Military History/WWI artillery
I'm writing a book on my grandfather's time in the NY National Guard during the Mexican Punitive Expedition (1st Artillery) and during WWI #104th in the 27th Division). What are the names of the artillery they used in both? I have photos of some.
The army usually fielded different guns for different purposes. A brigade of Artillery consisted of three regiments, each regiment was made up of three battalions. These consisted of one heavy 6 inch howitzer battalion of 3 batteries, 3-4 guns per battery and two Regiments of 3 inch guns of three battalions each. Each battalion consisted of 3 batteries, each battery 3-4 guns.
In the case of the Punitive Expedition, Pershing took along several 3-inch M1902 field guns, probably the equivalent of a battery. These were horse drawn and were not used in combat during that period. Part of the problem is they were chasing a guerilla force and did not have a chance to use them. If they had been able to bring Villa to bay and fight a set piece battle, they would have come in handy.
Remember that for each horse, it would require another horse to carry fodder for the first horse and so on. so facing the logistics constraints the expedition was under it is easy to see why they didn't take more artillery.
(this shows the gun and limber and depicts how it was transitional between horse drawn pieces and tractor pulled, being capable of using either.
This gun led to the adoption of the 4.7 inch gun, which was only just being issued to the Army at the beginning of WWI. Due to supply constraints, it was rechambered for the French 120mm round to simplify logistics. The French were producing plenty of artillery rounds of this caliber. Besides the US war production of materials was pretty pathetic at this time and we couldn't even supply our own troops. We used French Aircraft, French Artillery, French Tanks, and French Submachine guns. Only 16 rechambered guns were produced before the war ended. We used mainly French 75mm field guns.
2nd battalion 4th Field Artillery
On 18 March 1916, Battery B, along with batteries A and C, crossed the Mexican border under General John J. "Blackjack" Pershing as part of the Mexican Punitive Expedition. After numerous operations, the 4th Field Artillery returned to the United States on 2 February 1917, having accomplished all missions
Here are more pictures of what the Army used and when.