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Question
classify change.elaborate the contemporary issues involved in bringing effective change in an individual group in organisation.

Answer
The next process is to classify the requested change.

Figure 5. Classify the change
Activities:
After the RFC is initiated, the next process is to classify the request.
The following table lists the activities involved in classifying the change. These include:
•   Identifying the priority of the change.
•   Identifying the category of the change.
•   Checking and validating the configuration, assessing th risk, and updating the RFC.
Table 6. Activities and Considerations for Classifying the Change
Activities   Considerations
Identify the priority of the change   Key questions:
•   Is this a low, medium, high, or emergency priority change?
Priority levels should be designed with specific time frames and should support the business requirements. A typical priority ranking includes:
o   Low. The change can wait until the next scheduled release.
o   Medium. Because of its impact level, the change cannot wait until the next scheduled release.
o   High. The change needs to be released as soon as it is complete and has been tested.
o   Emergency. The change needs to be released as soon as possible; many of the approval and the development steps are abbreviated.
Best practices:
•   The Change Manager and RFC initiator might need to negotiate the priority if they are not in agreement about it. Define an escalation process.
If there are too many emergency and high-priority changes, review the reasons for the volume. This may indicate that staff members are avoiding the process or that the process is not effective.
Identify the category of the change   Key questions:
•   What category does the change belong to?
Categories take into account the resource requirements for the change, the impact to the business of doing or not doing the change, organizational experience with the change, and new technology or processes. Typical categories include:
o   Standard change. This category is low risk because it has a set release path that has been proven to be successful, it has minimal business impact, and it has a known set of release procedures.
o   Minor change. This category affects a small percentage of users and resources. Also, the risk of an outage is less because of the organization’s experience in implementing this type of change.
o   Significant change. This category has a moderate effect on users, resources, and the business. It might involve downtime of services and may also involve a situation in which the organization has less experience with the product, infrastructure, or the client involved in the change.
o   Major change. With a high risk and high cost, this category involves the greatest potential impact on users and resources. It might also affect a business-critical system and could involve downtime of the service.
o   Emergency change. This category is high risk because of the urgency of release and the minimal time in which to test it. It is relatively uncertain if the change will succeed, and there is a big impact on the business if it fails. This type of change is often a result of an urgent incident. These changes are escalated to the Change Advisory Board/Emergency Committee (CAB/EC) for fast-track approval. (For more information about the CAB, see Process 4: “Approve the Change.”)
o   Unauthorized change. This level involves changes that occur outside of the agreed-to change management policies or that are specifically forbidden.
Best practices:
•   Effective use of standard changes is important for keeping the process manageable and usable. Evaluate minor changes that go through the CAB process for recategorization as future standard changes.
•   Be as specific as possible in defining what is and is not a particular type of change.
contemporary issues involved in brining effective  change
variety of differences between people in an organization.
  That sounds simple, but diversity encompasses race, gender, ethnic group, age, personality, cognitive style, tenure, organizational function, education, background and more.
Diversity not only involves how people perceive themselves, but how they perceive others. Those perceptions affect their interactions. For a wide assortment of employees to function effectively as an organization, human resource professionals need to deal effectively with issues such as
communication, adaptability and change. Diversity will increase significantly in the coming years. Successful organizations recognize the need for immediate action and are ready and willing to spend resources on managing diversity in the workplace now.
Benefits of Workplace Diversity
An organization’s success and competitiveness depends upon its ability to embrace diversity and realize the benefits. When organizations actively assess their handling of workplace diversity issues, develop and implement diversity plans, multiple benefits are reported such as:
Increased adaptability
Organizations employing a diverse workforce can supply a greater variety of solutions to problems in service, sourcing, and allocation of resources. Employees from diverse backgrounds bring individual talents and experiences in suggesting ideas that are flexible in adapting to fluctuating markets and customer demands.
Broader service range
A diverse collection of skills and experiences (e.g. languages, cultural understanding) allows a company to provide service to customers on a global basis.
Variety of viewpoints
A diverse workforce that feels comfortable communicating varying points of view provides a larger pool of ideas and experiences. The organization can draw from that pool to meet business strategy needs and the needs of customers more effectively.
More effective execution
Companies that encourage diversity in the workplace inspire all of their employees to perform to their highest ability. Company-wide strategies can then be executed; resulting in higher productivity, profit, and return on investment.
Challenges of Diversity in the Workplace
Taking full advantage of the benefits of diversity in the workplace is not without its challenges. Some of those challenges are:
Communication - Perceptual, cultural and language barriers need to be overcome for diversity programs to succeed. Ineffective communication of key objectives results in confusion, lack of teamwork, and low morale.
