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Marketing/advertising management


1)a)examine a direct mail promotional piece you has recently received. Look at every element of the package and discuss its role in promoting consuming action.
1-b) compare the advantages and disadvantages of the different consumers promotional techniques with respect to alternatives of a) getting trial from new consumers b)holding present customers and c) building brand image.
2a)evaluate the judgement of a brand manager of budweiser beer who decides that the goal of his advertising should be remind people of the brand.
2-b)what is the great idea concept? Identify some campaigns that would quality attempt to specify a set of DAGMAR objectives that might the DAMAGAR approach inconsistent with the hope of obtaining a truly brilliant creative advertising campaign?
3a)do people first from beliefs and their attitudes or the reverse? Do people change attitudes before changing behavior?
b)can you expand the list of seven positioning strategies mentioned inthe text?

1 A.Examine a direct mail promotional piece you (or somebody you know) has recently received. Look at every element of the package, and discuss its role in promoting  consumer action.
-direct mail's biggest advantages is its ability to make personal one-to-one contact with your prospect.
Quick to produce. You can prepare and mail a small promotion within days or weeks. Direct mail is perfect for quickly testing prices, offers, and potential audiences. You have complete control over the media, the audience, and your offer.
Quicker response. Not only is direct mail quicker to prepare, but response time to direct mail is usually quicker as well. You can project the final results of a mailing quickly and accurately. You can build an advertising campaign with more confidence by testing small lists, then building to larger lists.
Highly targeted. Using carefully developed lists, you can target your mailings more selectively than you can with most other media. You can reach almost any market segment, buyer profile, or area of the Treasure Coast you feel is most appropriate for your business.
Less competition. Your advertising message does not have to compete with other advertising messages. And, your competitors are less apt to know your current strategy.
More personal. Not only can letters be personalized via mail-merging techniques, but you can use more informal language in writing your letter and you can direct your letter to the specific interest of the reader.
Enhance newspaper advertising. Build on customer awareness by complimenting your print advertising with the impact of targeted mail.
Easy to respond to. The inclusion of an order card and return envelope makes it convenient for the consumer to respond to direct mail.
List of loyal customers. Direct mail allows you to build and maintain a list of prime prospects for your future direct mail campaigns.
Direct-mail advertising is the process of sending offers or promotions by mail to current customers or other consumers. Direct-mail advertising pieces often include a sales letter, brochure, order form and prepaid envelope. Small companies will also advertise in direct-mail magazines or inserts with other companies to save on costs. A number of benefits accrue to using direct-mail advertising.
Highly Targeted
One major advantage of direct-mail advertising is that it is highly targeted.
Highly Measurable
Direct-mail advertising is highly measurable. A small company can easily measure the results of one or multiple direct-mail campaigns. This can largely be accomplished by keying the coupon used in a direct-mail campaign. track of responses to each mailing and calculate the profitability.
Direct marketing can be highly individualized. Computer programs allow small companies to address consumers by name in direct-mail campaigns. Therefore, the message of the sales letter, for example, is directed at a particular person as if the owner is speaking directly to them.
Cost Effective
Direct-mail advertising is cost effective. Companies can easily design colorful or eye-appealing brochures with their computers and desktop software and have thousands of copies printed affordably by a print vendor.
Highly Flexible
Direct-mail advertising is highly flexible. A small company can use postcards to market its wares to save on costs.

1B.Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the different consumers promotions techniques with respect to alternatives of (a) getting trial from new consumers, (b) holding (retaining) present customers, and (c) building brand image.

Consumer Sales Promotion and Methods of Promotion

1.Price discounts or price-off deals:
Price deals are probably the most commonly used promotional techniques.
A price deal for a customer means a reduction in the price of the promoted product and the consumer saves money on purchase.
Colgate fresh energy ice blue gel (Colgate India) 50 gm pack, Rs. 5.50 off on normal price, now available at Rs. 12.50 only.

Price discounts are communicated through POP advertising, window displays, sales people, advertising in newspapers, magazines and TV ads.Such promotions work very well in gaining the attention of consumers, particularly at the point of purchase among similar brands and may also encourage unplanned or impulse buying.

2.Price pack deals
Price pack deals are also called value packs. They can take any of the two forms:

1.Bonus pack and 2.Banded pack.

In case of a bonus pack, an additional quantity of the same product is offered free when the standard pack size of the product is purchased at the regular price.


Godrej Colour Gloss triple action shampoo, offers 20% extra free. 100ml +20ml.

Sunsilk shampoo (HLL) 400ml bottle gives 33% more free.

Dettol shaving cream get 40% extra free.

