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Question
2a)what is the essence of vroom's expectancy model of motivation?
b)what type of organizational structure would you to motivation?
5a)why is job evaluation confined to large organisations and that too to hourly rated jobs in such organizations?
b)differentiate job enrichment and job enlargement which is more power as a motivator?
6a)many managers describe performance appraisal as to responsibility which they like to least why is this so? What could be done to improve the perception?
b)do you agree that if takes an aggressive CEO such as Lorenz to bring about real change in a firms HR policy or could this be done by the firms. HR unit?
c)what do you think are the two important challenges of the HR manager in future? Why do you think so?

Answer

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==========================================








Q2 (A) What is the essence of  Vroom’s  expectancy model of motivation?
At a simple level, it seems obvious that people do things, such as go to work, in order to get stuff they want and to avoid stuff they don't want.  
Why exactly they want what they do and don't want what they don't is still something a mystery. It's a black box and it hasn't been fully penetrated.
Overall, the basic perspective on motivation looks something like this:

In other words, you have certain needs or wants (these terms will be used interchangeably), and this causes you to do certain things (behavior), which satisfy those needs (satisfaction), and this can then change which needs/wants are primary (either intensifying certain ones, or allowing you to move on to other ones).
A variation on this model, particularly appropriate from an experimenter's or manager's point of view, would be to add a box labeled "reward" between "behavior" and "satisfaction". So that subjects (or employees), who have certain needs do certain things (behavior), which then get them rewards set up by the experimenter or manager (such as raises or bonuses), which satisfy the needs, and so on.
Classifying Needs
People seem to have different wants. This is fortunate, because in markets this creates the very desirable situation where, because you value stuff that I have but you don't, and I value stuff that you have that I don't, we can trade in such a way that we are both happier as a result.  
But it also means we need to try to get a handle on the whole variety of needs and who has them in order to begin to understand how to design organizations that maximize productivity.

Expectancy Theory (Vroom)
This theory is meant to bring together many of the elements of previous theories. It combines the perceptual aspects of equity theory with the behavioral aspects of the other theories. Basically, it comes down to this "equation":
M = E*I*V
or
motivation = expectancy * instrumentality * valence
M (motivation) is the amount a person will be motivated by the situation they find themselves in. It is a function of the following.
E (expectancy) = The person's perception that effort will result in performance. In other words, the person's assessment of the degree to which effort actually correlates with performance.
I (instrumentality) = The person's perception that performance will be rewarded/punished. I.e., the person's assessment of how well the amount of reward correlates with the quality of performance. (Note here that the model is phrased in terms of extrinsic motivation, in that it asks 'what are the chances I'm going to get rewarded if I do good job?'. But for intrinsic situations, we can think of this as asking 'how good will I feel if I can pull this off?').
V(valence) = The perceived strength of the reward or punishment that will result from the performance. If the reward is small, the motivation will be small, even if expectancy and instrumentality are both perfect (high).
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     (B) What type of organizational structure would you recommend?
1.FUNCTIONAL  ORGANIZATION.
This organization  is  structured  by  major functions.
-manufacturing  function.
-production function.
-marketing function.
-sales  management function.
-distribution  functions.
-supply  chain  function.
-finance/accounting  function
-legal function
-human  resource  function
etc

2.PRODUCT  ORGANIZATION.
This  organization  is  structured  by  product groups.
EXAMPLE  LEVER  BROS  UK

-personal  care  products.
-food  products.
-cosmetics
-peters  ice cream
etc etc
===============================
3.HORIZONTAL   ORGANIZATION
Horizontal organizations consist of teams which are organized around business processes and which are responsible for the results they generate. By flattening portions of the organization and holding the team members accountable for results, it asserts that decisions will be made more quickly and more consistently with business objectives. This tool seeks to reduce problems with cross-functional coordination by ensuring that the team members have the necessary skills to have end-to-end accountability for the process.
Approach
1   The following steps are critical to creating a horizontal organization:
2   Organize teams around the most critical business processes.
3   Give team members ownership of the process and assign a clear process leader.
4   Cross-train team members for the range of skills needed for their process.
5   Tie performance measures directly to customer requirements for the process, and reward individuals for individual and team contributions.
6   Create career development paths consistent with developing team consistent with developing team skills.
7   Redefine managers' roles to focus on enabling teams to perform through training, coaching, sharing, information, and setting strategic direction.
Benefits
Horizontal organizations are often used to structure processes which requires extensive cross-functional coordination. This tool increases the responsiveness and productivity of an organization. Additionally, horizontal organizations can be used to balance local and global needs within a multinational corporation by creating a network linking the disparate operations.
[these  types  of  organization  structure  are  still  very  popular  with the
''brick and  mortar  ''   type  of  manufacturing  /  marketing  cos.
these   organization  are  visible  and  can be  seen  in  types  like
-product  divisions
-business  divisions
-geographical  divisions
-functional  divisions
etc etc
==========================================###
4.virtual organization

A virtual organization or company is one whose members are geographically apart, usually working by computer EMAIL and    GROUPWARE  while appearing to others to be a single, unified organization with a real physical location.