Resistance to change - There are always employees who will refuse to accept the fact that the social and cultural makeup of their workplace is changing. The “we’ve always done it this way” mentality silences new ideas and inhibits progress.
Implementation of diversity in the workplace policies - This can be the overriding challenge to all diversity advocates. Armed with the results of employee assessments and research data, they must build and implement a customized strategy to maximize the effects of diversity in the workplace for their particular organization.
Successful Management of Diversity in the Workplace - Diversity training alone is not sufficient for your organization’s diversity management plan. A strategy must be created and implemented to create a culture of diversity that permeates every department and function of the organization.
Recommended steps that have been proven successful in world-class organizations are:
Assessment of diversity in the workplace - Top companies make assessing and evaluating their diversity process an integral part of their management system. A customizable employee satisfaction survey can accomplish this assessment for your company efficiently and conveniently. It can help your management team determine which challenges and obstacles to diversity are present in your workplace and which policies need to be added or eliminated. Reassessment can then determine the success of you diversity in the workplace plan implementation.
Development of diversity in the workplace plan - Choosing a survey provider that provides comprehensive reporting is a key decision. That report will be the beginning structure of your diversity in the workplace plan. The plan must be comprehensive, attainable and measurable. An organization must decide what changes need to be made and a timeline for that change to be attained.
Implementation of diversity in the workplace plan - The personal commitment of executive and managerial teams is a must. Leaders and managers within organizations must incorporate diversity policies into every aspect of the organization’s function and purpose. Attitudes toward diversity originate at the top and filter downward. Management cooperation and participation is required to create a culture conducive to the success of your organization’s plan.
Recommended diversity in the workplace solutions include:
Ward off change resistance with inclusion. - Involve every employee possible in formulating and executing diversity initiatives in your workplace.
Foster an attitude of openness in your organization. - Encourage employees to express their ideas and opinions and attribute a sense of equal value to all.
Promote diversity in leadership positions. - This practice provides visibility and realizes the benefits of diversity in the workplace.
Utilize diversity training. - Use it as a tool to shape your diversity policy.
Launch a customizable employee satisfaction survey that provides comprehensive reporting. - Use the results to build and implement successful diversity in the workplace policies.
As the economy becomes increasingly global, our workforce becomes increasingly diverse. Organizational success and competitiveness will depend on the ability to manage diversity in the workplace effectively. Evaluate your organization’s diversity policies and plan for the future, starting today.
===========================
1.   Structure and Process. Large retail stores like Wal-Mart or Sears, seeking to achieve decentralized operations and create a culture of decision-making autonomy so stores can get close to customers and local tastes, might ask corporate and regional managers to leave stores alone and allow store managers to do their own thing. Interference with the stores, it is hoped, will decrease if managers are asked to butt out and let local decisions and actions prevail. But what happens when the next major problem arises? Corporate or regional managers swoop down on the stores, bringing centralized solutions. As an alternative, they could change structure instead. Increasing the span of control for corporate or regional managers, for example, would militate against involvement in the stores. Large spans foster decentralization and autonomy at lower levels by making it more difficult to actively meddle in a larger number of stores' strategy and operations. Behavioral change of top managers can foster behavioral and culture change in the stores.
2.   People. Bring in fresh blood and thinking. Rotate managers with different views of competitive conditions or operations. Supply different, needed skills or capabilities from the outside. New people, ideas, and strategies can lead to behavioral and performance changes that, in turn, can affect new ways of thinking and culture change.
3.   Incentives. Randy Tobias once remarked that the culture of the old AT&T rewarded "getting older." The culture, over time, became stifling and bureaucratic. Appeals to managers to change and team-building exercises didn't work. But CEO Tobias and others after him changed incentives to reward performance, not getting older. New people were attracted by the new incentives and the opportunities presented (see previous point) and the culture began to change. The same emphasis on incentives can be seen over the years at J&J, GE, and other companies. Incentives affect behavior and performance and attract new resources and capabilities, which can lead to culture change.
4.   Changing and Enforcing Controls. It's important for companies to increase feedback, evaluate performance, and take remedial action. Emphasis should be on tweaking strategy implementation activities to achieve desired results. It's vital to learn from performance, including mistakes, and use the lessons learned to change incentives, resources, people, methods and processes, and other factors to foster strategic and operating goals. It's also necessary to hold managers accountable for performance results, a formal mantra of Robert Wood Johnson, Jack Welch, and many others. These actions or emphases will help to shape new behaviors, task interactions, and ways of thinking that will create or define a culture of learning and achievement.
#################################. Enumerate various practical problems of implementing change in organization.
Suggest some suitable methods and techniques involved in overcoming
resistance to change with practical examples.