Bisleri – 20% extra free (Bada Bottle, Same price)

The Banded pack is when the marketer develops special packs of the product containing more quantity but the price is proportionately low. This is a method to “load” the consumer up with the product. This technique is often used to introduce a new large size of the product or to encourage continued usage and also to increase consumption.

The offer is termed as “banded pack” when 2 or more units of the products are sold at a reduced price compared to the regular price.

Another variation of this technique is “buy 1 get 1 free” or some similar offer, it could be “same for less” or “more for the same.”


Fairglow soap – buy 3 get 1 free,

The main advantage of this tool is that extra product may encourage increased usage and help sustain the habit. Also among other similar brands, a bonus pack stands out at the point of sale.

3. Refunds And Rebates:

Refund is the repayment of total money paid for purchase, while the rebate represents repayment of only part of the money paid for the purchase. Refund offers seems to work very well in guaranteeing the trial of a product or service since there is no risk involved for the customer because of the promise of total refund of the purchase amount.

Refunds and Rebates play an important role in the consumer durable segment because the product price is reduced to a great extent because of the rebate offer.


“Taj mahal Tea” guaranteed its taste by openly telling the public of its offer that “ agar chai pasand nahi aaie, toh pure paise vaapas”!

After having launched it new product Whisper Ultra Thin, confident about the product quality and confident about offering the promised product, to increase its trail and usage, had started the money back offer.


A coupon entitles a buyer to a designated reduction in price for a product or service. Coupons are the oldest and most widely used form of sales promotions. Coupons bear an expiry date and cannot be redeemed after the cut off date.

The main Advantages of coupons are:

1.Encourage brand switching

2.Stimulate trial for a product

3.Take off the attention from price

Fair and Lovely dark circle removal cream to create more product trials has coupons in the newspapers and magazines which avail you of Rs.10/- off on a 40 gm pack.

5. Contests And Sweepstakes:

Contests and sweepstakes can draw attention to a brand like no other sales promotions technique.A contest has consumers compete for prizes based on skill or ability. Winners in a contest are determined by a panel of judges or based on which contestant comes closest to a predetermined criterion for the contest.

Contests were very often used earlier where people has to write slogans, poems, stories etc. generally “I like the product because …” and the best ones won prizes. But off lately, contests are becoming less and sweepstakes increasing. People are more willing to play on luck rather than participate by showing their abilities.

A sweepstake is a promotion in which winners are determined purely by chance.

Consumers need only to enter their names in the sweepstakes as a criterion for winning. Some popular types of sweepstakes also use “scratch-off cards”.

Contests and sweepstakes often create excitement and generate interest for a brand, but the problems of administering these promotions are substantial. One problem is that the game itself may become the consumer’s primary focus, while the brand becomes secondary. The technique thus fails to build long-term affinity for the brand.


Britannia khao world cup jao campaign has taken the market by a swing.

Under the offer you collect points available on Britannia biscuit packets and exchange 100 points for a scratch card, which has various gifts and the 100 world cup tickets. The offer was actually introduced during the last world cup and had shown phenomenal results. Sale increased tremendously; there was an increase in the sales by 25%, claims the company. So it is being done this year too. This year too the contest is showing good results.


Getting consumers to simply try a brand can have a powerful effect on future decision-making. Sampling is a sales promotion technique designed to provide a consumer with an opportunity to use a brand on a trial basis with little or no risk. Saying that sampling is a popular technique is an understatement. Sampling is particularly useful for new products, but should not be reserved for new products alone. It can be used successfully for established brands with weak market share in specific geographic areas.

Advantages of Sales Promotion
Sales promotions have a significant effect on the behaviour of consumers and trades people. Such promotions can bring in more profits for the manufacturers because they permit price discrimination.
1. Price discrimination:
Producers can introduce price discrimination through the use of sales promotions. They can charge different prices to different consumers and trade segments depending on how sensitive each segment is to particular prices.Coupons, special sales events, clearance sales and discounts are examples to explain the phenomenon.

