing now. It consists more than 60% of people who are below the 30 years. The people (20-30 year age group) who affect the buying pattern of the family are more than 20% of whole population. After the 1991, the income of younger middle class is increase at higher rate because of open of Indian economy. The choice of this new young middle class earning people is also changing and they now shifted from local brand to global brand, Dhaba to Macdonald, bread to burger and most important is from money saving to money enjoying. This younger middle class is the main target segment of the retail industry.

Table-2: Population pattern of India

Infrastructure development:
After 2003, India is recognized for all round development in the important infrastructure sectors. The government is investing hugely on the road, port, aviation and basic need. All these factors attract the foreign investor to invest in retail sector. Now, the reach of information has easier than previous years because of the development in infrastructure i.e. Telecommunication, IT, Internet and satellite TV. Now customer is more aware of the product and their features because of the Internet accessibility. The
reach of satellite TV channels is helping in creating awareness about global products for local markets. So, rapid development in the infrastructure sector is one of the important factors to accelerate the retail in India.

Future growth in Retail:
The retail business in India is still highly fragmented. Nevertheless, with global biggies like Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Marks & Spencer, Gap etc. raiding the Indian retail space, coupled with domestic biggies like Ambanis and Mittals giving tough competition.

As till 2006, the India’s total retail market was US$ 202.6 billion which was expected to grow at a compounded 30 per cent over the next five years. But in year 2008, due to recession in Indian economic growth its pace slow down. The organized retail segment is growing at the rate of 25-30 per cent per annum. The revenues from the this sector are expected to triple from the current US$ 7.7 billion to US$ 24 billion by 2010.The share of modern retail is likely to grow from its current 2 per cent to 15-20 percent over the next decade.

Table-3: Growth in Indian retail

Source: Economist intelligence unit and A.T.Kearney report

Some new mega projects of the big retailer are in pipeline stage i.e. Wal-Mart, Tesco; while some foreign retailer has already establish their retail store in India and now are in expansion phase. Some major upcoming retail houses are following.

Wal-Mart’s is about to enter India in a tie up with Bharti group and plans to open "hundreds of stores" all around in wholesale sector. The financial details haven’t been released yet as India still don’t allow FDI in retail sector.

Mukesh Ambani has established a separate company, Reliance Retail Limited, which is 100 percent owned and would invest Rs.25, 000 crore in the retail business over the years. Stores are be set up in phases, and around 1,600 stores will be in place.

The New York-based fashion retailer Saks Fifth Avenue has tied up with realty major DLF Properties to set up shop in a mall in New Delhi.
Hong Kong-registered Tommy Hilfiger has entered into a tie-up with Arvind Brands, among India's largest integrated mills and a leading menswear manufacturer. Tommy Hilfiger has recently set up shop in the country.
Madura Garments, a division of the Aditya Birla Nuvo Group, has distribution licensing arrangement with Hong Kong Based Esprit. It currently operates 12 stores in India and has put plans in place to set up over 100 stores in the coming three years.
Tesco, the UK’s largest retailer is entering India with a wholesale cash-and-carry business. At the same time, Tesco is also partnering with giant Indian conglomerate Tata Group for retail business in India. Its new wholesale business will supply merchandise to Tata's retail arm, Trent, for its Star Bazaar hypermarkets.

ITC's is planning to expansion of its Wills and John Player's retail stores to 300 in the next couple of years.

Key Challenges:

The retailing is growing at a tremendous pace in India but many environmental factors are creating barriers to it. Therefore, the industry is also fearing and trying to overcome these problems. The retail sector growth can be faster than the current growth rate if retail organization crosses following hurdles:

The organized retail industry in India is faced with stiff competition from the unorganized sector. The local shopkeepers are making cartel for wholesale buying which help them to reduce the cost of inventory. Small traders also oppose to Foreign Direct Investment in retail industry. So, government is prohibiting foreign investment in real estate business. Another factor which is hampering the retail sector most is; high price of quality real estate and infrastructure. It is high because of very high stamp duty on transfer of property. Shortage of retail space in central and downtown locations also hinders the growth of retail industry. Land-use conversion is time consuming and becoming complex. For settling property disputes, it consumes lot of time and rigid building laws makes procurement of retail space difficult. The entry barriers are also high as non residents are not allowed to own property except they are of Indian origin and customs duties are levied on import of goods in India.

The Indian retail sector came with evolutionary patterns from Kirana store to Super market. This sector was un-organized in the initial stage, and then it moved through the franchise model. As with the change in the regulation it transformed in pure retail market. so, we can say that retail come from evolution rather than a revolution.  