It used to be an accepted fact that everyone resists change. We now know that it is not true. There are many reasons why a person resents (negative attitude) and/or resists (active opposition to) a particular change. Likewise, there are many reasons why a person accepts (neutral attitude) and/or welcomes (positive attitude) a particular change.

Why People Resent or Resist Change

There are many reasons why employees of  all sizes/ shapes may react negatively to change.

Personal Loss. People are afraid they will lose something. They might be right or they might be wrong in their fear. Some of the things they might lose are as follows:

Security. They might lose their jobs through a
reduction in force or elimination of their jobs.
Automation and a decline in sales often bring about
this feeling.

Money. They might lose money through a reduction in salary, pay, benefits, or overtime. Or, expenses such as travel may be increased because of a move to another location that is farther from their home.

Pride and satisfaction. They might end up with jobs that
no longer require their abilities and skills.

  Friends and important contact. They might be moved to another location where they will no longer have contact with friends and important people. This loss of visibility and daily contacts is very serious for people who are ambitious as well as those with a strong need for love and acceptance.

Freedom.They might be put on a job under a boss who
no longer gives them freedom to do it "their way."
Closer supervision that provides less opportunity
for decision making is a dramatic loss to some
people.

Responsibility.Their jobs might be reduced to menial
tasks without responsibility. This may occur when a
new boss takes over or through changes in methods or
equipment.

Authority. They might lose their position of power and authority over people. This frequently happens when re organization takes place or when a new boss decides to usurp some of the authority that an individual had.

Good working conditions. They might be moved from a large private office to a small one or to a desk in a work area with only a partition between people.

Status.Their job title, responsibility, or authority
might be reduced from an important one to a lesser
one with loss of status and recognition from others.
This also happens when another layer of management
is inserted between a subordinate and manager.

No Need.

The typical reaction is, "What's the matter with the way things are now?" Or, "I don't see any reason why we should change."

More Harm Than Good.

This is even stronger than the previously mentioned "No Need". People really feel it is a mistake   that it will cause more problems that it is worth. Sometimes this reaction is justified. It is particularly common when people at the "bottom" of an organization feel that top management makes changes without knowing what is going on "down on the line."

Lack of Respect.

When people have a lack of respect and/or negative attitude toward the person responsible for making the change, there is a strong tendency to resent and even resist it. Their feelings do not allow them to look at the change objectively.

Objectionable Manner.

Sometimes change is ordered in such a way that the people resent and/or resist because they do not like being told what to do.

Negative Attitude.

People with a negative attitude toward the organization, the job and/or the boss are very apt to resent or resist change no matter what it is.

No Input.

One of the most significant reasons is the fact that the people who felt they should have been asked were not asked for their ideas concerning the change.

Personal Criticism.

Whether or not the change is actually criticizing the things that were previously done or the way in which they were done, people may look upon the change as a personal criticism.


Creates Burdens.

Some changes add more work and with it confusion, mistakes and other negative results.

Requires Effort.

The change will obviously require more effort. Much of the effort accomplishes very little, if anything. Whenever changes require more time and effort, people are apt to resent and even resist them, particularly if no rewards accompany the extra effort.

Bad Timing.

The timing of a change is very important to its acceptance. If it comes at a time when people are already having problems, the change is usually resented and probably resisted by those who are supposed to implement it.

Challenge to Authority.

Some people are testing their power and influence by simply refusing to do it.

Secondhand Information.

Some people are very sensitive about the way they learned of the change. If they found out about if from a secondhand source, they might resist it until they hear it "from the horses mouth."

What  is the Real Reason for Resentment or Resistance?

Managers often have difficulty in determining the real reason why subordinates resent and/or resist a change. They may feel that the subordinates are just being stubborn or that they are afraid they will lose something. The real reason may be entirely different.
------------------------------------------------------------------
IN  MANAGING   ORGANIZATIONAL  CHANGE

ONE   SET   OF  PEOPLE  ACCEPT  CHANGE--WHY?

WHY PEOPLE ACCEPT OR   WELCOME CHANGE

While some people resent and/or resist change, others accept and welcome it. The degree to which these opposites occur depends on many factors. Some of the reasons for positive reaction to change are described in this section.

Personal Gain.

When changes are made, some people may gain such things as the following:

Security.