But there is more to virtual organizations then simply replacing the location where people work.
What makes a virtual organization different?
It removes many barriers - especially that of time and location.
It emphasizes concentrating on new services and products, especially those with intensive information and knowledge characteristics, rather than concentrating on cost savings made possible by removing the barriers.
It goes beyond outsourcing and strategic alliances and is more flexible in:
1   that it has continuously changing partners,
2   the arrangements are loose and goal oriented,
3   emphasizes the use of knowledge to create new products and services,
4   its processes can change quickly by agreement of the partners.
What are the steps to a virtual organization?
Often the steps here go through:
1   outsourcing mainly to reduce costs where there is some experience in working at a distance, but three is one dominant party and high certainty of what everyone must do.
2   forming strategic alliances to share the work and gain experience in developing and sharing common goals. Here there is no dominant party although the parties are fixed. and
3   then becoming virtual organizations to achieve flexibility. Now the partners themselves can quickly change, with greater emphasis on the use of knowledge to create new and innovative products.
Why virtual?
What are the reasons for organizations becoming virtual. These include:
1   Globalization, with growing trends to include global customers,
2   Ability to quickly pool expert resources,
3   Creation of communities of excellence,
4   Rapidly changing needs,
5   Increasingly specialized products and services,
6   Increasing required to use specialized knowledge

[these  types  of  organization  structure  are  becoming  very  popular  with the
''SERVICE  ''   type  of   cos.
these   organization  are  visible  and  can be  seen  in  types  like
-insurance
-financial
-consulting
-professional  services
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5.Boundaryless Organization:
What are the boundaries?
Vertical - Boundaries between layers within an organization
Classic Example: Military organization
Problem: Someone in a lower layer has a useful idea; "Chain of command" mentality
Horizontal - Boundaries which exist between organization functional units.
Each unit has a singular function.
Problem: Each unit maximize their own goals but not the overall goal of the organization
External - Barriers between the organization and the outside world (customers, suppliers, other government entities, special interest groups, communities).
Customers are the most capable of identifying major problems in the organization and are interested in solutions.
Problem: Lose sight of the customer needs and supplier requirements
Geographic - Barriers among organization units located in different countries
Problem: Isolation of innovative practices and ideas
What is a boundaryless organization?
1   One that makes all of these barriers much more permeable than they are now; loosen boundaries
2   Let information/ideas/resources/energy flow throughout the organization and into others.
3   Can an organization be completely boundaryless? No -- there will always have some hierarchy, functional divisions, geographic boundaries, limits between organization


BENEFITS

1   Quick Market Intelligence - direct customer feedback .
2   SPEEDY  New Product Introduction.
3   RAPID  Advanced Manufacturing Techniques.
4   Quality initiatives .
5   Quality focused  CULTURE
OPERATION   Benefits  
1   Speed
2   Flexibility
3   Integration
4   Innovation

[these  types  of  organization  structure  are   with the
'' IT  COS ''   type  of    SOFTWARE/  SOLUTIONS  cos.
these   organization  are  visible  and  can be  seen  in  types  like
-IT  
-ITES
-BPO  SERVICES
etc etc
===================================================
6.Matrix structure

Different structures can be combined together. When one has two parallel
organizational structures this is called a matrix structure. The idea is to combine the
advantages of two structures, but this has the obvious disadvantage of being harder to
coordinate and introducing more potential conflict.
In the past most large companies were centralized – that is, involved structures in
which decisions were taken at the centre or upper levels of organization. Just as there
has been a move to flatter organizations, so there has been a move to decentralized
ones.
**MATRIX  STRUCTURE
Reinforces & broadens technical excellence
Facilitates efficient use of resources
Balances conflicting objectives of the organization
Increases power conflicts
Increases confusion & stress for 2-boss employees
Impedes decision making
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7.MECHANISTIC   ORGANIZATION
mechanistic organizations are often appropriate in stable environments and for routine tasks and technologies. In some ways similar to bureaucratic structures, mechanistic organizations have clear, well-defined, centralized, vertical hierarchies of command, authority, and control. Efficiency and predictability are emphasized through specialization, standardization, and formalization. This results in rigidly defined jobs, technologies, and processes. The term mechanistic suggests that organizational structures, processes, and roles are like a machine in which each part of the organization does what it is designed to do, but little else.