What is green marketing?
Green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term.] Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing.
Green, environmental and eco-marketing are part of the new marketing approaches which do not just refocus, adjust or enhance existing marketing thinking and practice, but seek to challenge those approaches and provide a substantially different perspective. In more detail green, environmental and eco-marketing belong to the group of approaches which seek to address the lack of fit between marketing as it is currently practiced and the ecological and social realities of the wider marketing environment.\
The Green Marketing Mix
A model of a green marketing mix should, of course, contain all 4P’s:
•   Product: A producer should offer ecological products which not only must not contaminate the environment but should protect it and even liquidate existing environmental damages.
•   Price: Prices for such products may be a little higher than conventional alternatives. But target groups like for example LOHAS are willing to pay extra for green products.
•   Place: A distribution logistics is of crucial importance; main focus is on ecological packaging. Marketing local and seasonal products e.g. vegetables from regional farms is more easy to be marketed “green” than products imported.
•   Promotion: A communication with the market should put stress on environmental aspects, for example that the company possesses a CP certificate or is ISO 14000 certified. This may be publicized to improve a firm’s image. Furthermore, the fact that a company spends expenditures on environmental protection should be advertised. Third, sponsoring the natural environment is also very important. And last but not least, ecological products will probably require special sales promotions.
Additional Social Marketing "P's" that are used in this process are as followed:
•   Publics-- Effective Social Marketing knows its audience, and can appeal to multiple groups of people. "Public" is the external and internal groups involved in the program. External publics include the target audience, secondary audiences, policymakers, and gatekeepers, while the internal publics are those who are involved in some way with either approval or implementation of the program.
•   Partnership-- Most social change issues, including "green" initiatives, are too complex for one person or group to handle. Associating with other groups and initiatives to team up strengthens the chance of efficacy.
•   Policy--Social marketing programs can do well in motivating individual behavior change, but that is difficult to sustain unless the environment they're in supports that change for the long run. Often, policy change is needed, and media advocacy programs can be an effective complement to a social marketing program.
•   Purse Strings-- How much will this strategic effort cost? Who is funding the effort?



Tata motors ltd. is setting up an eco-friendly showroom using natural material for itsflooring and energy efficient lights.

The taj chain, is in the process of creating eco-rooms which have energy efficient mini bars, organic bed linen and napkins made up of recycled papers. The rooms will haveCFL¶s or Led¶s.

Launched a low cost water purifier made up of natural ingredients.

Developing indica EV, an electric car that would run on polymer lithium ion batteries.2. Recently launched Samsung solar mobile guru.3. Battery operated L.G TV.4. Introduction of C.N.G in
Delhi.5. Badarpur Thermal Power station of NTPC in
Delhi is devising ways to utilize coal-ash thathas been a major source of air and water pollution.6. Barauni refinery of IOC is taken steps for restricting air and water pollutants.

Philips Light's "Marathon"
Philips Lighting's first shot at marketing a standalone compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulb was Earth Light, at $15 each versus 75 cents for incandescent bulbs. The product had difficulty climbing out of its deep green niche. The company re-launched the product as "Marathon, "underscoring its new "super long life" positioning and promise of saving $26 in energy costs over its five-year lifetime. Finally, with the U.S. EPA's Energy Star label to add credibility as well as new sensitivity to rising utility costs and electricity shortages, sales climbed 12 percent in an otherwise flat market.
Car sharing services
Car-sharing services address the longer-term solutions to consumer needs for better fuel saving sand fewer traffic tie-ups and parking nightmares, to complement the environmental benefit of more open space and reduction of greenhouse gases. They may be thought of as a "time-sharing" system for cars. Consumers who drive less than 7,500 miles a year and do not need a car for work can save thousands of dollars annually by joining one of the many services springing up, including Zip Car (East Coast), I-GO Car (Chicago), Flex Car (Washington State), and Hour Car (Twin Cities).
Electronics sector
The consumer electronics sector provides room for using green marketing to attract new customers. One example of this is HP¶s promise to cut its global energy use 20 percent by the year 2010. To accomplish this reduction below 2005 levels, The Hewlett-Packard Company announced plans to deliver energy-efficient products and services and institute energy-efficient operating practices in its facilities world wide.


(b) What values underline green marketing?


Eliminate the concept of waste.

Reinvent the concept of product.

Make prices reflect actual and environmental costs.

Make environmentalism profitable.

Bringing out product modifications.

Changing in production processes.

Packaging changes.

Modifying advertising.

It ensures sustained long term growth along with profitability.

It saves money in the long run, though initially the cost is more.

It helps the companies market their products and services keeping theenvironment aspects in mind.

It helps in accessing the new markets and enjoying the competitiveadvantage.

Most of the employees also feel proud and responsible to be workingfor an environmentally responsible company.



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