They feel more secure in their job because of the change. Perhaps more of their skills will be used.

Money.

They may get a salary increase, more benefits, an incentive or profit sharing programme, or more overtime.

Authority

They may be promoted to a position of greater authority, or they may get a new boss who gives them more authority than they had under the previous boss.

StatuslPrestige.

They may get a new title, a new office, or a new responsibility, their boss may have assigned more responsibility, or they may have a new boss who assigns more responsibility than the previous one did.

  Better working conditions.

They may get a new working schedule, new equipment, or other conditions that make the job easier or more enjoyable.

Self satisfaction.

They may get new satisfaction or feeling of achievement because of the change. Perhaps the new job gives them more of a change to use their abilities, or the boss may eliminate some of the obstacles that had prevented them from doing their best.

Better personal contacts.

They might be located in a place where they will have closer contact with influential people. Their visibility is very important to some people.

Less time and effort.

The change may make their job easier and require less time and effort.

Provides a New Challenge.

While some people look at a change negatively because it requires effort and perhaps risk, others will be eager for it because it provides a new challenge.

Likes/Respects the Source.

If people have a positive attitude toward the person or the department they represent, they will probably accept and even welcome the change.

  Likes Manner.

People who are asked to do things instead of told to do them may react very positively. Someone described the most important words in the English language as follows:

Five most important words:"I am proud of you."
Four most important words:"What is your opinion?"
Three most important words:"If you please."
Two most important words:"Thank you."
One most important word:"You (or possibly We)."

The tone may have much to do with resentment or acceptance.

Reduces Boredom.

Changes that are designed to reduce boredom will be welcomed by some.

Provides Input.

One of the most powerful approaches to get acceptance is to ask for input before the final decision is made.

Desires Change.

Some people will react to change by thinking or saying, "It's about time." In other words, they have been anxious for the change to occur.

Improves Future.

Some changes will open up new avenues for future success in the organization. People will be provided with opportunities to show what they can do. Future possibilities include promotion, more money, more visibility, more recognition and more self¬satisfaction.

Right Time.

Some changes come at just the right time. If more money is needed to pay current bills or to buy a luxury item like a video recorder or a boat or to take a vacation, the change will be welcomed.
===============================
IN  MANAGING  THE ORGANIZATIONAL   CHANGE,
WE  NEED  TO  MANAGE  BOTH   THE  TYPES  OF  PEOPLE  GROUP.
the organisation I am  referring to

The  organization, I am  familiar  with  is  a
-a  large  manufacturer/ marketer of  safety products
-the products  are  used  as  [personal  protection safety] [ industrial  safety]
-the products  are  distributed through  the distributors as well as  sold directly
-the  products  are  sold  to various  industries like  mining/fireservices/defence/
as  well  as  to  various  manufacturing  companies.
-the  company employs  about  235  people.
-the  company  has  the following  functional   departments
*marketing
*manufacturing
*sales
*finance/ administration
*human resource
*customer  service
*distribution
*warehousing/  transportation
*TQM  

ADOPT   THE   FOLLOWING MODEL  FOR  CHANGE

1.Explain  the  reason for  change  with  facts. If there  are  risks  ,
acknowledge  them  but  explain  why  it  is worth taking  the risks.

2.Objectively explain the  benefits  that  could  result from the
change.

3.Get  ready  and sell  the  benefits  at  all times.

4.Anticipate  objections.

5.Listen  in  depth.

6.Seek  questions  and  clarifications  /  answer them.

7.Invite  participation  and  ask for  suggestions .

8.Avoid  surprise   because this  stirs  up  unreasoning opposition.

9.Acknowledge  the  rough  spots  and  show  you  plan  to
  manage  them.

10.Establish  a  timetable.

11.Set  standards  and  explain  your  expectations.

12.Contact  the  informal  leaders  and  use  their  resources.

13. Acknowledge  the  staff  cooperation / support.

14.Provide  feedback  on  the  progress.

15.Reinforce  the  positive .
16.Keep  the  two way  communication  open.


====================================================
HOW   DO  YOU   INITIATE CHANGE

Often it is easier to carry out a job if there is a specific plan to follow. When major changes are to be installed, careful planning and preparation are necessary. Strengthening the forces promoting the change and weakening resistance to it are the main tasks.

CREATE A CLIMATE FOR CHANGE

How people react to proposed changes is greatly influenced by the kind of climate for change that the manager/supervisor has created in the department.

HOW IS THE RIGHT KIND OF CLIMATE CREATED?

Supervisors and managers who have enthusiasm for progress and change build a healthy climate.

