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Native American Culture/Native American Treaty - NY


QUESTION: Hi Richard,

I was hoping you knew of any Native American tribes in the state of New York who had not signed a treaty with the US Government?

Please let me know if any come to mind.

Thank you,

ANSWER: Chelsea, to the best of my memory, the Six Iroquois Nations upstate, never signed a treaty with the new US Government. They are recognized by New York State, and their land holdings are vested through the English Crown before that, and much earlier, of course. Recently -- int he past century -- tribal groups from downstate on LI and along the Eastern bank of the Hudson, have gained federal recognition, but that did not entail signing a treaty. Hope this helps.

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QUESTION: Hi Richard,

Thank you for responding so quickly! I would love to ask you a few more questions regarding this. Do you have a phone number or email address that is easy to reach you?

Thank you,

ANSWER: Thanks, but I'm happy to answer follow-up questions here on All-Experts.

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QUESTION: Ok, no problem!

I was wondering if you had heard about a tribe in NY State being forced off of their land due to not signing a treaty previously with the US Government? Or if because they only had "federal recognition" and did not sign a treaty, if they could be forced off of their land?


Chelsea, I'm not aware of any NY tribal group being "forced" off their land. As all Native people born here are also US Citizens, unless eminent domain is being exercised by a municipality, land ownership is protected by law. Even if that is the case, it can be fought in the courts, so I don't think the issue you heard about is being communicated properly or completely. If you get more info, let me know. I'm curious as to what you might have heard.

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Richard Sutton


As a direct reservation trader in all aspects of American Indian arts since 1985, I've answered questions regarding cultural property issues, origins of traditional crafts, materials and techniques, collecting, authenticity, symbols and, of course, repairs! We have operated a retail gallery since that time, bricks and mortar until 2007 and online since 1996. Our online operation closed in 2/2015, to allow me to finally write full-time. My writing site can be found at I'll be adding a book or two from our trader experiences under the pen name of W.T. Durand and the rest of my fiction is under my own name. We are not "New Age" practitioners of adopted American Indian religious ceremonies or combined philosophies. If you are seeking such knowledge for spiritual reasons, we will only provide answers that address factual information on these subjects. Unless one is raised in a traditional, American Indian family with language, culture and religious belief intact, we don't believe that simply applying the trappings or cultural property of a given traditional group will give a non-Indian (Native if you prefer)any insight other than the academic.


My primary focus is on Southwester American Indian Nations and their people, but I also have experience in Plains and Northeastern traditions, having engaged in active trade and retail since 1985 and study for most of my life. I am not claiming any expertise at all in the work, techniques, lifeways or crafts that are made by the Native People of Mexico. They are not the same, either linguistically or culturally but certainly their crafts deserve discussion and appraisal by those who are able to provide real information.

I was a guest on Fox Network "Lifestyles" program, during the 1990s, to discuss how to tell forgeries, and authenticating jewelry as Native American work. I have also written extensively for our website, and our Ebay Store.

UofO, 1970 active in the Authentic American Indian Arts business and direct Trader since 1985. Graphic Designer and published novelist.

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