Often such price discrimination are offered in specific cities in the country,Bajaj Auto Ltd. started the scheme on 20th august 2001, where by if you buy a Bajaj Spirit two-wheeler you get Rs.3000/- off, valid only in Ahmedabad.
2. Effect on consumer behaviour:
As sales promotions are mostly announced for a short period, customers may feel a sense of urgency and stop comparing the alternatives. They are persuaded to act now rather than later.With every 500g pack of Tang, you get a free Tang glass. Offer valid only till stocks last.
3. Effect on trade behaviour:
Short-term promotions present an opportunity and encourage dealers to forward buy. This forward buying ensures that retailers won’t to go out of stocks. As dealers have more than the normal stocks, they think it advisable to advertise in local media, arranged displays and offer attractive promotion deals to consumers. These actions help in increasing the store traffic. Buy 2 dozen shampoo sachets & get 2 sachets free.
4. Regional Differences:
The South is generally characterised by greater degree of going out and people tend to drink outside the house. The Tamilian, consumer in particular, is value oriented, rational and looks up to film stars, while the Keralite is more international in his outlook. The Bangalorean is as Cosmopolitan as his Mumbai or Delhi counterpart. Such factors have to be taken into consideration while providing incentives to the customers.
In mid 80s, Philips decided to launch a special project in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh for their rural buyers. So, for the Tamil Nadu market, they created a special campaign “The Super Star of the House” and made the cine idol Rajnikant their brand ambassador as in that state he is popularly known as “Superstar”. Whereas, in Andhra Pradesh, they launched their brand as “Mega Star of the House” as Chiranjeevi was taken as their brand representative. Sales promotion was done by organizing various ‘super shows’ and ‘mega-shows’ for the masses in states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh respectively. Both these campaigns became a major success

Disadvantages of Sales Promotion
While sales promotion is a powerful and effective method to produce immediate short term positive results, it is not a cure for a bad product or bad advertising. In fact, a promotion is speed up the killing of a bad product.

1. Increased price sensitivity
Consumers wait for the promotion deals to be announced and then purchase the product. This is true even for brands where brand loyalty exists. Customers wait and time their purchases to coincide with promotional offers on their preferred brands. Thus, the routine sales at the market price are lost and the profit margin is reduced because of the discounts to be offered during sale-season.
‘The Diwali Bonanza Offers’ on electronic goods.
2. Quality image may become tarnished:
If the promotions in a product category have been rare, the promotions could have a negative effect about its quality image. Consumers may start suspecting that perhaps the product has not been selling well, the quality of the product is true compared to the price or the product is likely to be discontinued because it has become outdated.
The Smyle Powder offer of “Buy 1 and get 2 free” went on and on. Ultimately people stopped asking for the product as the on-going sales promotion strategy made the customers perceive it to be a cheap and an inferior product.
3. Merchandising support from dealers is doubtful:
In many cases, the dealers do not cooperate in providing the merchandising support nor do they pass on any benefit to consumers. The retailer might not be willing to give support because he does not have the place, or the product does not sell much in his shop, or may be he thinks the effort required is more than the commission/benefit derived.
4. Short-term orientation:
Sales promotions are generally for a short duration. This gives a boost to sales for a short period. This short-term orientation may sometimes have negative effects on long-term future of the organization. Promotions mostly build short-term sales volume, which is difficult to maintain. Heavy use of sales promotion, in certain product categories, may be responsible for causing brand quality image dilution.


2A.Evaluate the judgment of a brand manager of Budweiser beer who decides that the goal of his advertising should be to remind people of the brand.

The advertising objectives largely determine which of two basic types of advertising to use; product or institutional.
Institutional advertising tries to develop goodwill for a company rather than to sell a specific product. Its objective is to improve the advertiser's image, reputation, and relations with the various groups the company deals with. This includes not only end-users and distributors, but also suppliers, shareholders, employees, and the general public. Institutional advertising focuses on the name and prestige of a company. Institutional advertising is sometimes used by large companies with several divisions to link the divisions in customers' minds. It is also used to link a company’s other products to the reputation of a market-leading product.
Product advertising tries to sell a product. It may be aimed at the end user or at potential representatives and distributors. Product advertising may be further classified as pioneering, competitive, and reminder advertising.
Pioneering advertising tries to develop primary demand, that is demand for a product category rather than a specific brand. It's needed in the early stages of the adoption process to inform potential customers about a new product. The first company to introduce a new technology to its industry doesn't have to worry about a competitive product since they alone have the technology. They have to sell the industry on the advantages of the new technology itself. Pioneering advertising is usually done in the early stage of the product life cycle by the company which introduces an innovation.
Competitive advertising tries to develop selective demand; demand for a specific manufacturer’s product rather than a product category. An innovating company is usually forced into competitive advertising as the product life cycle moves along. After pioneering technology is accepted and most manufacturers are supplying competing products, the innovator is forced to sell the advantages of his specific design over that of the competition. This is usually the situation in a mature market.
Reminder advertising tries to keep the product's name before the public. It is useful when the product has achieved market domination. Here, the advertiser may use "soft-sell" ads that just mention or show the name as a reminder. Reminder advertising may be thought of as maintenance for a product with the leadership position in the market.
Of course none of the above classifications are exclusive. Some companies combine elements of the institutional ad with product advertising. The classifications are merely aids in developing the objectives which the company sets for their ads.

