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Question
1) Discuss some reasons reductions in world trade barriers are driving the world towards global econom.
2) what is demurrer what are the common methods used by firms to divest/ demurreger themselves off operating unites.

Answer
Discuss some reasons why reductions in world trade barriers are driving the world toward a global economy.

Globalization  is  mainly  due   to

***REMOVAL  TARIFF  BARRIERS  BY  COUNTRIES
which  in turn  has  affected  positively   the  following

1   Level of international trade
2   Intensity of international competition
3   Worldwide product standardization
4   Presence of key competitors in all key international markets.
5   Intra-firm trade
6   Technological intensity
7   International linkages of value-added activities among countries
8   International integration of value-added activities among countries
9   WORLDWIDE  FREETRADE  AGREEMENTS
10   WORLDWIDE  ECONOMIC  REFORMS
11   WORLWIDE  FINANCIAL  REFORMS
12   REMOVAL  TARIFF  BARRIERS  BY  COUNTRIES
13   REMOVAL  OF  SUBSIDIES  COUNTRIES
14   
15   ETC  ETC
====================================================

THE  PUSH  FACTORS OF   GLOBALIZATION

Market Drivers

1   Per capita income converging among industrial nations
2   Convergence of lifestyles and taste
3   Growth of global and regional channels
4   Establishment of world brands
5   Spread of global and regional media


Cost Drivers

1   Continuing push for economies of scale ( but offset by flexible manufacturing)
2   Accelerating technological innovation
3   Advances in transportation (e.g., use of FedEx to deliver urgent supplies from one continent to another)
4   Emergence of newly industrializing countries with productive capability and low labor costs (e.g., China, India and Indonesia)


Government Drivers

1   Reduction of tariff barriers (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement)
2   Reduction of non-tariff barriers (e.g., Japanís gradual opening of its markets)
3   Creation of trading blocs (e.g., European Union, and Euro Currency in 1999)
4   Strengthening of world trade institutions (e.g., formation of the World Trade Organization)


Competitive Drivers

1   Continuing increase in level of world trade
2   More countries becoming key competitive battlegrounds (e.g., rise of Japan to become a ďleadĒ country)
3   Rise of new competitors intent upon becoming global competitors (e.g., Japanese firms in the 1970ís, Korean firms in the 1980ís, Taiwanese firms in the 1990ís, Chinese firms in the 2000s, and probably Indian and Russian firms in the 2010ís.


OTHER  FACTORS  WHICH   DRIVES  THE  GLOBALIZATION

1   In a Globalized industry, firms must simultaneously accomplish:
2   Global Scale Efficiency
3   Local Responsiveness
4   World-Wide Learning
=============================================
HOW  GLOBALIZATION   AFFECTS   THE  ENVIRONMENTS,
WHICH  IN  TURN   AFFECTS    THE  HR  ACTIVITIES.

Political (incl. Legal)   [ [Poltical] EST[Environment][Legal] ]

==========================================
-Tax policies
what tax  hinder the business and what  taxes  incentives  are available]

[ if  the  tax  policies are  liberal / incentivated,  businesses  will  add
expansion ]
========================================

-International trade regulations and restrictions
[ does  the  government    encourage  exports / with  high tariffs  on  imports]

[ if  the  exports  policies  are  liberal / incentivated,  businesses  will  add
expansion , ]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
[ if  the import  policies  are  liberal / incentivated,  local  mfg. businesses  will  
contract , ]

======================================================
-Employment laws]
[ is the  government    encouraging  skilled  immigrants  with  temp. permits]

[if the government  relaxes the  rules on  skilled  migrants,]

=======================================================
-Interest rates & monetary policies
[ are  the  interest  rates    under control /  is there   a  sound  monetary  policies]

[ if  the  interest  rate  goes down/ the monetary  policies  are liberal,  
as the  demand  goes  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
===================================================
-Taxation
[  has  the  taxation    encouraged  the  industry ]

[ if  the  taxation policies encouraged  the  industry,  businesses  will  add
expansion ]
=======================================================
Technological  [  PES [Technology] EL]

==================================================
Industry focus on technological effort
[are  the   industries    focused  on  using  improved  technology]

[ as  the  industry  focuses  on  technology, more jobs are created,
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ]

========================================================
New inventions and development
[ are  new  inventions     being   encouraged  for  developments]

[ as  more  inventions are brought  out, more jobs are created,
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ]

======================================================
Rate of technology transfer
[ is  the  rate  of  technology  transfer  is  speeding  up ]

[ as  the  rate of  technology  transfer  speeds up, more jobs are created,
demand  for  product/services   will go  up, businesses  will  add
expansion ]  
=======================================================
###################################################
What is demurrer? What are the common methods used by firms to
divest/demurrage themselves off operating unites?


A 'demurrer' is a legal PLEADING   filed by a party defending against claims or defenses in a lawsuit. The demurrer challenges whether a legal cause of action exists for the facts, as stated by the complaining party. This is referred to as challenging the "legal sufficiency" of a claim, cause of action, or defense. A demurrer is typically filed towards the beginning of a case, before the ANSWER.
At common law, a demurrer was the most common pleading by which a defendant would challenge legal sufficiency in criminal or civil cases, but today the pleading is abolished in many jurisdictions, including the federal court system (though many large jurisdictions, including California retain the demurrer). In criminal cases, a demurrer was considered a COMMON LAW  DUE PROCESS right, to be heard and decided before the defendant was required to plead "not guilty", or make any other pleading in response, without having to admit or deny any of the facts alleged.
A demurrer is not a challenge to the ultimate merits of a case or claim. When ruling on a demurrer, a judge is required by law to assume as true facts alleged in the complaint, even if those facts would later be challenged. Historically, however, a party filing a demurrer often had to admit the facts in the complaint and waive the right to later challenge those facts.
a demurrer is a pleading by the defendant that contests the legal sufficiency of the complaint without admitting or denying the allegations therein. Demurrers are usually filed at the beginning of a case. It is filed before the answer and can be characterized as the defendant‚Äôs way of saying ‚Äúso what?‚ÄĚ after reading a plaintiff's complaint.
The complaint implicitly or explicitly asserts or presumes the court has jurisdiction to decide the issue and grant the relief sought. The demurrer challenges the prosecution to prove that jurisdiction, putting the burden of proof on him. Historically, demurrer was considered a common law due process right, to be heard and decided before the defendant was required to plead "not guilty", or make any other pleading in response, without having to admit or deny any of the facts alleged.
A demurrer existed in criminal law procedure, but today is largely obsolete or abolished.
A demurrer is not a challenge to the ultimate merits of a case or claim. When ruling on a demurrer a judge is required by law to assume as true facts alleged in the complaint. Subject to very few exceptions, the Judge cannot rule on a demurrer based on the Judge's perception of a plaintiff's credibility.

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