The term "organic" suggests that, like living things, organizations change their structures, roles, and processes to respond and adapt to their environments. Organic structures are appropriate in unstable, turbulent, unpredictable environments and for non-routine tasks and technologies. For organizations coping with such uncertainty, finding appropriate, effective, and timely responses to environmental challenges is of critical importance. Organic organizations are characterized by:
1   decentralization
2   flexible, broadly defined jobs
3   interdependence among employees and units
4   multi-directional communication
5   employee initiative
6   relatively few and broadly defined rules, regulations, procedures, and processes
7   employee participation in problem solving and decision making, often interactively and in groups
THE  ORGANIZATION   IS  DESIGNED   BASED  ON
-specific  objectives


BUT   THE  MOST  POPULAR   STRUCTURE  IS  THE  
FUNCTIONAL   STRUCTURE.

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Q5 (A) Why is job evaluation confined to large organizations and that too, to hourly-
         rated jobs in such organizations?
In  most  international  organization,  the  job  evaluation  is  carried  out
for  both  regular  staff  /  as  well as  hourly  rated  jobs.
IT  IS  ALMOST  COMPULSORY   BY  LAW  FOR  HOURLY  RATED  JOBS,
-to  conduct  the  job  contents/ hence  the  job  evaluation.
-to  pay   as  per   the  law.

The aim of job evaluation is to provide a systematic and consistent approach to defining the relative worth of jobs within a workplace, single plant or multiple site organisation. It is a process whereby jobs are placed in a rank order according to overall demands placed upon the job holder. It therefore provides a basis for a fair and orderly grading structure.

Job evaluation does not determine actual pay. That is a separate operation, normally the subject of negotiation between management and employees or their trade union representatives. Only the job is evaluated, not the person doing it. It is a technique of job analysis, assessment and comparison and it is concerned with the demands of the job, such as the experience and the responsibility required to carry out the job. It is not concerned with the total volume of work, the number of people required to do it, the scheduling of work, or the ability of the job holder.

Several techniques of job evaluation have developed, varying in approach. Some involve an examination of jobs according to criteria such as skill, responsibility and working conditions. Others are less complex.


Why introduce job evaluation?


   * It can be beneficial when the existing grading structure is in need of review

   * It can help establish or maintain the credibility and acceptability of a grading system

   * Job evaluation facilitates the accommodation of new or revised jobs into the grading structure

* It can be used by organisations as a basis for job matching and external pay comparisons


Job evaluation is used  for all types of jobs both  blue  collar  as well  white  collar  . The concern for unit labour costs makes it vitally important for organisations, operating in highly competitive markets, to ensure that the grading level of their employees accurately reflects the relative importance of their jobs to the organisation.

Properly introduced and maintained, job evaluation can help lay the foundation of fair and orderly pay structures and thus improve relationships. Job evaluation may therefore be appropriate in the circumstances.
Anomalies in the pay system/need for a pay structure

Job evaluation can help remove any anomalies or inequities in an organisation's payment system where the existing grading structure is thought to place jobs in an arbitrary order with no justifiable or logical reason. Job evaluation would help remedy this by providing a more structured basis for deciding grading levels. However, job evaluation should not be introduced if the main reason is unrelated to the basic grading structure, for example because a bonus and incentive scheme has fallen into disrepute.


Changes in the job content

Work restructuring within organisations may result in companies having fewer manual employees often with a greater range of duties. In addition, new 'high tech' machinery may have altered traditional roles and blurred the differences between 'operating' and 'craft' skills. All this may have the following effects on existing grading systems:

• they may not be able to cope with the introduction of new jobs or new skills, with a likely increase in the number of grievances about grading

• they may not be able to cope with any 'grade drift', with lower grades having less to do, while other jobs may have drifted upwards, and

• there may be leap-frogging to catch up with pay rates elsewhere in the company, or outside.


Grading grievances

Frequent grievances or disputes over grading or pay may indicate that the existing grading structure is no longer appropriate. If unresolved, such dissatisfaction could result in consequential pay claims, the gradual erosion of differentials between grades, increased costs and deteriorating morale and employment relations. A job evaluation scheme, properly designed and installed with an appeals procedure, can help maintain the credibility and acceptability of a grading structure.


Technological and organisational change

It is important to ensure that the grading system is appropriate to the needs of an organisation particularly following technological and organisational change. Changes arising from new technology may affect jobs in the following ways:

• employees may no longer have control over the quality and quantity of their output where the machine dictates the pace

• mental effort may replace physical effort as an important factor for improving output

• working conditions may change to reflect the new technological process

• employees may be required to do a number of activities previously carried out by others, and

• innovative and creative skills may be required which hitherto were not within the culture of the organisation.