Advertising is a form of communication, generally for a fee, with whom you represent a customer, the characteristics of a product/service for commercial purposes. The elements that characterize an advertising campaign can be summarized in three:
•   it’s a message that is persuasive, for a fee,
•   is transmitted from a source identified,
•   has a commercial purpose.
Advertising’s phases
Basically an advertising campaign is divided into phases which lead to the purchase of a product by a customer.
The first phase is that in which, somehow, his attention is called by the product: we need to inform him of the existence of the product, to release the shadows, bring to the fore, to make known the characteristics and strengths (phase awareness). The second phase – which passes from ignorance of the product on the market to his knowledge – must be to buy the product at the credibility of its potential audience: the product is valid, the company that produces it is reliable, are clear and its features and notes, for example, conditions of employment (phase of knowledge).
The third phase is one of the most important, the potential client in this moment, knows the product, appreciate the quality, welcomes, but in any case it does not see in it a real need.
During this stage, it will be necessary to try to convince the customer that the product is right for him, and that, for example, other similar products are certainly lower (phase of persuasion).
In the fourth stage we get the customer to want to buy the product, that is, we give the reasons for the actual purchase, passing it, in other words, from a situation of general appreciation of the product to their own desire to do so. The last phase is when the customer actually buys the advertised product (phase of the grounds).
Why do we Advertise?
From the above we can easily deduce that advertising serves to inform, persuade and motivate potential customers (not merely to know something, to inform), but also has a strategic significance for the company’s image in whole or brand the product belongs. It is also clear that, for the role that advertising is to get to potential customers, what is decided in the definition of advertising programs and their contents, expresses a way of being of the company towards its public reference to this aspect, it plays a key role in the complex processes of communication, as we have seen, the company in the performance of their institutional purposes.
However today, we live in what was defined as the information age, literally “dipped” in an endless ocean of messages, which of course, makes it extremely difficult and complex the design of any new communications program.
In particular, is very important choose well our information that must be transmitted trying to “tune” the wavelength of the target audience, identifying the mode of time and place that best are suitable because messages arrive in the determinants most opportune moment and truly be able to involve information that you want to convey to potential customers. And, today more than ever, need to build on a very important factor: the image of the company, the real treasure.
When Advertising is no use
Advertising can be usefully exploited to support, to sell a bad product? No! Advertising is useful, it achieves its goals, sells, only if the products are of good quality. Because this is the goal of each campaign: we invest money to make a good product on the market the best, best in its class, best of all those available to the competition. This should not be confused when ridiculous proposals are welcome from gullible buyers (those who have never seen telesales jewelry, paintings, clocks, low value, advertised as products of the highest quality and offered at very high prices). Here is not the advertising to sell, but the natural inclination of many people to “bite” like fish.

An advertising campaign is a specific course of action designed to advertise a company, cause, or product that employs an intentional and carefully coordinated series of marketing tools in order to reach the target audience. The end purpose of any ad campaign is to boost awareness of the subject matter and generate demand. The exact structure of the advertising campaign will often depend on the nature of the product or cause and the target audience that the campaign is designed to reach.
While specifics vary from one advertising campaign to another, some of the same tools are used in just about any campaign. Both print and electronic media are often used to generate attention and enthusiasm for the subject of the campaign, often with the logical and timely launch of different tools at specific points in the overall campaign. While in time past, electronic media referred more to television and radio broadcasts, that component now includes tools such as online banner ads, text messaging, and email advertisements.
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In terms of print media used in an advertising campaign, ads placed in newspapers and magazines are a time-honored method of reaching the target audience. The ads usually are designed to pique the interest of readers and entice them to learn more about the topic of the ad. In order to ensure that the desired consumers are reached, the print advertisements will often appear in print media that is geared toward those consumers. For example, software that is designed to keep track of sales leads and existing clients may appear in a magazine that caters to sales and marketing professionals.
With electronic media, television and radio commercials remain a viable means of attracting the attention of buyers and creating demand for various products and services. Short television commercials designed to amuse as well as inform tend to make an impression on the viewer and are highly likely to entice a significant number of consumers to purchase the products displayed in the ad. In like manner, an advertising campaign may also include short radio commercials that catch the ear of the listener and help to conjure up visual images that create demand for the product.
Along with traditional methods of creating an advertising campaign, newer tools are making it possible to reach consumers in new ways. Many companies design advertising campaigns to current clients that rely on such tools as text messaging or email advertising. For example, a telephone service provider may notify existing customers of upcoming specials on bundled services by sending a text message to the client’s cell phone. As an alternative, the service provider may notify the customer of upcoming sales or new products and services via an email. When coordinated with other tools as part of an overall advertising campaign, it may be possible to upsell current clients to generate more revenue as well as gain a significant number of new customers.
For the most part, an advertising campaign will set specific goals that must be realized in a given period of time. In the event that the campaign does not quite meet the goals, the overall approach can be reworked slightly for the remainder of the campaign, or the information gained during the current campaign can be used to create a more effective follow-up advertising campaign strategy. Learning from the experience of past campaigns makes it possible to strengthen upcoming campaigns and move closer to achieving the goals set by the advertiser.