Creating the right climate is more than just passing on changes. It involves:

Encouraging employees to seek ways of improving their jobs.

Seeking suggestions and ideas from employees.

This requires the manager/supervisor to listen and seriously consider suggestions. It is easy to see that there is a great deal of ego involvement in coming forth with an idea for improvement. Change can become an exciting and dynamic way of life. The manager/supervisor determines the climate in which they initiate change.

GET READY TO SELL

Much of the difficulty in getting co operation stems from the employees lack of understanding of how the change will affect them. With a little effort, managers/supervisors can find most of the answers to employees' questions before they are even asked. Answers to these questions would be useful.

What is the reason for the change? Whom will it benefit and how? Will it inconvenience anyone, if so, for how long? Will training or re training be necessary? When does it go into effect?

Armed with the answers to these questions a manager/supervisor can head off many objections and can develop a plan to present the change.

IDENTIFY THE SOURCES OF HELP

Why should you, the managers and supervisors, shoulder the burden alone? Staff can frequently be a great help in preparing to sell a change by explaining technical aspects and demonstrating new techniques.

One of the most overlooked sources of help in introducing changes are the informal leaders in the work group. With their help the job becomes easier. Giving recognition to informal leaders puts them in a co operative frame of mind.

Since union stewards are often informal leaders, their co operation ought to be solicited. The backing of union stewards makes the job easier.

ANTICIPATE OBJECTIONS

Change that upsets routines, requires new knowledge or skills, or inconveniences people are bound to meet with some objections or resistance. Looking at a change from the employees point of view will usually be enough to help determine what their objections are likely to be. Knowing the objections, we can, with a little creative thought, turn these objections into advantages.

Showing the staff with reason or logic will not do the job. Managers/supervisors have to convince people that the change is really best for them and that will not happen until their objections are dealt with seriously.

SELL BENEFITS

Everyone is concerned with, "What's in it for me?"

"Will the change mean more satisfying work. greater security. opportunity to show what I can do. more responsibility. more pay. less fatigue. less confusion. greater independence?"

The benefits used to motivate people to co operate should be put on as personal a level as possible. It would be dishonest, however, not to recognise any disadvantages that a change may bring. These can usually be countered with long range benefits.

One of the techniques that is helpful in identifying the characteristics and values of the proposed changed condition is a "Word Picture". The picture makes the new condition desirable in the minds of the staff.

A)One of the ways this concept of "word picture" is used, is the physical change in office layout or new equipment or any other physical changes.

B)To picture or model a change in policy, organization or operation is more difficult than the physical change. The principle is the same. The picture can help in communicating the desirability of the change and in fine tuning the change because it makes it possible to discuss how things will operate. It may take the form of a flow chart, an organization chart or a description of relationships.

To use this approach for deciding whether to initiate a change, you can take the following steps:

Describe as clearly as possible the present situation.

Describe as clearly as possible the desired situation.

Analyse what specific changes will have to take place in the key factors involved to produce the desired situation. Look at such key factors as bosses, employees, equipment, physical environment, policies and procedures, work methods, materials and time. Identify the relevant factors.

Assess the strengths of the forces promoting the desired situation and of those resisting it.

Determine what action to take. Choices are:

A)Do nothing, the resistant forces are stronger than the forces promoting change.

B)Act to strengthen the promoting forces and/or to weaken resistance, by concentrating one's efforts on the key factors.

LISTEN IN DEPTH

Employees have a right to be heard. If employees are treated with respect, they probably will respond in kind. They will feel better too, if they know their concerns have been considered.

FOLLOW UP

After having conscientiously sold the benefits of a change, it is tremendously important that the managers/supervisors see that their promises have materialized. A sincere interest in how the change has affected the employee and a willingness to make adjustments, help build the climate in which future changes will be initiated.

===============
CHANGES AND COMMUNICATION

The following steps will help you to minimize  resistance:

1.Explain why. Provide all the facts about the reason for changing. If there are risks, acknowledge them but explain why the risk is worth taking.

2.Objectively explain the benefits that could result from the change.

3.Seek questions/clarifications and answer them.

4.Invite participation and ask for suggestions because the people involved know the situation best.

5.Avoid surprise because this stirs unreasoning opposition more than any other factor.

6.Acknowledge the rough spots and explain how you plan to smooth the change.

7.Set standards and explain your expectations.

8.Contact the informal leaders and use their resources.

9.Acknowledge and reinforce the staff's co operation and give them feedback on the progress.

10.Keep the two way communications open for suggestions and corrections.
###################################  

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