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Nonprofit Law/nonprofit-forprofit relationships



I am trying to find information about non-profit/for profit partnerships. Specifically, is there information on the legal implications of a nonprofit organization partnering with a for-profit organization to form a jointly owned LLC? Are there any examples of this you are aware of?

Thanks, Mik

See Google Books version of "Joint Ventures Involving Tax-exempt
Organizations" by Michael L. Sanders.

On page 14-15
--- Start of Excerpt ---
The IRS guidelines for determining whether a tax-exempt
organization jeopardizes its exempt status by participating in a
joint venture are contained in Rev. Rul. 98-15. The IRS
acknowledges that an exempt organization's participation in a joint
venture does not necessitate a per se denial of tax-exempt status."
However, the IRS has stated that any partnership or other joint
venture arrangement between an IRC 501(c)(3) organization and one
or more for-profit entities requires "close scrutiny" to determine
whether the potential conflict between the exempt organization's
duty to operate exclusively for exempt purposes and any duty it may
have to advance private interests, places the organization's exempt
status in question. Thus, the initial focus is on whether the
organization is serving a charitable purpose. Once charitability
has been established, the venture arrangement itself is examined to
determine whether the arrangement permits the exempt organization
to act exclusively in furtherance of the purposes for which
exemption was granted, and not for the benefit of for-profit
parties to the venture....

Notwithstanding an established charitable purpose, conflicts with
an organization's charitable goals can arise when an exempt
organization participates in a joint venture, because the
organizational documents could impose certain obli-gations upon the
joint venture entity that would benefit the for-profit partici-
pants to the detriment of the nonprofit.  Those obligations include
an assumption of liabilities by the general partner or managing
member, which exposes the general partner's or managing member's
personal assets to partnership debts and liabilities, as well as a
basic profit orientation in furtherance of the interests of the
investors. Thus, it is important that the venture be structured so
as to give the exempt organization effective control over daily
activities. Day-to-day control demonstrates to the IRS that the
exempt organization can ensure that the joint venture is serving a
charitable purpose; lack of control suggests the possibility of
private benefit,  With respect to an LLC, this means that except in
rare circumstances the charitable organization should always be a
managing member, although not necessarily the only managing member.
---End of Excerpt--- (on my Google Drive)

Harvey Mechanic, Attorney at Law -

P.S. This response is intended to be a general statement of law, should not be relied upon as legal advice and does not create an attorney/client relationship.  

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Harvey Mechanic


I am an attorney and I volunteer time to answer general questions about U.S. Federal income tax issues of nonprofit 501(c)(3) public charities only. Those questions could be about establishing and maintaining legal requirements for such non-profit organizations in the United States, including Internal Revenue service filings and requirements. I will not be working on this free forum to answer questions about Nonprofit's possible unrelated or for-profit businesses or how to fill out forms. This forum is only for general questions about federal tax law, not as the law applies to your specific situation. If you do not make your question public then I will not be spending much of my donated time on answers that would not benefit the public. If you have other questions, please contact me at I will reply from my email. In any case, do not reveal confidential information to me until after I have contracted with you to provide personal legal services. My responses on this forum are intended to be general statements of law, should not be relied upon as legal advice, and do not create an attorney/client relationship. For me to consider your individual situation and how the law applies, I would need to gather extensive information about the situation. To search my previous answers you can do a Google search by "" without the quotes and then add your search terms before hitting enter.


I have been practicing law and especially the law of nonprofit organizations since 1990 when I was admitted to the New York Bar and I have maintained my status with the Bar since that time.


B.S. Columbia University in New York City, 1970

J.D. (Law Degree) Brooklyn Law School, 1990 -- Cum Laude.

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