The objectives of advertising include those sets of steps and tasks that can help in successful launch of products and can help the firm to garner maximum profits. Just like every company has various goals and objectives to achieve, the objectives of advertising are to help the product gain maximum success. Without proper advertising objectives, advertising agencies won't be able to thrive in the tough competition and they may also fail to impress its clients. In essence, objectives of advertising are essential for success of an advertising campaign and an advertising program. Here, in this article, I'll talk about various advertising objectives that are essential for the success of a firm.

#1: Basic Goals of Advertising
Advertising has evolved to become one of the most important industries. The basic objectives of advertising are to secure, develop, innovate and create advertisements to sell a product. All advertising techniques and strategies that are required for making a product successful, stem from basic objectives of advertising. So in essence, objectives of advertising are in line with objectives of firm's plans and marketing campaigns to generate maximum profits and provide quality service to its customers.

#2: Informative Objectives
One of the first objectives of advertising campaigns is to inform customers about products and its development. Through informative objectives, customers are informed about the product, its working, pricing and cost standards. Besides these, informative advertising objectives include developing an awareness about the product and the company among consumers. Now, these objectives are achieved during launch and re-launch of a new or an already existing product.

#3: Persuasive Objectives
When a firm focuses its marketing strategies on very highly competitive markets, it involves tools of persuasive marketing to go ahead of its competitor by adopting methods of 'comparison advertising'. This is a very common observation in day-to-day life. Firms with same brands are often seen proving their products better than their rival.

#4: Reminder Objectives
Some products that have become legends are always in the mind of customers. However, it doesn't mean that advertising firms don't work on advertising those products. One of the objectives of advertising, called reminder advertising is done by firms that have to retain some of their brands in the market. Such advertising technique is used by firms like Rebook, Nike, Coco Cola, etc to maintain their position in the market.

#5: Advertising Message
An appealing message to the audience is the most essential part of every advertising campaign. Without an effective advertising message, it's impossible for any firm to succeed and achieve its objectives. Due to immense information that is projected on the minds of consumers, striking and impressing the consumer is very difficult. Hence, advertising messages become extremely crucial.

#6: Communicate Effectively
Nowadays, just being an inexpensive product and with quality features may not be enough for the success of a product. The product must establish an emotional connection with the consumer. Through series of market research, it has been proved that products that are able to influence consumers at emotional level are always best sellers. So the bottom line of advertising objectives is to communicate effectively.

If you carefully look around, you can observe various objectives of advertising and publicity with examples. There is no dearth of advertisements that are bombarded on consumers in this new advertising era. Nevertheless, objectives of advertising must not be restricted to just making money. It should also try to make a product brand in the eyes of the consumers. And this can only be achieved with focus on quality products

reminder advertising
1.   brief messages designed chiefly to keep a product in the mind of the consumer once the product is already familiar. Reminder advertising usually follows an extensive advertising campaign, and therefore does not elaborate on the reasons to buy the product. Common examples of reminder advertisements are those found on matchbooks and pencils and in skywriting, as well as the more traditional media vehicles.
2.   advertising designed to remind consumers of the benefits of a product or service, or of their current need for those benefits. For instance, the XYZ Company may seek to remind consumers of their need for XYZ anti-freeze when the weather begins to turn cold.


2B.What is the “great idea” concept?  Identify some campaigns that would qualify. Attempt to specify a set of DAGMAR objectives that might apply. Is the DAGMAR approach inconsistent with the hope of obtaining a truly brilliant creative advertising campaign?

The Great Idea is a myth.