The introduction of flexibility, multi-skilling, team working and new operational methods also have important consequences for job design and the way jobs are organised, and will clearly affect traditional work groupings and pay structures. A further, important advantage of some job evaluation schemes is that new jobs can be more easily fitted into the existing structure.


Discrimination

The Equal Pay Act and the Equal Pay (Amendment) Regulations,  make it especially important to maintain a fair and orderly grading structure. Job evaluation may be helpful as a means of ensuring that a grading structure is fair and equitable.


Other benefits

Some job evaluation techniques require the analysis and description of jobs leading to a more detailed and accurate knowledge of their content. This in turn may prompt:

• an opportunity to review roles and policies on selection and training

• improved Human Resource Management through a greater understanding of the skills and training needed for particular jobs, and

• a review of the organisation's structure and working methods, better designed jobs and the identification of poor working conditions and job hazards.

Furthermore, when both employer, employees and their representatives have been jointly involved in a job evaluation exercise, this usually leads to improved understanding, greater trust and better industrial relations.

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     (B) Differentiate job enrichment from job enlargement. Which is more powerful as a  motivator?
job enlargement
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is associated with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction.
In   certain  circumstances,  the  job  description  is  
Enlarged   to  accommodate  certain  talented  applicants.
The  enlargement   expands  the  scope  of  the  job ,   
In  an  horizontal  manner  ,  and  not  vertical.

Job enlargement means increasing the scope of a job through extending the range of its duties and responsibilities. This contradicts the principles of specialisation and the division of labour whereby work is divided into small units, each of which is performed repetitively by an individual worker. Some motivational theories suggest that the boredom and alienation caused by the division of labour can actually cause efficiency to fall. Thus, job enlargement seeks to motivate workers through reversing the process of specialisation. A typical approach might be to replace assembly lines with modular work; instead of an employee repeating the same step on each product, they perform several tasks on a single item. In order for employees to be provided with Job Enlargement they will need to be retrained in new fields whaich can prove to be a lengthy process.

======================================================
job enrichment
An increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an increase in the control over those tasks. It is associated with the design of jobs and is an extension of job enlargement.

Job enrichment in organizational development, human resources management, and organizational behavior, is the process of improving work processes and environments so they are more satisfying for employees. Many jobs are monotonous and unrewarding. Workers can feel dissatisfied in their position due to a lack of a challenge, repetitive procedures, or an over-controlled authority structure. Job enrichment tries to eliminate these dysfunctional elements, and bring better performance to the workplace.

Job enrichment, as a managerial activity includes a three steps technique:
1. Turn employees' effort into performance:
•   Ensuring that objectives are well-defined and understood by everyone. The overall corporate mission statement should be communicated to all. Individual's goals should also be clear. Each employee should know exactly how she fits into the overall process and be aware of how important her contributions are to the organization and its customers.
•   Providing adequate resources for each employee to perform well. This includes support functions like information technology, communication technology, and personnel training and development.
•   Creating a supportive corporate culture. This includes peer support networks, supportive management, and removing elements that foster mistrust and politicking.
•   Free flow of information. Eliminate secrecy.
•   Provide enough freedom to facilitate job excellence. Encourage and reward employee initiative. Flextime or compressed hours could be offered.
•   Provide adequate recognition, appreciation, and other motivators.
•   Provide skill improvement opportunities. This could include paid education at universities or on the job training.
•   Provide job variety. This can be done by job sharing or job rotation programmes.
•   It may be necessary to re-engineer the job process. This could involve redesigning the physical facility, redesign processes, change technologies, simplification of procedures, elimination of repetitiveness, redesigning authority structures.
2. Link employees performance directly to reward:
•   Clear definition of the reward is a must
•   Explanation of the link between performance and reward is important
•   Make sure the employee gets the right reward if performs well
•   If reward is not given, explanation is needed
3. Make sure the employee wants the reward. How to find out?
•   Ask them
•   Use surveys( checklist, listing, questions)


BOTH      JOB  ENRICHMENT  AND  JOB  ENLARGEMENT  ARE
-both  valuable  HR  tools  for  development.
-each  has  its own  scope / value.

BUT  ONE  HAS  SLIGHLTY  SUPERIOR  ROLE
-THAT  IS  JOB ENRICHMENT,  WHICH  PROVIDES
*VERTICAL   RESPONSIBILITY.
*SEEKS  COMMITMENT.
*ACCOUNTABLE   FOR   THE RESULTS.
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