Now you have the top of the funnel. Now, write down the things you like and the things you don’t like. Be brutally honest.
Next, narrow the funnel down by identifying opportunities that will open up more doors in the right area. For example, if you want to get involved in fashion, you probably don’t want to work as an administrative assistant. Two years after doing that, what will you have to show for it? Will you be any closer to your broad goal? On the other hand, if you intern at a fashion company, or even start a simple blog about fashion, in a few months, you will have created more opportunities for you in the right area.
A couple more things: It takes multiple steps to reach a goal. It sounds obvious, but I know so many people who are frustrated that they can’t send one email and become a sports agent. Being entrepreneurial, having a disproportionate impact, takes a lot of steps that don’t necessarily have a clear payoff. I don’t want to belabor the point. Just think about how this relates to you.
Also, eliminating choices is as important as finding ones that are interesting. I have a friend who wanted to be an investment banker because, in her words, it’s glamorous, prestigious, and there are lots of smart people. She did an internship and realized she hated it. Great! Internships are your friend; they’re like free trials at a company. Chalk that one up to the now-I-know-I-don’t-like-that category.
And now it’s time to start doing. Even though you may not have a sense of exactly what you want to do, you’ve found some of the right people you want to talk to. If you want to start a dog-food company (or whatever), you don’t have to have contacts at Kibbles. Think laterally–do you know anyone who runs a retail business? Email them and take them out to lunch. Know pet owners? Go over and find out what their problems are and what they’d want from a new product. You’ll be surprised after talking to 10 people–I guarantee this. People love others who are eager to learn and full of energy. They’ll offer you help with connections, ideas, and maybe even resources.
The idea will come. It may be something as prosaic as “let’s do photos online!” (Flickr, acquired by Yahoo) or “let’s build a social network–for college kids!!” (The Facebook, multi-million-dollar VC-funded startup). It’s not about The Idea. It’s about the process that gets you there and the people around you.
And once you start doing all these things, you’ll get closer and closer to your end game


DAGMAR model suggests that the ultimate objective of advertising must carry a consumer through four levels of understanding: from unawareness to Awareness—the consumer must first be aware of a brand or company Comprehension—he or she must have a comprehension of what the product is and its benefits; Conviction—he or she must arrive at the mental disposition or conviction to buys the brand; Action—finally, he or she actually buy that product.
Awareness of the existence of a product or organization is necessary before the purchase behavior can be expected. Once the awareness has been created in the target audience, it should not be neglected. If there is neglect, the audience may become distracted by competing messages and the level of awareness of focus product or organization will decline.
Awareness needs to be created, developed, refined or sustained, according to the characteristics of the market and the particular situation facing an organization at any one point of time.
Awareness grid

High Low
Awareness HIGH Sustain current levels of awareness Refine awareness
LOW Build awareness quickly. Create association of awareness of product with product class need
In situations where:
Buyer experiences high involvement:
Is fully aware of a product’s existence, attention and awareness levels need only be sustained and efforts need to be applied to other communication tasks.
sales promotion and personal selling are more effective at informing, persuading and provoking consumption of a new car once advertising has created the necessary levels of awareness.
The LG golden eye ads that are repeatedly shown inspite of high awareness to ensure top of mind awareness and retain the existing awareness levels.
Where low levels of awareness are found, getting attention needs to be the prime objective in order that awareness can be developed among the target audience.
Sahara Homes ad that features Amitabh Bachhan saying “ jaha base Bharat”. Awareness level is low, however it is a high involvement decision. Thus adequate attention is required and awareness levels are raised with use of well-known and trusted celebrities.
Buyer experiences low involvement:
If buyers have sufficient level of awareness, they will be quickly prompted into purchase with little assistance of the other elements of the mix. Recognition and brand image may be felt by some to be sufficient triggers to stimulate a response. The requirement in such a situation would be to refine and strengthen the level of awareness so that it provokes interest and stimulates greater involvement during recall or recognition.
Parle G ad that talks about it being the largest seller “ Duniya ka sabse Zyada bikne waala biscuit”. Parle G as a brand already enjoys high levels of awareness and requires low involvement decision, thus communication is mainly intended to refine awareness.
If buyers have low level of awareness, the prime objective has to be to create awareness of the focus product in association with the product class.
When coils were popular in use and then the different repellants entered the market, awareness had to be created about their benefits and use.
Awareness on its own may not be sufficient to stimulate a purchase. Knowledge about the product or the organization is necessary. This can be achieved by providing specific information about key brand attributes.
In attempting to persuade people to try a different brand of water, it may be necessary to compare the product with other mineral water products and provide an additional usage benefit, such as environmental claims. The ad of Ganga mineral water, featuring Govinda, which banked on the purity aspect. They related the purity of the water with that of river Ganga.
The next step is to establish a sense of conviction. By creating interest and preference, buyers are moved to a position where they are convinced that a particular product in the class should be tried at the next opportunity. To do this, audience’s beliefs about the product have to be moulded and this is often done through messages that demonstrate the product’s superiority over a rival or by talking about the rewards as a result of using the product.
Many ads like Thumbs Up featured the reward of social acceptance as ‘grown up’. It almost hinted that those who preferred other drinks were kids.
Communication must finally encourage buyers to engage in purchase activity. Advertising can be directive and guide the buyers into certain behavioural outcomes,
Use of toll free numbers, direct mail activities and reply cards and coupons.
Tupperware, Aqua Guard, are famous in Indian cities as a result of its personal selling efforts.
For high involvement decisions, the most effective tool in the communication mix at this stage in the hierarchy is personal selling. Through the use of interpersonal skills, buyers are more likely to want to buy a product than if personal prompting is absent.
Characteristics of Objectives
A major contribution of DAGMAR was Colley’s specification of what constitutes a good objective. Four requirements or characteristics of good objectives were noted
Concrete and measurable—the communications task or objective should be a precise statement of what appeal or message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience. Furthermore the specification should include a description of the measurement procedure
Target audience –a key tenet to DAGMAR is that the target audience be well defined. For example –if the goal was to increase awareness, it is essential to know the target audience precisely. The benchmark measure cannot be developed without a specification of the target segment
Benchmark and degree of change sought—another important part of setting objectives is having benchmark measures to determine where the target audience stands at the beginning of the campaign with respect to various communication response variables such as awareness, knowledge, attitudes, image, etc. The objectives should also specify how much change or movement is being sought such as increase in awareness levels, creation of favorable attitudes or number of consumers intending to purchase the brand, etc. a benchmark is also a prerequisite to the ultimate measurement of results, an essential part of any planning program and DAGMAR in particular.
Specified time period—a final characteristic of good objectives is the specification of the time period during which the objective is to be accomplished, e.g. 6months, 1 year etc. With a time period specified a survey to generate a set if measures can be planned and anticipated.
Written Goal - finally goals should be committed to paper. When the goals are clearly written, basic shortcomings and misunderstandings become exposed and it becomes easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspects of the DAGMAR approach

A.Do people first from beliefs and then attitudes, or the reverse? Do people change attitudes before changing behavior?


Each  of  us  develop  certain  values
-from  age  [0—4]  mostly  from  parents
-from  age [4—7] mostly  from  inner  circle
-from  age  [ 7—11] mostly  from  external  circle


From  values, people  develop beliefs.
The  beliefs  create    needs.

The  needs  create  a  state of  mind.
-meaning  action
-soft  approach



Do people first from beliefs and then attitudes, or the reverse?


Do people change attitudes before changing behavior?


B.Can you expand the list of seven positioning strategies mentioned in the text?

number of positioning strategies might be employed in developing a promotional program. The 7 such strategies are discussed below:

Associating a product with an attribute, a product feature or a consumer feature. Sometimes a product can be positioned in terms of two or more attributes simultaneously. The price/ quality attribute dimension is commonly used for positioning the products.
A common approach is setting the brand apart from competitors on the basis of the specific characteristics or benefits offered. Sometimes a product may be positioned on more than one product benefit. Marketers attempt to identify salient attributes (those that are important to consumers and are the basis for making a purchase decision)
-Consider the example of Ariel that offers a specific benefit of cleaning even the dirtiest of clothes because of the micro cleaning system in the product.
-Colgate offers benefits of preventing cavity and fresh breath.
-Promise, Balsara’s toothpaste, could break Colgate’s stronghold by being the first to claim that it contained clove, which differentiated it from the leader.
-Nirma offered the benefit of low price over Hindustan Lever’s Surf to become a success.
-Maruti Suzuki offers benefits of maximum fuel efficiency and safety over its competitors. This strategy helped it to get 60% of the Indian automobile market.
Positioning strategies can be conceived and developed in a variety of ways. It can be derived from the object attributes, competition, application, the types of consumers involved, or the characteristics of the product class. All these attributes represent a different approach in developing positioning strategies, even though all of them have the common objective of projecting a favorable image in the minds of the consumers or audience. There are seven approaches to positioning strategies:
(1) Using Product characteristics or Customer Benefits as a positioning strategy
This strategy basically focuses upon the characteristics of the product or customer benefits. For example if I say Imported items it basically tell or illustrate a variety of product characteristics such as durability, economy or reliability etc. Lets take an example of motorbikes some are emphasizing on fuel economy, some on power, looks and others stress on their durability. Hero Cycles Ltd. positions first, emphasizing durability and style for its cycle.
At time even you would have noticed that a product is positioned along two or more product characteristics at the same time. You would have seen this in the case of toothpaste market, most toothpaste insists on ‘freshness’ and ‘cavity fighter’ as the product characteristics. It is always tempting to try to position along several product characteristics, as it is frustrating to have some good characteristics that are not communicated.
(2) Pricing as a positioning strategy - Quality Approach or Positioning by Price-Quality – Lets take an example and understand this approach just suppose you have to go and buy a pair ofjeans, as soon as you enter in the shop you will find different price rage jeans in the showroom say price ranging from 350 rupees to 2000 rupees. As soon as look at the jeans of 350 Rupees you say that it is not good in quality. Why? Basically because of perception, as most of us perceive that if a product is expensive will be a quality product where as product that is cheap is lower in quality. If we look at this Price – quality approach it is important and is largely used in product positioning. In many product categories, there are brands that deliberately attempt to offer more in terms of service, features or performance. They charge more, partly to cover higher costs and partly to let the consumers believe that the product is, certainly of higher quality.
(3) Positioning strategy based on Use or Application – Lets understand this with the help of an example like Nescafe Coffee for many years positioned it self as a winter product and advertised mainly in winter but the introduction of cold coffee has developed a positioning strategy for the summer months also. Basically this type of positioning-by-use represents a second or third position for the brand, such type of positioning is done deliberately to expand the brand’s market. If you are introducing new uses of the product that will automatically expand the brand’s market.
(4) Positioning strategy based on Product Process – Another positioning approach is to associate the product with its users or a class of users. Makes of casual clothing like jeans have introduced ‘designer labels’ to develop a fashion image. In this case the expectation is that the model or personality will influence the product’s image by reflecting the characteristics and image of the model or personality communicated as a product user. Lets not forget that Johnson and Johnson repositioned its shampoo from one used for babies to one used by people who wash their hair frequently and therefore need a mild people who wash their hair frequently and therefore need a mild shampoo. This repositioning resulted in a market share.
(5) Positioning strategy based on Product Class - In some product class we have to make sure critical positioning decisions For example, freeze dried coffee needed to positions itself with respect to regular and instant coffee and similarly in case of dried milk makers came out with instant breakfast positioned as a breakfast substitute and virtually identical product positioned as a dietary meal substitute.
(6) Positioning strategy based on Cultural Symbols - In today’s world many advertisers are using deeply entrenched cultural symbols to differentiate their brands from that of competitors. The essential task is to identify something that is very meaningful to people that other competitors are not using and associate this brand with that symbol. Air India uses maharaja as its logo, by this they are trying to show that we welcome guest and give them royal treatment with lot of respect and it also highlights Indian tradition. Using and popularizing trademarks generally follow this type of positioning.
(7) Positioning strategy based on Competitors - In this type of positioning strategies, an implicit or explicit frame of reference is one or more competitors. In some cases, reference competitor(s) can be the dominant aspect of the positioning strategies of the firm, the firm either uses the same of similar positioning strategies as used by the competitors or the advertiser uses a new strategy taking the competitors’ strategy as the base. A good example of this would be Colgate and Pepsodent. Colgate when entered into the market focused on to family protection but when Pepsodent entered into the market with focus on 24 hour protection and basically for kids, Colgate changed its focus from family protection to kids teeth protection which was a positioning strategy adopted because of competition.


Marketers often use price/ quality characteristics to position their brands. One way they do it is with ads that reflect the image of a high-quality brand where cost, while not irrelevant, is considered secondary to the quality benefits derived from using the brand. Premium brands positioned at the high end of the market use this approach to positioning.
Another way to use price/ quality characteristics for positioning is to focus on the quality or value offered by the brand at a very competitive price. Although price is an important consideration, the product quality must be comparable to, or even better than, competing brands for the positioning strategy to be effective.
Parle Bisleri – “Bada Bisleri, same price” ad campaign.
Another way is to communicate a specific image or position for a brand is to associate it with a specific use or application.
Surf Excel is positioned as stain remover ‘ Surf Excel hena!’
Also, Clinic All Clear – “Dare to wear Black”.
Often the competition for a particular product comes from outside the product class. For example, airlines know that while they compete with other airlines, trains and buses are also viable alternatives. Manufacturers of music CDs must compete with the cassettes industry. The product is positioned against others that, while not exactly the same, provide the same class of benefits.


Positioning a product by associating it with a particular user or group of users is yet another approach.

Motography Motorola Mobile Ad.n this ad the persona of the user of the product is been positioned.


Competitors may be as important to positioning strategy as a firm’s own product or services. In today’s market, an effective positioning strategy for a product or brand may focus on specific competitors. This approach is similar to positioning by product class, although in this case the competition is within the same product category.

Onida was positioned against the giants in the television industry through this strategy, ONIDA colour TV was launched with the message that all others were clones and only Onida was the leader. “neighbour’s Envy, Owners Pride”.

An additional positioning strategy where in the cultural symbols are used to differentiate the brands. Examples would be Humara Bajaj, Tata Tea, Ronald McDonald. Each of these symbols has successfully differentiated the product it represents from competitors.  


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Leo Lingham


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